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AUTHOR Daghrery, Arwa and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Xu, Jinping and Golafshan, Nasim and Kaigler, Darnell and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Tissue-specific melt electrowritten polymeric scaffolds for coordinated regeneration of soft and hard periodontal tissues [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Bioactive Materials
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Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that often causes serious damage to tooth-supporting tissues. The limited successful outcomes of clinically available approaches underscore the need for therapeutics that cannot only provide structural guidance to cells but can also modulate the local immune response. Here, three-dimensional melt electrowritten (i.e., poly(ε-caprolactone)) scaffolds with tissue-specific attributes were engineered to guide differentiation of human-derived periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) and mediate macrophage polarization. The investigated tissue-specific scaffold attributes comprised fiber morphology (aligned vs. random) and highly-ordered architectures with distinct strand spacings (small 250 μm and large 500 μm). Macrophages exhibited an elongated morphology in aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds, while maintaining their round-shape on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds. Expressions of periostin and IL-10 were more pronounced on the aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds. While hPDLSCs on the scaffolds with 500 μm strand spacing show higher expression of osteogenic marker (Runx2) over 21 days, cells on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds showed upregulation of M1 markers. In an orthotopic mandibular fenestration defect model, findings revealed that the tissue-specific scaffolds (i.e., aligned fibers for periodontal ligament and highly-ordered 500 μm strand spacing fluorinated calcium phosphate [F/CaP]-coated fibers for bone) could enhance the mimicking of regeneration of natural periodontal tissues.
AUTHOR Dufour, A. and Gallostra, X. Barceló and O'Keeffe, C. and Eichholz, K. and Von Euw, S. and Garcia, O. and Kelly, D. J.
Title Integrating melt electrowriting and inkjet bioprinting for engineering structurally organized articular cartilage [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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Successful cartilage engineering requires the generation of biological grafts mimicking the structure, composition and mechanical behaviour of the native tissue. Here melt electrowriting (MEW) was used to produce arrays of polymeric structures whose function was to orient the growth of cellular aggregates spontaneously generated within these structures, and to provide tensile reinforcement to the resulting tissues. Inkjet printing was used to deposit defined numbers of cells into MEW structures, which self-assembled into an organized array of spheroids within hours, ultimately generating a hybrid tissue that was hyaline-like in composition. Structurally, the engineered cartilage mimicked the histotypical organization observed in skeletally immature synovial joints. This biofabrication framework was then used to generate scaled-up (50 mm × 50 mm) cartilage implants containing over 3,500 cellular aggregates in under 15 min. After 8 weeks in culture, a 50-fold increase in the compressive stiffness of these MEW reinforced tissues were observed, while the tensile properties were still dominated by the polymer network, resulting in a composite construct demonstrating tension-compression nonlinearity mimetic of the native tissue. Helium ion microscopy further demonstrated the development of an arcading collagen network within the engineered tissue. This hybrid bioprinting strategy provides a versatile and scalable approach to engineer cartilage biomimetic grafts for biological joint resurfacing.
AUTHOR Daghrery, Arwa and Ferreira, Jessica A. and de Souza Araújo, Isaac J. and Clarkson, Brian H. and Eckert, George J. and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Malda, Jos and Bottino, Marco C.
Title A Highly Ordered, Nanostructured Fluorinated CaP-Coated Melt Electrowritten Scaffold for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory, bacteria-triggered disorder affecting nearly half of American adults. Although some level of tissue regeneration is realized, its low success in complex cases demands superior strategies to amplify regenerative capacity. Herein, highly ordered scaffolds are engineered via Melt ElectroWriting (MEW), and the effects of strand spacing, as well as the presence of a nanostructured fluorinated calcium phosphate (F/CaP) coating on the adhesion/proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human-derived periodontal ligament stem cells, are investigated. Upon initial cell-scaffold interaction screening aimed at defining the most suitable design, MEW poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds with 500 µm strand spacing are chosen. Following an alkali treatment, scaffolds are immersed in a pre-established solution to allow for coating formation. The presence of a nanostructured F/CaP coating leads to a marked upregulation of osteogenic genes and attenuated bacterial growth. In vivo findings confirm that the F/CaP-coated scaffolds are biocompatible and lead to periodontal regeneration when implanted in a rat mandibular periodontal fenestration defect model. In aggregate, it is considered that this work can contribute to the development of personalized scaffolds capable of enabling tissue-specific differentiation of progenitor cells, and thus guide simultaneous and coordinated regeneration of soft and hard periodontal tissues, while providing antimicrobial protection.
AUTHOR Dubey, Nileshkumar and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Daghrery, Arwa and Aytac, Zeynep and Malda, Jos and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Highly Tunable Bioactive Fiber-Reinforced Hydrogel for Guided Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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One of the most damaging pathologies that affects the health of both soft and hard tissues around the tooth is periodontitis. Clinically, periodontal tissue destruction has been managed by an integrated approach involving elimination of injured tissues followed by regenerative strategies with bone substitutes and/or barrier membranes. Regrettably, a barrier membrane with predictable mechanical integrity and multifunctional therapeutic features has yet to be established. Herein, we report a fiber-reinforced hydrogel with unprecedented tunability in terms of mechanical competence and therapeutic features by integration of highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) fibrous mesh(es) with well-controlled 3D architecture into bioactive amorphous magnesium phosphate-laden gelatin methacryloyl hydrogels. The presence of amorphous magnesium phosphate and PCL mesh in the hydrogel can control the mechanical properties and improve the osteogenic ability, opening a tremendous opportunity in guided bone regeneration (GBR). Results demonstrate that the presence of PCL meshes fabricated via melt electrowriting can delay hydrogel degradation preventing soft tissue invasion and providing the mechanical barrier to allow time for slower migrating progenitor cells to participate in bone regeneration due to their ability to differentiate into bone-forming cells. Altogether, our approach offers a platform technology for the development of the next-generation of GBR membranes with tunable mechanical and therapeutic properties to amplify bone regeneration in compromised sites.
AUTHOR Peiffer, Quentin C. and de Ruijter, Mylène and van Duijn, Joost and Crottet, Denis and Dominic, Ernst and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel
Title Melt electrowriting onto anatomically relevant biodegradable substrates: Resurfacing a diarthrodial joint [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials & Design
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Three-dimensional printed hydrogel constructs with well-organized melt electrowritten (MEW) fibre-reinforcing scaffolds have been demonstrated as a promising regenerative approach to treat small cartilage defects. Here, we investige how to translate the fabrication of small fibre-reinforced structures on flat surfaces to anatomically relevant structures. In particular, the accurate deposition of MEW-fibres onto curved surfaces of conductive and non-conductive regenerative biomaterials is studied. This study reveals that clinically relevant materials with low conductivities are compatible with resurfacing with organized MEW fibres. Importantly, accurate patterning on non-flat surfaces was successfully shown, provided that a constant electrical field strength and an electrical force normal to the substrate material is maintained. Furthermore, the application of resurfacing the geometry of the medial human femoral condyle is confirmed by the fabrication of a personalised osteochondral implant. The implant composed of an articular cartilage-resident chondroprogenitor cells (ACPCs)-laden hydrogel reinforced with a well-organized MEW scaffold retained its personalised shape, improved its compressive properties and supported neocartilage formation after 28 days in vitro culture. Overall, this study establishes the groundwork for translating MEW from planar and non-resorbable material substrates to anatomically relevant geometries and regenerative materials that the regenerative medicine field aims to create.
AUTHOR de Ruijter, Mylène and Ribeiro, Alexandre and Dokter, Inge and Castilho, Miguel and Malda, Jos
Title Simultaneous Micropatterning of Fibrous Meshes and Bioinks for the Fabrication of Living Tissue Constructs [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract Fabrication of biomimetic tissues holds much promise for the regeneration of cells or organs that are lost or damaged due to injury or disease. To enable the generation of complex, multicellular tissues on demand, the ability to design and incorporate different materials and cell types needs to be improved. Two techniques are combined: extrusion-based bioprinting, which enables printing of cell-encapsulated hydrogels; and melt electrowriting (MEW), which enables fabrication of aligned (sub)-micrometer fibers into a single-step biofabrication process. Composite structures generated by infusion of MEW fiber structures with hydrogels have resulted in mechanically and biologically competent constructs; however, their preparation involves a two-step fabrication procedure that limits freedom of design of microfiber architectures and the use of multiple materials and cell types. How convergence of MEW and extrusion-based bioprinting allows fabrication of mechanically stable constructs with the spatial distributions of different cell types without compromising cell viability and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells is demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this converged printing approach improves freedom of design of the MEW fibers, enabling 3D fiber deposition. This is an important step toward biofabrication of voluminous and complex hierarchical structures that can better resemble the characteristics of functional biological tissues.
AUTHOR Yao, Y. and Raymond, J. E. and Kauffmann, F. and Maekawa, S. and Sugai, J. V. and Lahann, J. and Giannobile, W. V.
Title Multicompartmental Scaffolds for Coordinated Periodontal Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Dental Research
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Successful periodontal repair and regeneration requires the coordinated responses from soft and hard tissues as well as the soft tissue–to–bone interfaces. Inspired by the hierarchical structure of native periodontal tissues, tissue engineering technology provides unique opportunities to coordinate multiple cell types into scaffolds that mimic the natural periodontal structure in vitro. In this study, we designed and fabricated highly ordered multicompartmental scaffolds by melt electrowriting, an advanced 3-dimensional (3D) printing technique. This strategy attempted to mimic the characteristic periodontal microenvironment through multicompartmental constructs comprising 3 tissue-specific regions: 1) a bone compartment with dense mesh structure, 2) a ligament compartment mimicking the highly aligned periodontal ligaments (PDLs), and 3) a transition region that bridges the bone and ligament, a critical feature that differentiates this system from mono- or bicompartmental alternatives. The multicompartmental constructs successfully achieved coordinated proliferation and differentiation of multiple cell types in vitro within short time, including both ligamentous- and bone-derived cells. Long-term 3D coculture of primary human osteoblasts and PDL fibroblasts led to a mineral gradient from calcified to uncalcified regions with PDL-like insertions within the transition region, an effect that is challenging to achieve with mono- or bicompartmental platforms. This process effectively recapitulates the key feature of interfacial tissues in periodontium. Collectively, this tissue-engineered approach offers a fundament for engineering periodontal tissue constructs with characteristic 3D microenvironments similar to native tissues. This multicompartmental 3D printing approach is also highly compatible with the design of next-generation scaffolds, with both highly adjustable compartmentalization properties and patient-specific shapes, for multitissue engineering in complex periodontal defects.
AUTHOR Dorjsuren, Dorjbal and Eastman, Richard T. and Song, Min Jae and Yasgar, Adam and Chen, Yuchi and Bharti, Kapil and Zakharov, Alexey V. and Jadhav, Ajit and Ferrer, Marc and Shi, Pei-Yong and Simeonov, Anton
Title A platform of assays for the discovery of anti-Zika small-molecules with activity in a 3D-bioprinted outer-blood-retina model [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings PLOS ONE
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The global health emergency posed by the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV), an arthropod-borne flavivirus causing severe neonatal neurological conditions, has subsided, but there continues to be transmission of ZIKV in endemic regions. As such, there is still a medical need for discovering and developing therapeutical interventions against ZIKV. To identify small-molecule compounds that inhibit ZIKV disease and transmission, we screened multiple small-molecule collections, mostly derived from natural products, for their ability to inhibit wild-type ZIKV. As a primary high-throughput screen, we used a viral cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay conducted in Vero cells that was optimized and miniaturized to a 1536-well format. Suitably active compounds identified from the primary screen were tested in a panel of orthogonal assays using recombinant Zika viruses, including a ZIKV Renilla luciferase reporter assay and a ZIKV mCherry reporter system. Compounds that were active in the wild-type ZIKV inhibition and ZIKV reporter assays were further evaluated for their inhibitory effects against other flaviviruses. Lastly, we demonstrated that wild-type ZIKV is able to infect a 3D-bioprinted outer-blood-retina barrier tissue model and disrupt its barrier function, as measured by electrical resistance. One of the identified compounds (3-Acetyl-13-deoxyphomenone, NCGC00380955) was able to prevent the pathological effects of the viral infection on this clinically relevant ZIKV infection model.
AUTHOR Sarti, Mattia and Parlani, Maria and Diaz-Gomez, Luis and Mikos, Antonios G. and Cerveri, Pietro and Casarin, Stefano and Dondossola, Eleonora
Title Deep Learning for Automated Analysis of Cellular and Extracellular Components of the Foreign Body Response in Multiphoton Microscopy Images [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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The Foreign body response (FBR) is a major unresolved challenge that compromises medical implant integration and function by inflammation and fibrotic encapsulation. Mice implanted with polymeric scaffolds coupled to intravital non-linear multiphoton microscopy acquisition enable multiparametric, longitudinal investigation of the FBR evolution and interference strategies. However, follow-up analyses based on visual localization and manual segmentation are extremely time-consuming, subject to human error, and do not allow for automated parameter extraction. We developed an integrated computational pipeline based on an innovative and versatile variant of the U-Net neural network to segment and quantify cellular and extracellular structures of interest, which is maintained across different objectives without impairing accuracy. This software for automatically detecting the elements of the FBR shows promise to unravel the complexity of this pathophysiological process.
AUTHOR Włodarczyk-Biegun, Małgorzata K. and Villiou, Maria and Koch, Marcus and Muth, Christina and Wang, Peixi and Ott, Jenna and del Campo, Aranzazu
Title Melt Electrowriting of Graded Porous Scaffolds to Mimic the Matrix Structure of the Human Trabecular Meshwork [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
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The permeability of the human trabecular meshwork (HTM) regulates eye pressure via a porosity gradient across its thickness modulated by stacked layers of matrix fibrils and cells. Changes in HTM porosity are associated with increases in intraocular pressure and the progress of diseases such as glaucoma. Engineered HTMs could help to understand the structure–function relation in natural tissues and lead to new regenerative solutions. Here, melt electrowriting (MEW) is explored as a biofabrication technique to produce fibrillar, porous scaffolds that mimic the multilayer, gradient structure of native HTM. Poly(caprolactone) constructs with a height of 125–500 μm and fiber diameters of 10–12 μm are printed. Scaffolds with a tensile modulus between 5.6 and 13 MPa and a static compression modulus in the range of 6–360 kPa are obtained by varying the scaffold design, that is, the density and orientation of the fibers and number of stacked layers. Primary HTM cells attach to the scaffolds, proliferate, and form a confluent layer within 8–14 days, depending on the scaffold design. High cell viability and cell morphology close to that in the native tissue are observed. The present work demonstrates the utility of MEW for reconstructing complex morphological features of natural tissues.
AUTHOR Eichholz, Kian and Freeman, Fiona and Pitacco, Pierluca and Nulty, Jessica and Ahern, Daniel and Burdis, Ross and Browe, David and Garcia, Orquidea and Hoey, David and Kelly, Daniel John
Title Scaffold microarchitecture regulates angiogenesis and the regeneration of large bone defects [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Emerging 3D printing technologies can provide exquisite control over the external shape and internal architecture of scaffolds and tissue engineered constructs, enabling systematic studies to explore how geometric design features influence the regenerative process. Here we used fused deposition modelling (FDM) and melt electrowriting (MEW) to investigate how scaffold microarchitecture influences the healing of large bone defects. FDM was used to fabricate scaffolds with relatively large fibre diameters and low porosities, while MEW was used to fabricate scaffolds with smaller fibre diameters and higher porosities, with both scaffolds being designed to have comparable surface areas. Scaffold microarchitecture significantly influenced the healing response following implantation into critically sized femoral defects in rats, with the FDM scaffolds supporting the formation of larger bone spicules through its pores, while the MEW scaffolds supported the formation of a more round bone front during healing. After 12 weeks in vivo, both MEW and FDM scaffolds supported significantly higher levels of defect vascularisation compared to empty controls, while the MEW scaffolds supported higher levels of new bone formation. Somewhat surprisingly, this superior healing in the MEW group did not correlate with higher levels of angiogenesis, with the FDM scaffold supporting greater total vessel formation and the formation of larger vessels, while the MEW scaffold promoted the formation of a dense microvasculature with minimal evidence of larger vessels infiltrating the defect region. To conclude, the small fibre diameter, high porosity and high specific surface area of the MEW scaffold proved beneficial for osteogenesis and bone regeneration, demonstrating that changes in scaffold architecture enabled by this additive manufacturing technique can dramatically modulate angiogenesis and tissue regeneration without the need for complex exogenous growth factors. These results provide a valuable insight into the importance of 3D printed scaffold architecture when developing new bone tissue engineering strategies.
AUTHOR Bello, Thomas and Paindelli, Claudia and Diaz-Gomez, Luis A. and Melchiorri, Anthony and Mikos, Antonios G. and Nelson, Peter S. and Dondossola, Eleonora and Gujral, Taranjit S.
Title Computational modeling identifies multitargeted kinase inhibitors as effective therapies for metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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Metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is an advanced prostate cancer with limited therapeutic options and poor patient outcomes. To investigate whether multitargeted kinase inhibitors (KIs) represent an opportunity for mCRPC drug development, we applied machine learning{textendash}based functional screening and identified two KIs, PP121 and SC-1, which demonstrated strong suppression of CRPC growth in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we show the marked ability of these KIs to improve on standard-of-care chemotherapy in both tumor response and survival, suggesting that combining multitargeted KIs with chemotherapy represents a promising avenue for mCRPC treatment. Overall, our findings demonstrate the application of a multidisciplinary strategy that blends bench science with machine-learning approaches for rapidly identifying KIs that result in desired phenotypic effects.Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is an advanced subtype of prostate cancer with limited therapeutic options. Here, we applied a systems-based modeling approach called kinome regularization (KiR) to identify multitargeted kinase inhibitors (KIs) that abrogate CRPC growth. Two predicted KIs, PP121 and SC-1, suppressed CRPC growth in two-dimensional in vitro experiments and in vivo subcutaneous xenografts. An ex vivo bone mimetic environment and in vivo tibia xenografts revealed resistance to these KIs in bone. Combining PP121 or SC-1 with docetaxel, standard-of-care chemotherapy for late-stage CRPC, significantly reduced tibia tumor growth in vivo, decreased growth factor signaling, and vastly extended overall survival, compared to either docetaxel monotherapy. These results highlight the utility of computational modeling in forming physiologically relevant predictions and provide evidence for the role of multitargeted KIs as chemosensitizers for late-stage, metastatic CRPC.All study data are included in the article and/or supporting information.
AUTHOR Paindelli, Claudia and Casarin, Stefano and Wang, Feng and Diaz-Gomez, Luis and Zhang, Jianhua and Mikos, Antonios G. and Logothetis, Christopher J. and Friedl, Peter and Dondossola, Eleonora
Title Enhancing Radium 223 treatment efficacy by anti-beta 1 integrin targeting [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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Radium 223 (223Ra) is an α-emitter approved for the treatment of bone metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), which exerts direct cytotoxicity towards PCa cells near the bone interface, whereas cells positioned in the core respond poorly, due to short α-particle penetrance. β1 integrin (β1I) interference has been shown to increase radiosensitivity and significantly enhance external beam radiation efficiency. We hypothesized that targeting β1I would improve 223Ra outcome. We tested the effect of combining 223Ra and anti-β1I antibody treatment in PC3 and C4-2B PCa cell models expressing high and low β1I levels, respectively. In vivo tumor growth was evaluated through bioluminescence. Cellular and molecular determinants of response were analyzed by ex vivo three-dimensional imaging of bone lesions, proteomic analysis and further confirmed by computational modeling and in vitro functional analysis in tissue-engineered bone mimetic systems. Interference with β1I combined with 223Ra reduced PC3 cell growth in bone and significantly improved overall mouse survival, while no change was achieved in C4-2B tumors. Anti-β1I treatment decreased PC3 tumor cell mitosis index and spatially expanded 223Ra lethal effects two-fold, in vivo and in silico. Regression was paralleled by decreased expression of radio-resistance mediators. Targeting β1I significantly improves 223Ra outcome and points towards combinatorial application in PCa tumors with high β1I expression.
AUTHOR King, William E. and Bowlin, Gary L.
Title Near-Field Electrospinning and Melt Electrowriting of Biomedical Polymers—Progress and Limitations [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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Near-field electrospinning (NFES) and melt electrowriting (MEW) are the process of extruding a fiber due to the force exerted by an electric field and collecting the fiber before bending instabilities occur. When paired with precise relative motion between the polymer source and the collector, a fiber can be directly written as dictated by preprogrammed geometry. As a result, this precise fiber control results in another dimension of scaffold tailorability for biomedical applications. In this review, biomedically relevant polymers that to date have manufactured fibers by NFES/MEW are explored and the present limitations in direct fiber writing of standardization in published setup details, fiber write throughput, and increased ease in the creation of complex scaffold geometries are discussed.
AUTHOR Korpershoek, Jasmijn V. and Ruijter, Mylène de and Terhaard, Bastiaan F. and Hagmeijer, Michella H. and Saris, Daniël B.F. and Castilho, Miguel and Malda, Jos and Vonk, Lucienne A.
Title Potential of Melt Electrowritten Scaffolds Seeded with Meniscus Cells and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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Meniscus injury and meniscectomy are strongly related to osteoarthritis, thus there is a clinical need for meniscus replacement. The purpose of this study is to create a meniscus scaffold with micro-scale circumferential and radial fibres suitable for a one-stage cell-based treatment. Poly-caprolactone-based scaffolds with three different architectures were made using melt electrowriting (MEW) technology and their in vitro performance was compared with scaffolds made using fused-deposition modelling (FDM) and with the clinically used Collagen Meniscus Implants® (CMI®). The scaffolds were seeded with meniscus and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in fibrin gel and cultured for 28 d. A basal level of proteoglycan production was demonstrated in MEW scaffolds, the CMI®, and fibrin gel control, yet within the FDM scaffolds less proteoglycan production was observed. Compressive properties were assessed under uniaxial confined compression after 1 and 28 d of culture. The MEW scaffolds showed a higher Young’s modulus when compared to the CMI® scaffolds and a higher yield point compared to FDM scaffolds. This study demonstrates the feasibility of creating a wedge-shaped meniscus scaffold with MEW using medical-grade materials and seeding the scaffold with a clinically-feasible cell number and -type for potential translation as a one-stage treatment.
AUTHOR Diloksumpan, Paweena and de Ruijter, Myl{`{e}}ne and Castilho, Miguel and Gbureck, Uwe and Vermonden, Tina and van Weeren, P. Ren{'{e}} and Malda, Jos and Levato, Riccardo
Title Combining multi-scale 3D printing technologies to engineer reinforced hydrogel-ceramic interfaces [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Multi-material 3D printing technologies that resolve features at different lengths down to the microscale open new avenues for regenerative medicine, particularly in the engineering of tissue interfaces. Herein, extrusion printing of a bone-biomimetic ceramic ink and melt electrowriting (MEW) of spatially organized polymeric microfibres are integrated for the biofabrication of an osteochondral plug, with a mechanically reinforced bone-to-cartilage interface. A printable physiological temperature-setting bioceramic, based on α-tricalcium phosphate, nanohydroxyapatite and a custom-synthesized biodegradable and crosslinkable poloxamer, was developed as bone support. The mild setting reaction of the bone ink enabled us to print directly within melt electrowritten polycaprolactone meshes, preserving their micro-architecture. Ceramic-integrated MEW meshes protruded into the cartilage region of the composite plug, and were embedded with mechanically soft gelatin-based hydrogels, laden with articular cartilage chondroprogenitor cells. Such interlocking design enhanced the hydrogel-to-ceramic adhesion strength >6.5-fold, compared with non-interlocking fibre architectures, enabling structural stability during handling and surgical implantation in osteochondral defects ex vivo. Furthermore, the MEW meshes endowed the chondral compartment with compressive properties approaching those of native cartilage (20-fold reinforcement versus pristine hydrogel). The osteal and chondral compartment supported osteogenesis and cartilage matrix deposition in vitro, and the neo-synthesized cartilage matrix further contributed to the mechanical reinforcement at the ceramic-hydrogel interface. This multi-material, multi-scale 3D printing approach provides a promising strategy for engineering advanced composite constructs for the regeneration of musculoskeletal and connective tissue interfaces.
AUTHOR Huang, Boyang and Aslan, Enes and Jiang, Zhengyi and Daskalakis, Evangelos and Jiao, Mohan and Aldalbahi, Ali and Vyas, Cian and Bártolo, Paulo
Title Engineered dual-scale poly (ε-caprolactone) scaffolds using 3D printing and rotational electrospinning for bone tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Additive Manufacturing
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Large bone defects due to trauma or disease present a significant clinical challenge with limited efficacy of current therapies. A key aim is to develop biomimetic scaffolds that reflect the native tissue structure with 3D printing being an important enabling technology. However, the incorporation of multiple length scales and anisotropic features, mimicking the native architecture, is difficult with current processes. In this study, we propose a simple and versatile hybrid printing process using a screw-assisted additive manufacturing technique combined with rotational electrospinning to fabricate dual-scale anisotropic scaffolds. 3D microscale porous polycaprolactone (PCL) structures with highly aligned nanoscale fibres were successfully produced layer-by-layer. The scaffolds were morphological, mechanical and biological characterised. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) were seeded on the hybrid scaffold to evaluate the effects of structural and anisotropic topographic cues on cell attachment, proliferation and osteogenesis differentiation. Results show that the 3D printed microscale structures have uniform and well-defined geometries and the alignment of nanoscale electrospun fibres increases by increasing the electrospinning rotational velocity. Mechanical results show that there is no significant difference between 3D printed scaffolds with or without electrospun meshes. In vitro results show higher cell seeding efficiency and proliferation in dual-scale scaffolds with high density electrospun meshes. A more stretched and elongated cell morphology was observed in aligned nanofibre scaffolds showing higher anisotropic cytoskeletal organization than 3D printed PCL scaffolds without electrospun meshes. The dual-scale scaffolds present improved overall osteogenic markers expressions (COL-1, ALP and OCN). However, no statistical difference between normalised osteogenic marker expressions were observed between dual-scale scaffolds and 3D printed scaffolds. This might be attributed to the poor bioactivity of the substrate material, PCL, suggesting topographical cues might not be sufficient to stimulate cell fate towards to an osteogenic linage. The results suggest that the proposed fabrication strategy is a promising approach for the design of novel bone scaffolds to modulate cell fates by integrating the topographic cue reported in this paper with biochemical cues associated to the use of more bioactive materials.
AUTHOR Steier, Anke and Schmieg, Barbara and Irtel von Brenndorff, Yannic and Meier, Manuel and Nirschl, Hermann and Franzreb, Matthias and Lahann, Joerg
Title Enzyme Scaffolds with Hierarchically Defined Properties via 3D Jet Writing [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Macromolecular Bioscience
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Abstract The immobilization of enzymes into polymer hydrogels is a versatile approach to improve their stability and utility in biotechnological and biomedical applications. However, these systems typically show limited enzyme activity, due to unfavorable pore dimensions and low enzyme accessibility. Here, 3D jet writing of water-based bioinks, which contain preloaded enzymes, is used to prepare hydrogel scaffolds with well-defined, tessellated micropores. After 3D jet writing, the scaffolds are chemically modified via photopolymerization to ensure mechanical stability. Enzyme loading and activity in the hydrogel scaffolds is fully retained over 3 d. Important structural parameters of the scaffolds such as pore size, pore geometry, and wall diameter are controlled with micrometer resolution to avoid mass-transport limitations. It is demonstrated that scaffold pore sizes between 120 µm and 1 mm can be created by 3D jet writing approaching the length scales of free diffusion in the hydrogels substrates and resulting in high levels of enzyme activity (21.2% activity relative to free enzyme). With further work, a broad range of applications for enzyme-laden hydrogel scaffolds including diagnostics and enzymatic cascade reactions is anticipated.
AUTHOR Vyas, Cian and Ates, Gokhan and Aslan, Enes and Hart, Jack and Huang, Boyang and Bartolo, Paulo
Title Three-Dimensional Printing and Electrospinning Dual-Scale Polycaprolactone Scaffolds with Low-Density and Oriented Fibers to Promote Cell Alignment [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing
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Complex and hierarchically functionalized scaffolds composed of micro- and nanoscale structures are a key goal in tissue engineering. The combination of three-dimensional (3D) printing and electrospinning enables the fabrication of these multiscale structures. This study presents a polycaprolactone 3D-printed and electrospun scaffold with multiple mesh layers and fiber densities. The results show successful fabrication of a dual-scale scaffold with the 3D-printed scaffold acting as a gap collector with the printed microfibers as the electrodes and the pores a series of insulating gaps resulting in aligned nanofibers. The electrospun fibers are highly aligned perpendicular to the direction of the printed fiber and form aligned meshes within the pores of the scaffold. Mechanical testing showed no significant difference between the number of mesh layers whereas the hydrophobicity of the scaffold increased with increasing fiber density. Biological results indicate that increasing the number of mesh layers improves cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion. The aligned nanofibers within the microscale pores allowed enhanced cell bridging and cell alignment that was not observed in the 3D-printed only scaffold. These results demonstrate a facile method of incorporating low-density and aligned fibers within a 3D-printed scaffold that is a promising development in multiscale hierarchical scaffolds where alignment of cells can be desirable.
AUTHOR Kang, Yuan and Wang, Chaoli and Qiao, Youbei and Gu, Junwei and Zhang, Han and Peijs, Ton and Kong, Jie and Zhang, Guangcheng and Shi, Xuetao
Title Tissue-Engineered Trachea Consisting of Electrospun Patterned sc-PLA/GO-g-IL Fibrous Membranes with Antibacterial Property and 3D-Printed Skeletons with Elasticity [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Biomacromolecules
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
In this study, a tissue-engineered trachea, consisting of multilevel structural electrospun polylactide (PLA) membranes enveloping 3D-printed thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) skeletons, was developed to create a mechanically robust, antibacterial and bioresorbable graft for the tracheal reconstruction. The study design incorporated two distinct uses of stereocomplex PLA: patterned electrospun fibers to enhance tissue integration compared to the random layered fibers, meanwhile possessing good antibacterial property; and 3D-printed TPU scaffold with elasticity to provide external support and protection. Herein, ionic liquid (IL)-functioned graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and presented enhanced mechanical and hydrophilicity properties. More interesting, antibacterial activity of the GO-g-IL modified PLA membranes were proved by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, showing superior antibacterial effect compared to single GO or IL. The synergistic antibacterial effect could be related to that GO break cytomembrane of bacteria by its extremely sharp edges, while IL works by electrostatic interaction between its cationic structures and electronegative phosphate groups of bacteria membranes, leading to the loss of cell electrolyte and cell death. Hence, after L929 fibroblast cells were seeded on patterned fibrous membranes with phenotypic shape, further effective cell infiltration, cell proliferation and attachment were observed. In addition, the tissue-engineered trachea scaffolds were implanted into rabbit models. The in vivo result confirmed that the scaffolds with patterned membranes manifested favorable biocompatibility and promoted tissue regeneration. In this study, a tissue-engineered trachea, consisting of multilevel structural electrospun polylactide (PLA) membranes enveloping 3D-printed thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) skeletons, was developed to create a mechanically robust, antibacterial and bioresorbable graft for the tracheal reconstruction. The study design incorporated two distinct uses of stereocomplex PLA: patterned electrospun fibers to enhance tissue integration compared to the random layered fibers, meanwhile possessing good antibacterial property; and 3D-printed TPU scaffold with elasticity to provide external support and protection. Herein, ionic liquid (IL)-functioned graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and presented enhanced mechanical and hydrophilicity properties. More interesting, antibacterial activity of the GO-g-IL modified PLA membranes were proved by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, showing superior antibacterial effect compared to single GO or IL. The synergistic antibacterial effect could be related to that GO break cytomembrane of bacteria by its extremely sharp edges, while IL works by electrostatic interaction between its cationic structures and electronegative phosphate groups of bacteria membranes, leading to the loss of cell electrolyte and cell death. Hence, after L929 fibroblast cells were seeded on patterned fibrous membranes with phenotypic shape, further effective cell infiltration, cell proliferation and attachment were observed. In addition, the tissue-engineered trachea scaffolds were implanted into rabbit models. The in vivo result confirmed that the scaffolds with patterned membranes manifested favorable biocompatibility and promoted tissue regeneration.
AUTHOR Dalton, Paul D.
Title Melt electrowriting with additive manufacturing principles [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract The recent development of electrostatic writing (electrowriting) with molten jets provides an opportunity to tackle some significant challenges within tissue engineering. The process uses an applied voltage to generate a stable fluid jet with a predictable path, that is continuously deposited onto a collector. The fiber diameter is variable during the process, and is applicable to polymers with a history of clinical use. Melt electrowriting therefore has potential for clinical translation if the biological efficacy of the implant can be improved over existing gold standards. It provides a unique opportunity for laboratories to perform low-cost, high resolution, additive manufacturing research that is well positioned for clinical translation, using existing regulatory frameworks.