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AUTHOR Chelsea Twohig and Mari Helsinga and Amin Mansoorifar and Avathamsa Athirasala and Anthony Tahayeri and Cristiane Miranda França and Silvia Amaya Pajares and Reyan Abdelmoniem and Susanne Scherrer and Stéphane Durual and Jack Ferracane and Luiz E. Bertassoni
Title A dual-ink 3D printing strategy to engineer pre-vascularized bone scaffolds in-vitro [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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Abstract
A functional vascular supply is a key component of any large-scale tissue, providing support for the metabolic needs of tissue-remodeling cells. Although well-studied strategies exist to fabricate biomimetic scaffolds for bone regeneration, success rates for regeneration in larger defects can be improved by engineering microvascular capillaries within the scaffolds to enhance oxygen and nutrient supply to the core of the engineered tissue as it grows. Even though the role of calcium and phosphate has been well understood to enhance osteogenesis, it remains unclear whether calcium and phosphate may have a detrimental effect on the vasculogenic and angiogenic potential of endothelial cells cultured on 3D printed bone scaffolds. In this study, we presented a novel dual-ink bioprinting method to create vasculature interwoven inside CaP bone constructs. In this method, strands of a CaP ink and a sacrificial template material was used to form scaffolds containing CaP fibers and microchannels seeded with vascular endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within a photo-crosslinkable gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel material. Our results show similar morphology of growing vessels in the presence of CaP bioink, and no significant difference in endothelial cell sprouting was found. Furthermore, our initial results showed the differentiation of hMSCs into pericytes in the presence of CaP ink. These results indicate the feasibility of creating vascularized bone scaffolds, which can be used for enhancing vascular formation in the core of bone scaffolds.
AUTHOR Carrel, Jean‐Pierre and Wiskott, Anselm and Scherrer, Susanne and Durual, Stéphane
Title Large Bone Vertical Augmentation Using a Three‐Dimensional Printed TCP/HA Bone Graft: A Pilot Study in Dog Mandible [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research
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Abstract Background Osteoflux is a three‐dimensional printed calcium phosphate porous structure for oral bone augmentation. It is a mechanically stable scaffold with a well‐defined interconnectivity and can be readily shaped to conform to the bone bed's morphology. Purpose An animal experiment is reported whose aim was to assess the performance and safety of the scaffold in promoting vertical growth of cortical bone in the mandible. Materials and methods Four three‐dimensional blocks (10 mm length, 5 mm width, 5 mm height) were affixed to edentulous segments of the dog's mandible and covered by a collagen membrane. During bone bed preparation, particular attention was paid not to create defects 0.5 mm or more so that the real potential of the three‐dimensional block in driving vertical bone growth can be assessed. Histomorphometric analyses were performed after 8 weeks. Results At 8 weeks, the three‐dimensional blocks led to substantial vertical bone growth up to 4.5 mm from the bone bed. Between 0 and 1 mm in height, 44% of the surface was filled with new bone, at 1 to 3 mm it was 20% to 35%, 18% at 3 to 4, and ca. 6% beyond 4 mm. New bone was evenly distributed along in mesio‐distal direction and formed a new crest contour in harmony with the natural mandibular shape. Conclusions After two months of healing, the three‐dimensional printed blocks conducted new bone growth above its natural bed, up to 4.5 mm in a canine mandibular model. Furthermore, the new bone was evenly distributed in height and density along the block. These results are very promising and need to be further evaluated by a complete powerful study using the same model.
AUTHOR Moussa, Mira and Carrel, Jean-Pierre and Scherrer, Susanne and Cattani-Lorente, Maria and Wiskott, Anselm and Durual, Stéphane
Title Medium-Term Function of a 3D Printed TCP/HA Structure as a New Osteoconductive Scaffold for Vertical Bone Augmentation: A Simulation by BMP-2 Activation [Abstract]
Year 2015
Journal/Proceedings Materials
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Introduction: A 3D-printed construct made of orthogonally layered strands of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and hydroxyapatite has recently become available. The material provides excellent osteoconductivity. We simulated a medium-term experiment in a sheep calvarial model by priming the blocks with BMP-2. Vertical bone growth/maturation and material resorption were evaluated. Materials and methods: Titanium hemispherical caps were filled with either bare- or BMP-2 primed constructs and placed onto the calvaria of adult sheep (n = 8). Histomorphometry was performed after 8 and 16 weeks. Results: After 8 weeks, relative to bare constructs, BMP-2 stimulation led to a two-fold increase in bone volume (Bare: 22% ± 2.1%; BMP-2 primed: 50% ± 3%) and a 3-fold decrease in substitute volume (Bare: 47% ± 5%; BMP-2 primed: 18% ± 2%). These rates were still observed at 16 weeks. The new bone grew and matured to a haversian-like structure while the substitute material resorbed via cell- and chemical-mediation. Conclusion: By priming the 3D construct with BMP-2, bone metabolism was physiologically accelerated, that is, enhancing vertical bone growth and maturation as well as material bioresorption. The scaffolding function of the block was maintained, leaving time for the bone to grow and mature to a haversian-like structure. In parallel, the material resorbed via cell-mediated and chemical processes. These promising results must be confirmed in clinical tests.
AUTHOR Carrel, Jean-Pierre and Wiskott, Anselm and Moussa, Mira and Rieder, Philippe and Scherrer, Susanne and Durual, St{'{e}}phane
Title A 3D printed TCP/HA structure as a new osteoconductive scaffold for vertical bone augmentation [Abstract]
Year 2014
Journal/Proceedings Clinical Oral Implants Research
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Introduction OsteoFlux® (OF) is a 3D printed porous block of layered strands of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and hydroxyapatite. Its porosity and interconnectivity are defined, and it can be readily shaped to conform the bone bed's morphology. We investigated the performance of OF as a scaffold to promote the vertical growth of cortical bone in a sheep calvarial model. Materials and methods Six titanium hemispheres were filled with OF, Bio-Oss (particulate bovine bone, BO), or Ceros (particulate TCP, CO) and placed onto the calvaria of 12 adult sheep (6 hemispheres/sheep). Histomorphometric analyses were performed after 8 and 16 weeks. Results OF led to substantial vertical bone growth by 8 weeks and outperformed BO and CO by a factor 2 yielding OF 22% ± 2.1; BO 11.5% ± 1.9; and CO 12.9% ± 2.1 total new bone. 3 mm away from the bony bed, OF led to a fourfold increase in new bone relative to BO and CO (n = 8, P < 0.002). At 16 weeks, OF, BO, and CO behaved similarly and showed marked new bone synthesis. A moderate degradation was observed at 16 weeks for all bone substitutes. Conclusion When compared to existing bone substitutes, OF enhances vertical bone growth during the first 2 months after implantation in a sheep calvarial model. The controlled porous structure translated in a high osteoconductivity and resulted in a bone mass 3 mm above the bony bed that was four times greater than that obtained with standard substitutes. These results are promising but must be confirmed in clinical tests.