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AUTHOR Zhang, Danwei and Jonhson, Win and Herng, Tun Seng and Ang, Yong Quan and Yang, Lin and Tan, Swee Ching and Peng, Erwin and He, Hui and Ding, Jun
Title A 3D-printing method of fabrication for metals{,} ceramics{,} and multi-materials using a universal self-curable technique for robocasting [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Materials Horizons
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Abstract
Ceramics and metals are important materials that modern technologies are constructed from. The capability to produce such materials in a complex geometry with good mechanical properties can revolutionize the way we engineer our devices. Current curing techniques pose challenges such as high energy requirements{,} limitations of materials with high refractive index{,} tedious post-processing heat treatment processes{,} uneven drying shrinkages{,} and brittleness of green bodies. In this paper{,} a novel modified self-curable epoxide–amine 3D printing system is proposed to print a wide range of ceramics (metal oxides{,} nitrides{,} and carbides) and metals without the need for an external curing source. Through this technique{,} complex multi-material structures (with metal–ceramic and ceramic–ceramic combinations) can also be realized. Tailoring and matching the sintering temperatures of different materials through sintering additives and dopants{,} combined with a structural design providing maximum adhesion between interfaces{,} allow us to successfully obtain superior quality sintered multi-material structures. High-quality ceramic and metallic materials have been achieved (e.g.{,} zirconia with >98% theoretical density). Also{,} highly conductive metals and magnetic ceramics were printed and shaped uniquely without the need for a sacrificial support. With the addition of low molecular weight plasticizers and a multi-stage heat treatment process{,} crack-free and dense high-quality integrated multi-material structures fabricated by 3D printing can thus be a reality in the near future.
AUTHOR Zhang, Danwei and Peng, Erwin and Borayek, Ramadan and Ding, Jun
Title Controllable Ceramic Green-Body Configuration for Complex Ceramic Architectures with Fine Features [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Functional Materials
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Abstract
Abstract Fabrication of dense ceramic articles with intricate fine features and geometrically complex morphology by using a relatively simple and the cost-effective process still remains a challenge. Ceramics, either in its green- or sintered-form, are known for being hard yet brittle which limits further shape reconfiguration. In this work, a combinatorial process of ceramic robocasting and photopolymerization is demonstrated to produce either flexible and/or stretchable ceramic green-body (Flex-Body or Stretch-Body) that can undergo a postprinting reconfiguration process. Secondary shaping may proceed through: i) self-assembly-assisted shaping and ii) mold-assisted shaping process, which allows a well-controlled ceramic structure morphology. With a proposed well-controlled thermal heating process, the ceramic Sintered-Body can achieve >99.0% theoretical density with good mechanical rigidity. Complex and dense ceramic articles with fine features down to 65 μm can be fabricated. When combined with a multi-nozzle deposition process, i) self-shaping ceramic structures can be realized through anisotropic shrinkage induced by suspensions' composition variation and ii) technical and functional multiceramic structures can be fabricated. The simplicity of the proposed technique and its inexpensive processing cost make it an attractive approach for fabricating geometrically complex ceramic articles with unique macrostructures, which complements the existing state of-the-art ceramic additive manufacturing techniques.