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AUTHOR Barceló, Xavier and Eichholz, Kian F. and Gonçalves, Inês F. and Garcia, Orquidea and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Bioprinting of structurally organized meniscal tissue within anisotropic melt electrowritten scaffolds [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Abstract
The meniscus is characterised by an anisotropic collagen fibre network which is integral to its biomechanical functionality. The engineering of structurally organized meniscal grafts that mimic the anisotropy of the native tissue remains a significant challenge. In this study, inkjet bioprinting was used to deposit a cell-laden bioink into additively manufactured scaffolds of differing architectures to engineer fibrocartilage grafts with user defined collagen architectures. Polymeric scaffolds consisting of guiding fibre networks with varying aspect ratios (1:1; 1:4; 1:16) were produced using either fused deposition modelling (FDM) or melt electrowriting (MEW), resulting in scaffolds with different internal architectures and fibre diameters. Scaffold architecture was found to influence the spatial organization of the collagen network laid down by the jetted cells, with higher aspect ratios (1:4 and 1:16) supporting the formation of structurally anisotropic tissues. The MEW scaffolds supported the development of a fibrocartilaginous tissue with compressive mechanical properties similar to that of native meniscus, while the anisotropic tensile properties of these constructs could be tuned by altering the fibre network aspect ratio. This MEW framework was then used to generate scaffolds with spatially distinct fibre patterns, which in turn supported the development of heterogenous tissues consisting of isotropic and anisotropic collagen networks. Such bioprinted tissues could potentially form the basis of new treatment options for damaged and diseased meniscal tissue. Statement of significance This study describes a multiple tool biofabrication strategy which enables the engineering of spatially organized fibrocartilage tissues. The architecture of MEW scaffolds can be tailored to not only modulate the directionality of the collagen fibres laid down by cells, but also to tune the anisotropic tensile mechanical properties of the resulting constructs, thereby enabling the engineering of biomimetic meniscal-like tissues. Furthermore, the inherent flexibility of MEW enables the development of zonally defined and potentially patient-specific implants.
AUTHOR Ainsworth, Madison Jade and Chirico, Nino and de Ruijter, Mylène and Hrynevich, Andrei and Dokter, Inge and Sluijter, Joost P. G. and Malda, Jos and van Mil, Alain and Castilho, Miguel
Title Convergence of melt electrowriting and extrusion-based bioprinting for vascular patterning of a myocardial construct [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Abstract
To progress cardiac tissue engineering strategies closer to the clinic, thicker constructs are required to meet the functional need following a cardiac event. Consequently, pre-vascularization of these constructs needs to be investigated to ensure survival and optimal performance of implantable engineered heart tissue. The aim of this research is to investigate the potential of combining extrusion-based bioprinting (EBB) and melt electrowriting for the fabrication of a myocardial construct with a precisely patterned pre-vascular pathway. Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) was investigated as a base hydrogel for the respective myocardial and vascular bioinks with collagen, Matrigel and fibrinogen as interpenetrating polymers to support myocardial functionality. Subsequently, extrusion-based printability and viability were investigated to determine the optimal processing parameters for printing into melt electrowritten meshes. Finally, an anatomically inspired vascular pathway was implemented in a dual EBB set-up into melt electrowritten meshes, creating a patterned pre-vascularized myocardial construct. It was determined that a blend of 5% GelMA and 0.8 mg·ml−1 collagen with a low crosslinked density was optimal for myocardial cellular arrangement and alignment within the constructs. For the vascular fraction, the optimized formulation consisted of 5% GelMA, 0.8 mg·ml−1 collagen and 1 mg·ml−1 fibrinogen with a higher crosslinked density, which led to enhanced vascular cell connectivity. Printability assessment confirmed that the optimized bioinks could effectively fill the microfiber mesh while supporting cell viability (∼70%). Finally, the two bioinks were applied using a dual EBB system for the fabrication of a pre-vascular pathway with the shape of a left anterior descending artery within a myocardial construct, whereby the distinct cell populations could be visualized in their respective patterns up to D14. This research investigated the first step towards developing a thick engineered cardiac tissue construct in which a pre-vascularization pathway is fabricated within a myocardial construct.
AUTHOR Daghrery, Arwa and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Xu, Jinping and Golafshan, Nasim and Kaigler, Darnell and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Tissue-specific melt electrowritten polymeric scaffolds for coordinated regeneration of soft and hard periodontal tissues [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Bioactive Materials
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Abstract
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that often causes serious damage to tooth-supporting tissues. The limited successful outcomes of clinically available approaches underscore the need for therapeutics that cannot only provide structural guidance to cells but can also modulate the local immune response. Here, three-dimensional melt electrowritten (i.e., poly(ε-caprolactone)) scaffolds with tissue-specific attributes were engineered to guide differentiation of human-derived periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) and mediate macrophage polarization. The investigated tissue-specific scaffold attributes comprised fiber morphology (aligned vs. random) and highly-ordered architectures with distinct strand spacings (small 250 μm and large 500 μm). Macrophages exhibited an elongated morphology in aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds, while maintaining their round-shape on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds. Expressions of periostin and IL-10 were more pronounced on the aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds. While hPDLSCs on the scaffolds with 500 μm strand spacing show higher expression of osteogenic marker (Runx2) over 21 days, cells on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds showed upregulation of M1 markers. In an orthotopic mandibular fenestration defect model, findings revealed that the tissue-specific scaffolds (i.e., aligned fibers for periodontal ligament and highly-ordered 500 μm strand spacing fluorinated calcium phosphate [F/CaP]-coated fibers for bone) could enhance the mimicking of regeneration of natural periodontal tissues.
AUTHOR Daghrery, Arwa and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Xu, Jinping and Golafshan, Nasim and Kaigler, Darnell and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Tissue-specific melt electrowritten polymeric scaffolds for coordinated regeneration of soft and hard periodontal tissues [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Bioactive Materials
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that often causes serious damage to tooth-supporting tissues. The limited successful outcomes of clinically available approaches underscore the need for therapeutics that cannot only provide structural guidance to cells but can also modulate the local immune response. Here, three-dimensional melt electrowritten (i.e., poly(ε-caprolactone)) scaffolds with tissue-specific attributes were engineered to guide differentiation of human-derived periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) and mediate macrophage polarization. The investigated tissue-specific scaffold attributes comprised fiber morphology (aligned vs. random) and highly-ordered architectures with distinct strand spacings (small 250 μm and large 500 μm). Macrophages exhibited an elongated morphology in aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds, while maintaining their round-shape on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds. Expressions of periostin and IL-10 were more pronounced on the aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds. While hPDLSCs on the scaffolds with 500 μm strand spacing show higher expression of osteogenic marker (Runx2) over 21 days, cells on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds showed upregulation of M1 markers. In an orthotopic mandibular fenestration defect model, findings revealed that the tissue-specific scaffolds (i.e., aligned fibers for periodontal ligament and highly-ordered 500 μm strand spacing fluorinated calcium phosphate [F/CaP]-coated fibers for bone) could enhance the mimicking of regeneration of natural periodontal tissues.
AUTHOR Daghrery, Arwa and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Xu, Jinping and Golafshan, Nasim and Kaigler, Darnell and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Tissue-specific melt electrowritten polymeric scaffolds for coordinated regeneration of soft and hard periodontal tissues [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Bioactive Materials
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that often causes serious damage to tooth-supporting tissues. The limited successful outcomes of clinically available approaches underscore the need for therapeutics that cannot only provide structural guidance to cells but can also modulate the local immune response. Here, three-dimensional melt electrowritten (i.e., poly(ε-caprolactone)) scaffolds with tissue-specific attributes were engineered to guide differentiation of human-derived periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) and mediate macrophage polarization. The investigated tissue-specific scaffold attributes comprised fiber morphology (aligned vs. random) and highly-ordered architectures with distinct strand spacings (small 250 μm and large 500 μm). Macrophages exhibited an elongated morphology in aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds, while maintaining their round-shape on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds. Expressions of periostin and IL-10 were more pronounced on the aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds. While hPDLSCs on the scaffolds with 500 μm strand spacing show higher expression of osteogenic marker (Runx2) over 21 days, cells on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds showed upregulation of M1 markers. In an orthotopic mandibular fenestration defect model, findings revealed that the tissue-specific scaffolds (i.e., aligned fibers for periodontal ligament and highly-ordered 500 μm strand spacing fluorinated calcium phosphate [F/CaP]-coated fibers for bone) could enhance the mimicking of regeneration of natural periodontal tissues.
AUTHOR Daghrery, Arwa and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Xu, Jinping and Golafshan, Nasim and Kaigler, Darnell and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Tissue-specific melt electrowritten polymeric scaffolds for coordinated regeneration of soft and hard periodontal tissues [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Bioactive Materials
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that often causes serious damage to tooth-supporting tissues. The limited successful outcomes of clinically available approaches underscore the need for therapeutics that cannot only provide structural guidance to cells but can also modulate the local immune response. Here, three-dimensional melt electrowritten (i.e., poly(ε-caprolactone)) scaffolds with tissue-specific attributes were engineered to guide differentiation of human-derived periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) and mediate macrophage polarization. The investigated tissue-specific scaffold attributes comprised fiber morphology (aligned vs. random) and highly-ordered architectures with distinct strand spacings (small 250 μm and large 500 μm). Macrophages exhibited an elongated morphology in aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds, while maintaining their round-shape on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds. Expressions of periostin and IL-10 were more pronounced on the aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds. While hPDLSCs on the scaffolds with 500 μm strand spacing show higher expression of osteogenic marker (Runx2) over 21 days, cells on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds showed upregulation of M1 markers. In an orthotopic mandibular fenestration defect model, findings revealed that the tissue-specific scaffolds (i.e., aligned fibers for periodontal ligament and highly-ordered 500 μm strand spacing fluorinated calcium phosphate [F/CaP]-coated fibers for bone) could enhance the mimicking of regeneration of natural periodontal tissues.
AUTHOR Dufour, A. and Gallostra, X. Barceló and O'Keeffe, C. and Eichholz, K. and Von Euw, S. and Garcia, O. and Kelly, D. J.
Title Integrating melt electrowriting and inkjet bioprinting for engineering structurally organized articular cartilage [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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Abstract
Successful cartilage engineering requires the generation of biological grafts mimicking the structure, composition and mechanical behaviour of the native tissue. Here melt electrowriting (MEW) was used to produce arrays of polymeric structures whose function was to orient the growth of cellular aggregates spontaneously generated within these structures, and to provide tensile reinforcement to the resulting tissues. Inkjet printing was used to deposit defined numbers of cells into MEW structures, which self-assembled into an organized array of spheroids within hours, ultimately generating a hybrid tissue that was hyaline-like in composition. Structurally, the engineered cartilage mimicked the histotypical organization observed in skeletally immature synovial joints. This biofabrication framework was then used to generate scaled-up (50 mm × 50 mm) cartilage implants containing over 3,500 cellular aggregates in under 15 min. After 8 weeks in culture, a 50-fold increase in the compressive stiffness of these MEW reinforced tissues were observed, while the tensile properties were still dominated by the polymer network, resulting in a composite construct demonstrating tension-compression nonlinearity mimetic of the native tissue. Helium ion microscopy further demonstrated the development of an arcading collagen network within the engineered tissue. This hybrid bioprinting strategy provides a versatile and scalable approach to engineer cartilage biomimetic grafts for biological joint resurfacing.
AUTHOR Daghrery, Arwa and Ferreira, Jessica A. and de Souza Araújo, Isaac J. and Clarkson, Brian H. and Eckert, George J. and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Malda, Jos and Bottino, Marco C.
Title A Highly Ordered, Nanostructured Fluorinated CaP-Coated Melt Electrowritten Scaffold for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory, bacteria-triggered disorder affecting nearly half of American adults. Although some level of tissue regeneration is realized, its low success in complex cases demands superior strategies to amplify regenerative capacity. Herein, highly ordered scaffolds are engineered via Melt ElectroWriting (MEW), and the effects of strand spacing, as well as the presence of a nanostructured fluorinated calcium phosphate (F/CaP) coating on the adhesion/proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human-derived periodontal ligament stem cells, are investigated. Upon initial cell-scaffold interaction screening aimed at defining the most suitable design, MEW poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds with 500 µm strand spacing are chosen. Following an alkali treatment, scaffolds are immersed in a pre-established solution to allow for coating formation. The presence of a nanostructured F/CaP coating leads to a marked upregulation of osteogenic genes and attenuated bacterial growth. In vivo findings confirm that the F/CaP-coated scaffolds are biocompatible and lead to periodontal regeneration when implanted in a rat mandibular periodontal fenestration defect model. In aggregate, it is considered that this work can contribute to the development of personalized scaffolds capable of enabling tissue-specific differentiation of progenitor cells, and thus guide simultaneous and coordinated regeneration of soft and hard periodontal tissues, while providing antimicrobial protection.
AUTHOR Dubey, Nileshkumar and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Daghrery, Arwa and Aytac, Zeynep and Malda, Jos and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Highly Tunable Bioactive Fiber-Reinforced Hydrogel for Guided Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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One of the most damaging pathologies that affects the health of both soft and hard tissues around the tooth is periodontitis. Clinically, periodontal tissue destruction has been managed by an integrated approach involving elimination of injured tissues followed by regenerative strategies with bone substitutes and/or barrier membranes. Regrettably, a barrier membrane with predictable mechanical integrity and multifunctional therapeutic features has yet to be established. Herein, we report a fiber-reinforced hydrogel with unprecedented tunability in terms of mechanical competence and therapeutic features by integration of highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) fibrous mesh(es) with well-controlled 3D architecture into bioactive amorphous magnesium phosphate-laden gelatin methacryloyl hydrogels. The presence of amorphous magnesium phosphate and PCL mesh in the hydrogel can control the mechanical properties and improve the osteogenic ability, opening a tremendous opportunity in guided bone regeneration (GBR). Results demonstrate that the presence of PCL meshes fabricated via melt electrowriting can delay hydrogel degradation preventing soft tissue invasion and providing the mechanical barrier to allow time for slower migrating progenitor cells to participate in bone regeneration due to their ability to differentiate into bone-forming cells. Altogether, our approach offers a platform technology for the development of the next-generation of GBR membranes with tunable mechanical and therapeutic properties to amplify bone regeneration in compromised sites.
AUTHOR Peiffer, Quentin C. and de Ruijter, Mylène and van Duijn, Joost and Crottet, Denis and Dominic, Ernst and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel
Title Melt electrowriting onto anatomically relevant biodegradable substrates: Resurfacing a diarthrodial joint [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials & Design
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Three-dimensional printed hydrogel constructs with well-organized melt electrowritten (MEW) fibre-reinforcing scaffolds have been demonstrated as a promising regenerative approach to treat small cartilage defects. Here, we investige how to translate the fabrication of small fibre-reinforced structures on flat surfaces to anatomically relevant structures. In particular, the accurate deposition of MEW-fibres onto curved surfaces of conductive and non-conductive regenerative biomaterials is studied. This study reveals that clinically relevant materials with low conductivities are compatible with resurfacing with organized MEW fibres. Importantly, accurate patterning on non-flat surfaces was successfully shown, provided that a constant electrical field strength and an electrical force normal to the substrate material is maintained. Furthermore, the application of resurfacing the geometry of the medial human femoral condyle is confirmed by the fabrication of a personalised osteochondral implant. The implant composed of an articular cartilage-resident chondroprogenitor cells (ACPCs)-laden hydrogel reinforced with a well-organized MEW scaffold retained its personalised shape, improved its compressive properties and supported neocartilage formation after 28 days in vitro culture. Overall, this study establishes the groundwork for translating MEW from planar and non-resorbable material substrates to anatomically relevant geometries and regenerative materials that the regenerative medicine field aims to create.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Biofabrication of spatially organised tissues by directing the growth of cellular spheroids within 3D printed polymeric microchambers [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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Abstract
Successful tissue engineering requires the generation of human scale implants that mimic the structure, composition and mechanical properties of native tissues. Here, we report a novel biofabrication strategy that enables the engineering of structurally organised tissues by guiding the growth of cellular spheroids within arrays of 3D printed polymeric microchambers. With the goal of engineering stratified articular cartilage, inkjet bioprinting was used to deposit defined numbers of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes into pre-printed microchambers. These jetted cell suspensions rapidly underwent condensation within the hydrophobic microchambers, leading to the formation of organised arrays of cellular spheroids. The microchambers were also designed to provide boundary conditions to these spheroids, guiding their growth and eventual fusion, leading to the development of stratified cartilage tissue with a depth-dependant collagen fiber architecture that mimicked the structure of native articular cartilage. Furthermore, the composition and biomechanical properties of the bioprinted cartilage was also comparable to the native tissue. Using multi-tool biofabrication, we were also able to engineer anatomically accurate, human scale, osteochondral templates by printing this microchamber system on top of a hypertrophic cartilage region designed to support endochondral bone formation and then maintaining the entire construct in long-term bioreactor culture to enhance tissue development. This bioprinting strategy provides a versatile and scalable approach to engineer structurally organised cartilage tissues for joint resurfacing applications.
AUTHOR de Ruijter, Mylène and Ribeiro, Alexandre and Dokter, Inge and Castilho, Miguel and Malda, Jos
Title Simultaneous Micropatterning of Fibrous Meshes and Bioinks for the Fabrication of Living Tissue Constructs [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract Fabrication of biomimetic tissues holds much promise for the regeneration of cells or organs that are lost or damaged due to injury or disease. To enable the generation of complex, multicellular tissues on demand, the ability to design and incorporate different materials and cell types needs to be improved. Two techniques are combined: extrusion-based bioprinting, which enables printing of cell-encapsulated hydrogels; and melt electrowriting (MEW), which enables fabrication of aligned (sub)-micrometer fibers into a single-step biofabrication process. Composite structures generated by infusion of MEW fiber structures with hydrogels have resulted in mechanically and biologically competent constructs; however, their preparation involves a two-step fabrication procedure that limits freedom of design of microfiber architectures and the use of multiple materials and cell types. How convergence of MEW and extrusion-based bioprinting allows fabrication of mechanically stable constructs with the spatial distributions of different cell types without compromising cell viability and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells is demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this converged printing approach improves freedom of design of the MEW fibers, enabling 3D fiber deposition. This is an important step toward biofabrication of voluminous and complex hierarchical structures that can better resemble the characteristics of functional biological tissues.
AUTHOR Cunniffe, Gráinne and Gonzalez-Fernandez, Tomas and Daly, Andrew and Nelson Sathy, Binulal and Jeon, Oju and Alsberg, Eben and J. Kelly, Daniel
Title Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Polycaprolactone Reinforced Gene Activated Bioinks for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part A
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Abstract
Regeneration of complex bone defects remains a significant clinical challenge. Multi-tool biofabrication has permitted the combination of various biomaterials to create multifaceted composites with tailorable mechanical properties and spatially controlled biological function. In this study we sought to use bioprinting to engineer nonviral gene activated constructs reinforced by polymeric micro-filaments. A gene activated bioink was developed using RGD-g-irradiated alginate and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) complexed to plasmid DNA (pDNA). This ink was combined with bonemarrow-derived mesenchymal stemcells (MSCs) and then co-printed with a polycaprolactone supporting mesh to provide mechanical stability to the construct. Reporter genes were first used to demonstrate successful cell transfection using this system, with sustained expression of the transgene detected over 14 days postbioprinting. Delivery of a combination of therapeutic genes encoding for bone morphogenic protein and transforming growth factor promoted robust osteogenesis of encapsulated MSCs in vitro, with enhanced levels of matrix deposition and mineralization observed following the incorporation of therapeutic pDNA. Gene activated MSC-laden constructs were then implanted subcutaneously, directly postfabrication, and were found to support superior levels of vascularization andmineralization compared to cell-free controls. These results validate the use of a gene activated bioink to impart biological functionality to three-dimensional bioprinted constructs.
AUTHOR Yao, Y. and Raymond, J. E. and Kauffmann, F. and Maekawa, S. and Sugai, J. V. and Lahann, J. and Giannobile, W. V.
Title Multicompartmental Scaffolds for Coordinated Periodontal Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Dental Research
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Abstract
Successful periodontal repair and regeneration requires the coordinated responses from soft and hard tissues as well as the soft tissue–to–bone interfaces. Inspired by the hierarchical structure of native periodontal tissues, tissue engineering technology provides unique opportunities to coordinate multiple cell types into scaffolds that mimic the natural periodontal structure in vitro. In this study, we designed and fabricated highly ordered multicompartmental scaffolds by melt electrowriting, an advanced 3-dimensional (3D) printing technique. This strategy attempted to mimic the characteristic periodontal microenvironment through multicompartmental constructs comprising 3 tissue-specific regions: 1) a bone compartment with dense mesh structure, 2) a ligament compartment mimicking the highly aligned periodontal ligaments (PDLs), and 3) a transition region that bridges the bone and ligament, a critical feature that differentiates this system from mono- or bicompartmental alternatives. The multicompartmental constructs successfully achieved coordinated proliferation and differentiation of multiple cell types in vitro within short time, including both ligamentous- and bone-derived cells. Long-term 3D coculture of primary human osteoblasts and PDL fibroblasts led to a mineral gradient from calcified to uncalcified regions with PDL-like insertions within the transition region, an effect that is challenging to achieve with mono- or bicompartmental platforms. This process effectively recapitulates the key feature of interfacial tissues in periodontium. Collectively, this tissue-engineered approach offers a fundament for engineering periodontal tissue constructs with characteristic 3D microenvironments similar to native tissues. This multicompartmental 3D printing approach is also highly compatible with the design of next-generation scaffolds, with both highly adjustable compartmentalization properties and patient-specific shapes, for multitissue engineering in complex periodontal defects.
AUTHOR Park, Hae Sang and Lee, Ji Seung and Kim, Chang-Beom and Lee, Kwang-Ho and Hong, In-Sun and Jung, Harry and Lee, Hanna and Lee, Young Jin and Ajiteru, Olatunji and Sultan, Md Tipu and Lee, Ok Joo and Kim, Soon Hee and Park, Chan Hum
Title Fluidic integrated 3D bioprinting system to sustain cell viability towards larynx fabrication [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
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Abstract Herein, we report the first study to create a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted artificial larynx for whole-laryngeal replacement. Our 3D bio-printed larynx was generated using extrusion-based 3D bioprinter with rabbit's chondrocyte-laden gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA)/glycidyl-methacrylated hyaluronic acid (GMHA) hybrid bioink. We used a polycaprolactone (PCL) outer framework incorporated with pores to achieve the structural strength of printed constructs, as well as to provide a suitable microenvironment to support printed cells. Notably, we established a novel fluidics supply (FS) system that simultaneously supplies basal medium together with a 3D bioprinting process, thereby improving cell survival during the printing process. Our results showed that the FS system enhanced post-printing cell viability, which enabled the generation of a large-scale cell-laden artificial laryngeal framework. Additionally, the incorporation of the PCL outer framework with pores and inner hydrogel provides structural stability and sufficient nutrient/oxygen transport. An animal study confirmed that the transplanted 3D bio-larynx successfully maintained the airway. With further development, our new strategy holds great potential for fabricating human-scale larynxes with in vivo-like biological functions for laryngectomy patients.
AUTHOR Freeman, Fiona E. and Pitacco, Pierluca and van Dommelen, Lieke H. A. and Nulty, Jessica and Browe, David C. and Shin, Jung-Youn and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D bioprinting spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors to tightly control tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Science Advances
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Abstract
Therapeutic growth factor delivery typically requires supraphysiological dosages, which can cause undesirable off-target effects. The aim of this study was to 3D bioprint implants containing spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors optimized for coupled angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Using nanoparticle functionalized bioinks, it was possible to print implants with distinct growth factor patterns and release profiles spanning from days to weeks. The extent of angiogenesis in vivo depended on the spatial presentation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Higher levels of vessel invasion were observed in implants containing a spatial gradient of VEGF compared to those homogenously loaded with the same total amount of protein. Printed implants containing a gradient of VEGF, coupled with spatially defined BMP-2 localization and release kinetics, accelerated large bone defect healing with little heterotopic bone formation. This demonstrates the potential of growth factor printing, a putative point of care therapy, for tightly controlled tissue regeneration.
AUTHOR Huang, Boyang and Wang, Yaxin and Vyas, Cian and Bartolo, Paulo
Title Crystal Growth of 3D Poly(ε-caprolactone) Based Bone Scaffolds and Its Effects on the Physical Properties and Cellular Interactions [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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Abstract
Abstract Extrusion additive manufacturing is widely used to fabricate polymer-based 3D bone scaffolds. However, the insight views of crystal growths, scaffold features and eventually cell-scaffold interactions are still unknown. In this work, melt and solvent extrusion additive manufacturing techniques are used to produce scaffolds considering highly analogous printing conditions. Results show that the scaffolds produced by these two techniques present distinct physiochemical properties, with melt-printed scaffolds showing stronger mechanical properties and solvent-printed scaffolds showing rougher surface, higher degradation rate, and faster stress relaxation. These differences are attributed to the two different crystal growth kinetics, temperature-induced crystallization (TIC) and strain-induced crystallization (SIC), forming large/integrated spherulite-like and a small/fragmented lamella-like crystal regions respectively. The stiffer substrate of melt-printed scaffolds contributes to higher ratio of nuclear Yes-associated protein (YAP) allocation, favoring cell proliferation and differentiation. Faster relaxation and degradation of solvent-printed scaffolds result in dynamic surface, contributing to an early-stage faster osteogenesis differentiation.
AUTHOR van Charante, Frits and Martínez-Pérez, David and Guarch-Pérez, Clara and Courtens, Charlotte and Sass, Andrea and Choińska, Emilia and Idaszek, Joanna and Van Calenbergh, Serge and Riool, Martijn and Zaat, Sebastian A. J. and Święszkowski, Wojciech and Coenye, Tom
Title 3D-printed wound dressings containing a fosmidomycin-derivative prevent Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm formation [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings iScience
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Abstract
Summary Acinetobacter baumannii causes a wide range of infections, including wound infections. Multidrug-resistant A. baumannii is a major healthcare concern and the development of novel treatments against these infections is needed. Fosmidomycin is a repurposed antimalarial drug targeting the non-mevalonate pathway, and several derivatives show activity towards A. baumannii. We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of CC366, a fosmidomycin prodrug, against a collection of A. baumannii strains, using various in vitro and in vivo models; emphasis was placed on the evaluation of its anti-biofilm activity. We also developed a 3D-printed wound dressing containing CC366, using melt electrowriting technology. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of CC366 ranged from 1 to 64 μg/mL, and CC366 showed good biofilm inhibitory and moderate biofilm eradicating activity in vitro. CC366 successfully eluted from a 3D-printed dressing, the dressings prevented the formation of A. baumannnii wound biofilms in vitro and reduced A. baumannii infection in an in vivo mouse model.
AUTHOR Wesdorp, Marinus A. and Schwab, Andrea and Bektas, Ezgi Irem and Narcisi, Roberto and Eglin, David and Stoddart, Martin J. and Van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M. and D'Este, Matteo
Title A culture model to analyze the acute biomaterial-dependent reaction of human primary neutrophils in vitro [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Bioactive Materials
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Abstract
Neutrophils play a pivotal role in orchestrating the immune system response to biomaterials, the onset and resolution of chronic inflammation, and macrophage polarization. However, the neutrophil response to biomaterials and the consequent impact on tissue engineering approaches is still scarcely understood. Here, we report an in vitro culture model that comprehensively describes the most important neutrophil functions in the light of tissue repair. We isolated human primary neutrophils from peripheral blood and exposed them to a panel of hard, soft, naturally- and synthetically-derived materials. The overall trend showed increased neutrophil survival on naturally derived constructs, together with higher oxidative burst, decreased myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase and decreased cytokine secretion compared to neutrophils on synthetic materials. The culture model is a step to better understand the immune modulation elicited by biomaterials. Further studies are needed to correlate the neutrophil response to tissue healing and to elucidate the mechanism triggering the cell response and their consequences in determining inflammation onset and resolution.
AUTHOR Rikkers, Margot and Nguyen, H. Chien and Golafshan, Nasim and de Ruijter, Mylène and Levato, Riccardo and Vonk, Lucienne A. and van Egmond, Nienke and Castilho, Miguel and Custers, Roel J. H. and Malda, Jos
Title A Gap-Filling, Regenerative Implant for Open-Wedge Osteotomy [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Cartilage & Joint Preservation
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Abstract
Purpose In patients suffering from unilateral osteoarthritis in the knee, an osteotomy can provide symptomatic relief and postpone the need for replacement of the joint. Nevertheless, open-wedge osteotomies (OWO) around the knee joint face several challenges like postoperative pain and bone non-union. In this study, the aim was to design, fabricate, and evaluate a gap-filling implant for OWO using an osteoinductive and degradable biomaterial. Methods Design of porous wedge-shaped implants was based on computed tomography (CT) scans of cadaveric legs. Implants were 3D printed using a magnesium strontium phosphate-polycaprolactone (MgPSr-PCL) biomaterial ink. Standardized scaffolds with different inter-fibre spacing (IFS) were mechanically characterized and osteoinductive properties of the biomaterial were assessed in vitro. Finally, human-sized implants with different heights (5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm) were designed and fabricated for ex vivo implantation during three OWO procedures in human cadaveric legs. Results Implants printed with an interior of IFS-1.0 resulted in scaffolds that maintained top and bottom porosity, while the interior of the implant exhibited significant mechanical stability. Bone marrow concentrate and culture expanded mesenchymal stromal cells attached to the MgPSr-PCL material and proliferated over 21 days in culture. The production of osteogenic markers alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium, and osteocalcin was promoted in all culture conditions, independent of osteogenic induction medium. Finally, three OWO procedures were planned and fabricated wedges were implanted ex vivo during the procedures. A small fraction of one side of the wedges was resected to assure fit into the proximal biplanar osteotomy gap. Pre-planned wedge heights were maintained after implantation as measured by micro-CT. Conclusion To conclude, personalized implants for implantation in open-wedge osteotomies were successfully designed and manufactured. The implant material supported osteogenesis of MSCs and BMC in vitro and full-size implants were successfully implemented into the surgical procedure, without compromising pre-planned wedge height.
AUTHOR Moon, Seongjun and Neale, Dylan B. and Kim, Do Hoon and Mukherji, Malini and Hughes, Elliot and Deng, Yuxuan and Kerneis, Fabienne and Luo, Xiuquan and Tharp, Darron and Bognar, Ernest and Stanbery, Laura and Nemunaitis, John and Chun, Tae-Hwa and Lahann, Joerg
Title A Scalable Engineered Extracellular Matrix Platform to Expand Tumor Cells [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Advanced NanoBiomed Research
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Abstract
The demand for high-throughput and scalable cell expansion platforms that can accommodate diverse cell types remains a critical requirement across various biomedical fields. Fibronectin (Fn), an essential component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), has been used as a conformal surface coating for two-dimensional (2D) cell culture systems. However, the soluble, globular Fn used for 2D coatings differs structurally from the native Fn, which possesses a three-dimensional (3D) fibrillar structure. Herein, a large-scale engineered ECM (EECM) cell expansion platform based on a 3D fibrillar Fn network spanning over centimeters is presented. Extended fibrillar networks are formed by shearing dilute Fn solutions over tessellated polymeric scaffolds, which are conveniently prepared by 3D printing. The structure and size of the Fn-based 3D EECM scaffold are optimized by evaluating the proliferation of a colorectal tumor cell line, CT26, commonly used in the in vivo tumor immunotherapy models. The 3D EECM scaffolds support a fourfold more efficient tumor cell expansion than a conventional 2D culture system, demonstrating the potential efficacy in supporting the robust expansion of cancer cells ex vivo with an eye on cancer immunotherapy.
AUTHOR Daskalakis, Evangelos and Hassan, Mohamed H. and Omar, Abdalla M. and Acar, Anil A. and Fallah, Ali and Cooper, Glen and Weightman, Andrew and Blunn, Gordon and Koc, Bahattin and Bartolo, Paulo
Title Accelerated Degradation of Poly-ε-caprolactone Composite Scaffolds for Large Bone Defects [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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Abstract
This research investigates the accelerated hydrolytic degradation process of both anatomically designed bone scaffolds with a pore size gradient and a rectangular shape (biomimetically designed scaffolds or bone bricks). The effect of material composition is investigated considering poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) as the main scaffold material, reinforced with ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA), β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and bioglass at a concentration of 20 wt%. In the case of rectangular scaffolds, the effect of pore size (200 μm, 300 μm and 500 μm) is also investigated. The degradation process (accelerated degradation) was investigated during a period of 5 days in a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) medium. Degraded bone bricks and rectangular scaffolds were measured each day to evaluate the weight loss of the samples, which were also morphologically, thermally, chemically and mechanically assessed. The results show that the PCL/bioglass bone brick scaffolds exhibited faster degradation kinetics in comparison with the PCL, PCL/HA and PCL/TCP bone bricks. Furthermore, the degradation kinetics of rectangular scaffolds increased by increasing the pore size from 500 μm to 200 μm. The results also indicate that, for the same material composition, bone bricks degrade slower compared with rectangular scaffolds. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the degradation process was faster on the external regions of the bone brick scaffolds (600 μm pore size) compared with the internal regions (200 μm pore size). The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) results show that the ceramic concentration remained constant throughout the degradation process, while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results show that all scaffolds exhibited a reduction in crystallinity (Xc), enthalpy (Δm) and melting temperature (Tm) throughout the degradation process, while the glass transition temperature (Tg) slightly increased. Finally, the compression results show that the mechanical properties decreased during the degradation process, with PCL/bioglass bone bricks and rectangular scaffolds presenting higher mechanical properties with the same design in comparison with the other materials.
AUTHOR Barceló, Xavier and Garcia, Orquidea and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Chondroitinase ABC Treatment Improves the Organization and Mechanics of 3D Bioprinted Meniscal Tissue [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng.
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Abstract
The meniscus is a fibrocartilage tissue that is integral to the correct functioning of the knee joint. The tissue possesses a unique collagen fiber architecture that is integral to its biomechanical functionality. In particular, a network of circumferentially aligned collagen fibers function to bear the high tensile forces generated in the tissue during normal daily activities. The limited regenerative capacity of the meniscus has motivated increased interest in meniscus tissue engineering; however, the in vitro generation of structurally organized meniscal grafts with a collagen architecture mimetic of the native meniscus remains a significant challenge. Here we used melt electrowriting (MEW) to produce scaffolds with defined pore architectures to impose physical boundaries upon cell growth and extracellular matrix production. This enabled the bioprinting of anisotropic tissues with collagen fibers preferentially oriented parallel to the long axis of the scaffold pores. Furthermore, temporally removing glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) during the early stages of in vitro tissue development using chondroitinase ABC (cABC) was found to positively impact collagen network maturation. Specially we found that temporal depletion of sGAGs is associated with an increase in collagen fiber diameter without any detrimental effect on the development of a meniscal tissue phenotype or subsequent extracellular matrix production. Moreover, temporal cABC treatment supported the development of engineered tissues with superior tensile mechanical properties compared to empty MEW scaffolds. These findings demonstrate the benefit of temporal enzymatic treatments when engineering structurally anisotropic tissues using emerging biofabrication technologies such as MEW and inkjet bioprinting.
AUTHOR Golafshan, Nasim and Castilho, Miguel and Daghrery, Arwa and Alehosseini, Morteza and van de Kemp, Tom and Krikonis, Konstantinos and de Ruijter, Mylene and Dal-Fabbro, Renan and Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Bottino, Marco C. and Malda, Jos
Title Composite Graded Melt Electrowritten Scaffolds for Regeneration of the Periodontal Ligament-to-Bone Interface
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
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AUTHOR Fuchs, Andreas and Bartolf-Kopp, Michael and Böhm, Hartmut and Straub, Anton and Kübler, Alexander C. and Linz, Christian and Gbureck, Uwe
Title Composite grafts made of polycaprolactone fiber mats and oil-based calcium phosphate cement pastes for the reconstruction of cranial and maxillofacial defects [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Clinical Oral Investigations
Reftype Fuchs2023
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Synthetic bone substitutes which can be adapted preoperatively and patient specific may be helpful in various bony defects in the field of oral- and maxillofacial surgery. For this purpose, composite grafts made of self-setting and oil-based calcium phosphate cement (CPC) pastes, which were reinforced with 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber mats were manufactured.
AUTHOR Nalesso, Paulo Roberto Lopes and Vedovatto, Matheus and Gregório, Julia Eduarda Schneider and Huang, Boyang and Vyas, Cian and Santamaria-Jr, Milton and Bártolo, Paulo and Caetano, Guilherme Ferreira
Title Early In Vivo Osteogenic and Inflammatory Response of 3D Printed Polycaprolactone/Carbon Nanotube/Hydroxyapatite/Tricalcium Phosphate Composite Scaffolds [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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Abstract
The development of advanced biomaterials and manufacturing processes to fabricate biologically and mechanically appropriate scaffolds for bone tissue is a significant challenge. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a biocompatible and degradable polymer used in bone tissue engineering, but it lacks biofunctionalization. Bioceramics, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and β tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), which are similar chemically to native bone, can facilitate both osteointegration and osteoinduction whilst improving the biomechanics of a scaffold. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) display exceptional electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. A major limitation is the understanding of how PCL-based scaffolds containing HA, TCP, and CNTs behave in vivo in a bone regeneration model. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of three-dimensional (3D) printed PCL-based composite scaffolds containing CNTs, HA, and β-TCP during the initial osteogenic and inflammatory response phase in a critical bone defect rat model. Gene expression related to early osteogenesis, the inflammatory phase, and tissue formation was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Tissue formation and mineralization were assessed by histomorphometry. The CNT+HA/TCP group presented higher expression of osteogenic genes after seven days. The CNT+HA and CNT+TCP groups stimulated higher gene expression for tissue formation and mineralization, and pro- and anti-inflammatory genes after 14 and 30 days. Moreover, the CNT+TCP and CNT+HA/TCP groups showed higher gene expressions related to M1 macrophages. The association of CNTs with ceramics at 10wt% (CNT+HA/TCP) showed lower expressions of inflammatory genes and higher osteogenic, presenting a positive impact and balanced cell signaling for early bone formation. The association of CNTs with both ceramics promoted a minor inflammatory response and faster bone tissue formation.
AUTHOR Helaehil, Júlia Venturini and Helaehil, Luiza Venturini and Alves, Laryssa Fernanda and Huang, Boyang and Santamaria-Jr, Milton and Bartolo, Paulo and Caetano, Guilherme Ferreira
Title Electrical Stimulation Therapy and HA/TCP Composite Scaffolds Modulate the Wnt Pathways in Bone Regeneration of Critical-Sized Defects [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Bioengineering
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Abstract
Critical bone defects are the most difficult challenges in the area of tissue repair. Polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds, associated with hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), are reported to have an enhanced bioactivity. Moreover, the use of electrical stimulation (ES) has overcome the lack of bioelectricity at the bone defect site and compensated the endogenous electrical signals. Such treatments could modulate cells and tissue signaling pathways. However, there is no study investigating the effects of ES and bioceramic composite scaffolds on bone tissue formation, particularly in the view of cell signaling pathway. This study aims to investigate the application of HA/TCP composite scaffolds and ES and their effects on the Wingless-related integration site (Wnt) pathway in critical bone repair. Critical bone defects (25 mm2) were performed in rats, which were divided into four groups: PCL, PCL + ES, HA/TCP and HA/TCP + ES. The scaffolds were grafted at the defect site and applied with the ES application twice a week using 10 µA of current for 5 min. Bone samples were collected for histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis. At the Wnt canonical pathway, HA/TCP and HA/TCP + ES groups showed higher Wnt1 and β-catenin gene expression levels, especially HA/TCP. Moreover, HA/TCP + ES presented higher Runx2, Osterix and Bmp-2 levels. At the Wnt non-canonical pathway, HA/TCP group showed higher voltage-gated calcium channel (Vgcc), calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Wnt5a genes expression, while HA/TCP + ES presented higher protein expression of VGCC and calmodulin (CaM) at the same period. The decrease in sclerostin and osteopontin genes expressions and the lower bone sialoprotein II in the HA/TCP + ES group may be related to the early bone remodeling. This study shows that the use of ES modulated the Wnt pathways and accelerated the osteogenesis with improved tissue maturation.
AUTHOR Mungenast, Lena and Nieminen, Ronya and Gaiser, Carine and Faia-Torres, Ana Bela and Rühe, Jürgen and Suter-Dick, Laura
Title Electrospun decellularized extracellular matrix scaffolds promote the regeneration of injured neurons [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials and Biosystems
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Abstract
Traumatic injury to the spinal cord (SCI) causes the transection of neurons, formation of a lesion cavity, and remodeling of the microenvironment by excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and scar formation leading to a regeneration-prohibiting environment. Electrospun fiber scaffolds have been shown to simulate the ECM and increase neural alignment and neurite outgrowth contributing to a growth-permissive matrix. In this work, electrospun ECM-like fibers providing biochemical and topological cues are implemented into a scaffold to represent an oriented biomaterial suitable for the alignment and migration of neural cells in order to improve spinal cord regeneration. The successfully decellularized spinal cord ECM (dECM), with no visible cell nuclei and dsDNA content < 50 ng/mg tissue, showed preserved ECM components, such as glycosaminoglycans and collagens. Serving as the biomaterial for 3D printer-assisted electrospinning, highly aligned and randomly distributed dECM fiber scaffolds (< 1 µm fiber diameter) were fabricated. The scaffolds were cytocompatible and supported the viability of a human neural cell line (SH-SY5Y) for 14 days. Cells were selectively differentiated into neurons, as confirmed by immunolabeling of specific cell markers (ChAT, Tubulin ß), and followed the orientation given by the dECM scaffolds. After generating a lesion site on the cell-scaffold model, cell migration was observed and compared to reference poly-ε-caprolactone fiber scaffolds. The aligned dECM fiber scaffold promoted the fastest and most efficient lesion closure, indicating superior cell guiding capabilities of dECM-based scaffolds. The strategy of combining decellularized tissues with controlled deposition of fibers to optimize biochemical and topographical cues opens the way for clinically relevant central nervous system scaffolding solutions.
AUTHOR Kaneda, Giselle and Chan, Julie L. and Castaneda, Chloe M. and Papalamprou, Angela and Sheyn, Julia and Shelest, Oksana and Huang, Dave and Kluser, Nadine and Yu, Victoria and Ignacio, Gian C. and Gertych, Arkadiusz and Yoshida, Ryu and Metzger, Melodie and Tawackoli, Wafa and Vernengo, Andrea and Sheyn, Dmitriy
Title iPSC-derived tenocytes seeded on microgrooved 3D printed scaffolds for Achilles Tendon Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Orthopaedic Research
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Abstract
AbstractTendons and ligaments have a poor innate healing capacity, yet account for 50% of musculoskeletal injuries in the US. Full structure and function restoration post-injury remains an unmet clinical need. This study aimed to assess the application of novel 3D printed scaffolds and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs) overexpressing the transcription factor Scleraxis (SCX, iMSCSCX+) as a new strategy for tendon defect repair. The polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by extrusion through a patterned nozzle or conventional round nozzle. Scaffolds were seeded with iMSCSCX+ and outcomes were assessed in vitro via gene expression analysis and immunofluorescence. In vivo, rat Achilles tendon defects were repaired with iMSCSCX+-seeded microgrooved scaffolds, microgrooved scaffolds only, or suture only and assessed via gait, gene expression, biomechanical testing, histology, and immunofluorescence.iMSCSCX+-seeded on microgrooved scaffolds showed upregulation of tendon markers and increased organization and linearity of cells compared to non-patterned scaffolds in vitro. In vivo gait analysis showed improvement in the Scaffold+iMSCSCX+-treated group compared to the controls. Tensile testing of the tendons demonstrated improved biomechanical properties of the Scaffold+iMSCSCX+ group compared to the controls. Histology and immunofluorescence demonstrated more regular tissue formation in the Scaffold+iMSCSCX+ group.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
AUTHOR Moo, Eng Kuan and Ebrahimi, Mohammadhossein and Hrynevich, Andrei and de Ruijter, Mylène and Castilho, Miguel and Malda, Jos and Korhonen, Rami K.
Title Load-induced fluid pressurisation in hydrogel systems before and after reinforcement by melt-electrowritten fibrous meshes [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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Abstract
Fluid pressure develops transiently within mechanically-loaded, cell-embedding hydrogels, but its magnitude depends on the intrinsic material properties of the hydrogel and cannot be easily altered. The recently developed melt-electrowriting (MEW) technique enables three-dimensional printing of structured fibrous mesh with small fibre diameter (20 μm). The MEW mesh with 20 μm fibre diameter can synergistically increase the instantaneous mechanical stiffness of soft hydrogels. However, the reinforcing mechanism of the MEW meshes is not well understood, and may involve load-induced fluid pressurisation. Here, we examined the reinforcing effect of MEW meshes in three hydrogels: gelatin methcryloyl (GelMA), agarose and alginate, and the role of load-induced fluid pressurisation in the MEW reinforcement. We tested the hydrogels with and without MEW mesh (i.e., hydrogel alone, and MEW-hydrogel composite) using micro-indentation and unconfined compression, and analysed the mechanical data using biphasic Hertz and mixture models. We found that the MEW mesh altered the tension-to-compression modulus ratio differently for hydrogels that are cross-linked differently, which led to a variable change to their load-induced fluid pressurisation. MEW meshes only enhanced the fluid pressurisation for GelMA, but not for agarose or alginate. We speculate that only covalently cross-linked hydrogels (GelMA) can effectively tense the MEW meshes, thereby enhancing the fluid pressure developed during compressive loading. In conclusion, load-induced fluid pressurisation in selected hydrogels was enhanced by MEW fibrous mesh, and may be controlled by MEW mesh of different designs in the future, thereby making fluid pressure a tunable cell growth stimulus for tissue engineering involving mechanical stimulation.
AUTHOR Pitacco, Pierluca and Sadowska, Joanna M. and O'Brien, Fergal J. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D bioprinting of cartilaginous templates for large bone defect healing [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Abstract
Damaged or diseased bone can be treated using autografts or a range of different bone grafting biomaterials, however limitations with such approaches has motivated increased interest in developmentally inspired bone tissue engineering (BTE) strategies that seek to recapitulate the process of endochondral ossification (EO) as a means of regenerating critically sized defects. The clinical translation of such strategies will require the engineering of scaled-up, geometrically defined hypertrophic cartilage grafts that can be rapidly vascularised and remodelled into bone in mechanically challenging defect environments. The goal of this study was to 3D bioprint mechanically reinforced cartilaginous templates and to assess their capacity to regenerate critically sized femoral bone defects. Human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) were incorporated into fibrin based bioinks and bioprinted into polycaprolactone (PCL) frameworks to produce mechanically reinforced constructs. Chondrogenic priming of such hMSC laden constructs was required to support robust vascularisation and graft mineralisation in vivo following their subcutaneous implantation into nude mice. With a view towards maximising their potential to support endochondral bone regeneration, we next explored different in vitro culture regimes to produce chondrogenic and early hypertrophic engineered grafts. Following their implantation into femoral bone defects within transiently immunosuppressed rats, such bioprinted constructs were rapidly remodelled into bone in vivo, with early hypertrophic constructs supporting higher levels of vascularisation and bone formation compared to the chondrogenic constructs. Such early hypertrophic bioprinted constructs also supported higher levels of vascularisation and spatially distinct patterns of new formation compared to BMP-2 loaded collagen scaffolds (here used as a positive control). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that fibrin based bioinks support chondrogenesis of hMSCs in vitro, which enables the bioprinting of mechanically reinforced hypertrophic cartilaginous templates capable of supporting large bone defect regeneration. These results support the use of 3D bioprinting as a strategy to scale-up the engineering of developmentally inspired templates for BTE. Statement of significance Despite the promise of developmentally inspired tissue engineering strategies for bone regeneration, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to enable clinical translation. This work reports the development and assessment (in vitro and in vivo) of a 3D bioprinting strategy to engineer mechanically-reinforced cartilaginous templates for large bone defect regeneration using human MSCs. Using distinct in vitro priming protocols, it was possible to generate cartilage grafts with altered phenotypes. More hypertrophic grafts, engineered in vitro using TGF-β3 and BMP-2, supported higher levels of blood vessel infiltration and accelerated bone regeneration in vivo. This study also identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages of such endochondral bone TE strategies over the direct delivery of BMP-2 from collagen-based scaffolds.
AUTHOR Hashimi, Noura Sayed Al and Soman, Soja Saghar and Govindharaj, Mano and Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj
Title 3D printing of complex architected metamaterial structures by simple material extrusion for bone tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Materials Today Communications
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Abstract
Triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) are gaining popularity as scaffolds for bioapplications due to their unique structure, offering strong mechanical properties and biomorphic surfaces which enhance cell attachment and proliferation. In this work, polymer TPMS sheet lattices were printed using a well-known yet unprecedented technique of manufacturing such structures; which is material extrusion (specifically, pneumatic melt extrusion). This method offers a one step, straightforward yet reliable way to print complex porous structures while retaining design accuracy and significantly simplifying the process. Multiple primitive, gyroid and cubic structures were designed using MSLattice and Solidworks with 70% porosity and 2×2×3 unit cells. The scaffolds were printed by melt extrusion of polycaprolactone (PCL) at different parameters to establish the optimal settings. Morphological features (pore size and strut thickness) were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the accuracy of print was determined by comparing to the design, showing high print accuracy and minimal percentage errors of less than 15% in all prints. Uniaxial compression testing was used to demonstrate the different deformation processes of the scaffolds and evaluate their mechanical properties, with primitive having the highest modulus and gyroid the highest yield strength. Finally, cell viability was quantified by alamar blue cell viability assay and visualized by SEM, displaying significant increase in cell proliferation and attachment, specifically in the primitive structure. Herein we will explain the challenges faced with design and print optimization and how we overcame them, making this work the first of its kind in material extrusion (pneumatic melt extrusion) printing of TPMS scaffolds.
AUTHOR Daskalakis, Evangelos and Huang, Boyang and Vyas, Cian and Acar, Anil A. and Liu, Fengyuan and Fallah, Ali and Cooper, Glen and Weightman, Andrew and Blunn, Gordon and Koç, Bahattin and Bartolo, Paulo
Title Bone Bricks: The Effect of Architecture and Material Composition on the Mechanical and Biological Performance of Bone Scaffolds [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings ACS Omega
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Abstract
Large bone loss injuries require high-performance scaffolds with an architecture and material composition resembling native bone. However, most bone scaffold studies focus on three-dimensional (3D) structures with simple rectangular or circular geometries and uniform pores, not able to recapitulate the geometric characteristics of the native tissue. This paper addresses this limitation by proposing novel anatomically designed scaffolds (bone bricks) with nonuniform pore dimensions (pore size gradients) designed based on new lay-dawn pattern strategies. The gradient design allows one to tailor the properties of the bricks and together with the incorporation of ceramic materials allows one to obtain structures with high mechanical properties (higher than reported in the literature for the same material composition) and improved biological characteristics.
AUTHOR Cao, Chuanliang and Huang, Pengren and Prasopthum, Aruna and Parsons, Andrew J. and Ai, Fanrong and Yang, Jing
Title Characterisation of bone regeneration in 3D printed ductile PCL/PEG/hydroxyapatite scaffolds with high ceramic microparticle concentrations [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biomater. Sci.
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Abstract
3D printed bioactive glass or bioceramic particle reinforced composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering currently suffer from low particle concentration (100% breaking strain) by adding poly(ethylene glycol) which is biocompatible and FDA approved. The scaffolds require no post-printing washing to remove hazardous components. More exposure of HA microparticles on strut surfaces is enabled by incorporating higher HA concentrations. Compared to scaffolds with 72 wt% HA{,} scaffolds with higher HA content (90 wt%) enhance matrix formation but not new bone volume after 12 weeks implantation in rat calvarial defects. Histological analyses demonstrate that bone regeneration within the 3D printed scaffolds is via intramembranous ossification and starts in the central region of pores. Fibrous tissue that resembles non-union tissue within bone fractures is formed within pores that do not have new bone. The amount of blood vessels is similar between scaffolds with mainly fibrous tissue and those with more bone tissue{,} suggesting vascularization is not a deciding factor for determining the type of tissues regenerated within the pores of 3D printed scaffolds. Multinucleated immune cells are commonly present in all scaffolds surrounding the struts{,} suggesting a role of managing inflammation in bone regeneration within 3D printed scaffolds.
AUTHOR Sarti, Mattia and Parlani, Maria and Diaz-Gomez, Luis and Mikos, Antonios G. and Cerveri, Pietro and Casarin, Stefano and Dondossola, Eleonora
Title Deep Learning for Automated Analysis of Cellular and Extracellular Components of the Foreign Body Response in Multiphoton Microscopy Images [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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Abstract
The Foreign body response (FBR) is a major unresolved challenge that compromises medical implant integration and function by inflammation and fibrotic encapsulation. Mice implanted with polymeric scaffolds coupled to intravital non-linear multiphoton microscopy acquisition enable multiparametric, longitudinal investigation of the FBR evolution and interference strategies. However, follow-up analyses based on visual localization and manual segmentation are extremely time-consuming, subject to human error, and do not allow for automated parameter extraction. We developed an integrated computational pipeline based on an innovative and versatile variant of the U-Net neural network to segment and quantify cellular and extracellular structures of interest, which is maintained across different objectives without impairing accuracy. This software for automatically detecting the elements of the FBR shows promise to unravel the complexity of this pathophysiological process.
AUTHOR Parlani, Maria and Bedell, Matthew L. and Mikos, Antonios G. and Friedl, Peter and Dondossola, Eleonora
Title Dissecting the recruitment and self-organization of αSMA-positive fibroblasts in the foreign body response [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Science Advances
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Abstract
The foreign body response (FBR) is a clinically relevant issue that can cause malfunction of implanted medical devices by fibrotic encapsulation. Whereas inflammatory aspects of the FBR have been established, underlying fibroblast-dependent mechanisms remain unclear. We here combine multiphoton microscopy with ad hoc reporter mice expressing α–smooth muscle actin (αSMA) protein to determine the locoregional fibroblast dynamics, activation, and fibrotic encapsulation of polymeric materials. Fibroblasts invaded as individual cells and established a multicellular network, which transited to a two-compartment fibrotic response displaying an αSMA cold external capsule and a long-lasting, inner αSMA hot environment. The recruitment of fibroblasts and extent of fibrosis were only incompletely inhibited after depletion of macrophages, implicating coexistence of macrophage-dependent and macrophage-independent mediators. Furthermore, neither altering material type or porosity modulated αSMA+ cell recruitment and distribution. This identifies fibroblast activation and network formation toward a two-compartment FBR as a conserved, self-organizing process partially independent of macrophages. Fibroblast recruitment in the foreign body response is a conserved, self-organizing process partially independent of macrophages.
AUTHOR Helaehil, Júlia Venturini and Lourenço, Carina Basqueira and Huang, Boyang and Helaehil, Luiza Venturini and de Camargo, Isaque Xavier and Chiarotto, Gabriela Bortolança and Santamaria-Jr, Milton and Bártolo, Paulo and Caetano, Guilherme Ferreira
Title In Vivo Investigation of Polymer-Ceramic PCL/HA and PCL/β-TCP 3D Composite Scaffolds and Electrical Stimulation for Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Critical bone defects are a major clinical challenge in reconstructive bone surgery. Polycaprolactone (PCL) mixed with bioceramics, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), create composite scaffolds with improved biological recognition and bioactivity. Electrical stimulation (ES) aims to compensate the compromised endogenous electrical signals and to stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation. We investigated the effects of composite scaffolds (PCL with HA; and PCL with β-TCP) and the use of ES on critical bone defects in Wistar rats using eight experimental groups: untreated, ES, PCL, PCL/ES, HA, HA/ES, TCP, and TCP/ES. The investigation was based on histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression analysis. The vascular area was greater in the HA/ES group on days 30 and 60. Tissue mineralization was greater in the HA, HA/ES, and TCP groups at day 30, and TCP/ES at day 60. Bmp-2 gene expression was higher in the HA, TCP, and TCP/ES groups at day 30, and in the TCP/ES and PCL/ES groups at day 60. Runx-2, Osterix, and Osteopontin gene expression were also higher in the TCP/ES group at day 60. These results suggest that scaffolds printed with PCL and TCP, when paired with electrical therapy application, improve bone regeneration.
AUTHOR Hou, Yanhao and Wang, Weiguang and Bartolo, Paulo
Title Investigation of polycaprolactone for bone tissue engineering scaffolds: in vitro degradation and biological studies [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Materials & Design
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Abstract
Polycaprolactone (PCL) is one of the most recognized polymeric materials used for bone tissue engineering scaffold fabrication. This study aims to evaluate the effects of the molecular weight (Mn) of PCL on the degradation kinematics, surface, microstructural, thermal, mechanical, and biological properties of 3D printed bone scaffolds. Surface properties were investigated considering water-in-air contact angle and nanoindentation tests, while morphological characteristics and degradation kinematics (accelerated degradation tests) were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pairing with thermal and mechanical properties monitored at each considered time point. A set of mathematical equations describing the variation of fiber diameter, porosity, mechanical properties, and weight, as a function of molecular weight and degradation time, were obtained based on the experimental results. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) proliferation and differentiation tests were also conducted using in vitro colorimetric assay. All results indicated that molecular weight had impacts on the surface, mechanical and biological properties of PCL scaffolds, while no significant effects were observed on the degradation rate. Scaffolds with lower molecular weight presented better bio-mechanical properties. These findings provide useful information for the design of polymeric bone tissue engineering scaffolds.
AUTHOR Włodarczyk-Biegun, Małgorzata K. and Villiou, Maria and Koch, Marcus and Muth, Christina and Wang, Peixi and Ott, Jenna and del Campo, Aranzazu
Title Melt Electrowriting of Graded Porous Scaffolds to Mimic the Matrix Structure of the Human Trabecular Meshwork [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
The permeability of the human trabecular meshwork (HTM) regulates eye pressure via a porosity gradient across its thickness modulated by stacked layers of matrix fibrils and cells. Changes in HTM porosity are associated with increases in intraocular pressure and the progress of diseases such as glaucoma. Engineered HTMs could help to understand the structure–function relation in natural tissues and lead to new regenerative solutions. Here, melt electrowriting (MEW) is explored as a biofabrication technique to produce fibrillar, porous scaffolds that mimic the multilayer, gradient structure of native HTM. Poly(caprolactone) constructs with a height of 125–500 μm and fiber diameters of 10–12 μm are printed. Scaffolds with a tensile modulus between 5.6 and 13 MPa and a static compression modulus in the range of 6–360 kPa are obtained by varying the scaffold design, that is, the density and orientation of the fibers and number of stacked layers. Primary HTM cells attach to the scaffolds, proliferate, and form a confluent layer within 8–14 days, depending on the scaffold design. High cell viability and cell morphology close to that in the native tissue are observed. The present work demonstrates the utility of MEW for reconstructing complex morphological features of natural tissues.
AUTHOR Abbasi, Akram and Imaichi, Sachiko and Ling, Vincent and Shukla, Anita
Title Mesenchymal Stem Cell Behavior on Soft Hydrogels with Aligned Surface Topographies [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings ACS Appl. Bio Mater.
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Abstract
Human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) are important for cell-based therapies. However, the success of HMSC therapy requires large-scale in vitro expansion of these multipotent cells. The traditional expansion of HMSCs on tissue-culture-treated stiff polystyrene induces significant changes in their shape, multipotency, and secretome, leading to early senescence and subdued paracrine activity. To enhance their therapeutic potential, here, we have developed two-dimensional soft hydrogels with imprinted microscale aligned grooves for use as HMSC culture substrates. We showed that, depending on the dimensions of the topographical features, these substrates led to lower cellular spreading and cytoskeletal tension, maintaining multipotency and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiate potential, while lowering cellular senescence. We also observed a greater capacity of HMSCs to produce anti-inflammatory cytokines after short-term priming on these hydrogel substrates. Overall, these soft hydrogels with unique surface topography have shown great promise as in vitro culture substrates to maximize the therapeutic potential of HMSCs.
AUTHOR Daskalakis, Evangelos and Huang, Boyang and Vyas, Cian and Acar, Anil Ahmet and Fallah, Ali and Cooper, Glen and Weightman, Andrew and Koc, Bahattin and Blunn, Gordon and Bartolo, Paulo
Title Novel 3D Bioglass Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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Abstract
The design of scaffolds with optimal biomechanical properties for load-bearing applications is an important topic of research. Most studies have addressed this problem by focusing on the material composition and not on the coupled effect between the material composition and the scaffold architecture. Polymer–bioglass scaffolds have been investigated due to the excellent bioactivity properties of bioglass, which release ions that activate osteogenesis. However, material preparation methods usually require the use of organic solvents that induce surface modifications on the bioglass particles, compromising the adhesion with the polymeric material thus compromising mechanical properties. In this paper, we used a simple melt blending approach to produce polycaprolactone/bioglass pellets to construct scaffolds with pore size gradient. The results show that the addition of bioglass particles improved the mechanical properties of the scaffolds and, due to the selected architecture, all scaffolds presented mechanical properties in the cortical bone region. Moreover, the addition of bioglass indicated a positive long-term effect on the biological performance of the scaffolds. The pore size gradient also induced a cell spreading gradient.
AUTHOR Eichholz, Kian and Freeman, Fiona and Pitacco, Pierluca and Nulty, Jessica and Ahern, Daniel and Burdis, Ross and Browe, David and Garcia, Orquidea and Hoey, David and Kelly, Daniel John
Title Scaffold microarchitecture regulates angiogenesis and the regeneration of large bone defects [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Abstract
Emerging 3D printing technologies can provide exquisite control over the external shape and internal architecture of scaffolds and tissue engineered constructs, enabling systematic studies to explore how geometric design features influence the regenerative process. Here we used fused deposition modelling (FDM) and melt electrowriting (MEW) to investigate how scaffold microarchitecture influences the healing of large bone defects. FDM was used to fabricate scaffolds with relatively large fibre diameters and low porosities, while MEW was used to fabricate scaffolds with smaller fibre diameters and higher porosities, with both scaffolds being designed to have comparable surface areas. Scaffold microarchitecture significantly influenced the healing response following implantation into critically sized femoral defects in rats, with the FDM scaffolds supporting the formation of larger bone spicules through its pores, while the MEW scaffolds supported the formation of a more round bone front during healing. After 12 weeks in vivo, both MEW and FDM scaffolds supported significantly higher levels of defect vascularisation compared to empty controls, while the MEW scaffolds supported higher levels of new bone formation. Somewhat surprisingly, this superior healing in the MEW group did not correlate with higher levels of angiogenesis, with the FDM scaffold supporting greater total vessel formation and the formation of larger vessels, while the MEW scaffold promoted the formation of a dense microvasculature with minimal evidence of larger vessels infiltrating the defect region. To conclude, the small fibre diameter, high porosity and high specific surface area of the MEW scaffold proved beneficial for osteogenesis and bone regeneration, demonstrating that changes in scaffold architecture enabled by this additive manufacturing technique can dramatically modulate angiogenesis and tissue regeneration without the need for complex exogenous growth factors. These results provide a valuable insight into the importance of 3D printed scaffold architecture when developing new bone tissue engineering strategies.
AUTHOR Burdis, Ross and Chariyev-Prinz, Farhad and Browe, David C. and Freeman, Fiona E. and Nulty, Jessica and McDonnell, Emily E. and Eichholz, Kian F. and Wang, Bin and Brama, Pieter and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Spatial patterning of phenotypically distinct microtissues to engineer osteochondral grafts for biological joint resurfacing [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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Abstract
Modular biofabrication strategies using microtissues or organoids as biological building blocks have great potential for engineering replacement tissues and organs at scale. Here we describe the development of a biofabrication strategy to engineer osteochondral tissues by spatially localising phenotypically distinct cartilage microtissues within an instructive 3D printed polymer framework. We first demonstrate that immature cartilage microtissues can spontaneously fuse to form homogeneous macrotissues, and that combining less cellular microtissues results in superior fusion and the generation of a more hyaline-like cartilage containing higher levels of sulphated glycosaminoglycans and type II collagen. Furthermore, temporally exposing developing microtissues to transforming growth factor-β accelerates their volumetric growth and subsequent capacity to fuse into larger hyaline cartilage grafts. Next, 3D printed polymeric frameworks are used to further guide microtissue fusion and the subsequent self-organisation process, resulting in the development of a macroscale tissue with zonal collagen organisation analogous to the structure seen in native articular cartilage. To engineer osteochondral grafts, hypertrophic cartilage microtissues are engineered as bone precursor tissues and spatially localised below phenotypically stable cartilage microtissues. Implantation of these engineered grafts into critically-sized caprine osteochondral defects results in effective defect stabilisation and histologically supports the restoration of a more normal articular surface after 6 months in vivo. These findings support the use of such modular biofabrication strategies for biological joint resurfacing.
AUTHOR Hatt, Luan P. and Armiento, Angela R. and Mys, Karen and Thompson, Keith and Hildebrand, Maria and Nehrbass, Dirk and Müller, Werner E. G. and Zeiter, Stephan and Eglin, David and Stoddart, Martin J.
Title Standard in vitro evaluations of engineered bone substitutes are not sufficient to predict in vivo preclinical model outcomes [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Abstract
Understanding the optimal conditions required for bone healing can have a substantial impact to target the problem of non–unions and large bone defects. The combination of bioactive factors, regenerative progenitor cells and biomaterials to form a tissue engineered (TE) complex is a promising solution but translation to the clinic has been slow. We hypothesized the typical material testing algorithm used is insufficient and leads to materials being mischaracterized as promising. In the first part of this study, human bone marrow – derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) were embedded in three commonly used biomaterials (hyaluronic acid methacrylate, gelatin methacrylate and fibrin) and combined with relevant bioactive osteogenesis factors (dexamethasone microparticles and polyphosphate nanoparticles) to form a TE construct that underwent in vitro osteogenic differentiation for 28 days. Gene expression of relevant transcription factors and osteogenic markers, and von Kossa staining were performed. In the second and third part of this study, the same combination of TE constructs were implanted subcutaneously (cell containing) in T cell-deficient athymic Crl:NIH-Foxn1rnu rats for 8 weeks or cell free in an immunocompetent New Zealand white rabbit calvarial model for 6 weeks, respectively. Osteogenic performance was investigated via MicroCT imaging and histology staining. The in vitro study showed enhanced upregulation of relevant genes and significant mineral deposition within the three biomaterials, generally considered as a positive result. Subcutaneous implantation indicates none to minor ectopic bone formation. No enhanced calvarial bone healing was detected in implanted biomaterials compared to the empty defect. The reasons for the poor correlation of in vitro and in vivo outcomes are unclear and needs further investigation. This study highlights the discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo outcomes, demonstrating that in vitro data should be interpreted with extreme caution. In vitro models with higher complexity are necessary to increase value for translational studies. Statement of significance Preclinical testing of newly developed biomaterials is a crucial element of the development cycle. Despite this, there is still significant discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo test results. Within this study we investigate multiple combinations of materials and osteogenic stimulants and demonstrate a poor correlation between the in vitro and in vivo data. We propose rationale for why this may be the case and suggest a modified testing algorithm.
AUTHOR Zhang, Xiao and Liu, Yang and Zuo, Qiang and Wang, Qingyun and Li, Zuxi and Yan, Kai and Yuan, Tao and Zhang, Yi and Shen, Kai and Xie, Rui and Fan, Weimin
Title 3D Bioprinting of Biomimetic Bilayered Scaffold Consisting of Decellularized Extracellular Matrix and Silk Fibroin for Osteochondral Repair [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Bioprinting; Vol 7, No 4 (2021)
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Abstract
Recently, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology is becoming an appealing approach for osteochondral repair. However, it is challenging to develop a bilayered scaffold with anisotropic structural properties to mimic a native osteochondral tissue. Herein, we developed a bioink consisting of decellularized extracellular matrix and silk fibroin to print the bilayered scaffold. The bilayered scaffold mimics the natural osteochondral tissue by controlling the composition, mechanical properties, and growth factor release in each layer of the scaffold. The in vitro results show that each layer of scaffolds had a suitable mechanical strength and degradation rate. Furthermore, the scaffolds encapsulating transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) can act as a controlled release system and promote directed differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Furthermore, the in vivo experiments suggested that the scaffolds loaded with growth factors promoted osteochondral regeneration in the rabbit knee joint model. Consequently, the biomimetic bilayered scaffold loaded with TGF-β and BMP-2 would be a promising strategy for osteochondral repair.
AUTHOR Nulty, Jessica and Freeman, Fiona E. and Browe, David C. and Burdis, Ross and Ahern, Daniel P. and Pitacco, Pierluca and Lee, Yu Bin and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D Bioprinting of prevascularised implants for the repair of critically-sized bone defects [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Abstract
For 3D bioprinted tissues to be scaled-up to clinically relevant sizes, effective prevascularisation strategies are required to provide the necessary nutrients for normal metabolism and to remove associated waste by-products. The aim of this study was to develop a bioprinting strategy to engineer prevascularised tissues in vitro and to investigate the capacity of such constructs to enhance the vascularisation and regeneration of large bone defects in vivo. From a screen of different bioinks, a fibrin-based hydrogel was found to best support human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) sprouting and the establishment of a microvessel network. When this bioink was combined with HUVECs and supporting human bone marrow stem/stromal cells (hBMSCs), these microvessel networks persisted in vitro. Furthermore, only bioprinted tissues containing both HUVECs and hBMSCs, that were first allowed to mature in vitro, supported robust blood vessel development in vivo. To assess the therapeutic utility of this bioprinting strategy, these bioinks were used to prevascularise 3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds, which were subsequently implanted into critically-sized femoral bone defects in rats. Microcomputed tomography (µCT) angiography revealed increased levels of vascularisation in vivo, which correlated with higher levels of new bone formation. Such prevascularised constructs could be used to enhance the vascularisation of a range of large tissue defects, forming the basis of multiple new bioprinted therapeutics. Statement of Significance This paper demonstrates a versatile 3D bioprinting technique to improve the vascularisation of tissue engineered constructs and further demonstrates how this method can be incorporated into a bone tissue engineering strategy to improve vascularisation in a rat femoral defect model.
AUTHOR Francesca Cestari and Mauro Petretta and Yuejiao Yang and Antonella Motta and Brunella Grigolo and Vincenzo M. Sglavo
Title 3D printing of PCL/nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds derived from biogenic sources for bone tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Sustainable Materials and Technologies
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Abstract
Bioactive composites made of ∽85 wt% poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and ∽15 wt% nanometric hydroxyapatite (HA) produced from biogenic sources were 3D printed by an extrusion-based process to obtain porous scaffolds suitable for bone regeneration. Three different composite formulations were considered by using HA synthesized from three distinct natural sources, which were collected as food wastes: cuttlefish bones, mussel shells and chicken eggshells. Composition and thermal properties of the materials were analysed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray spectroscopy (XRD), while the morphological and mechanical properties of the 3D scaffolds were studied by means of electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Bioactivity was tested by seeding human osteoblast cell line (MG63) onto the scaffolds which were analysed by confocal microscopy and Alamar Blue and PicoGreen® tests after 1 to 7 culture days. The elastic modulus (177–316 MPa) is found to be within the range reported for typical trabecular bones being increased by the presence of the bio-HA particles. Moreover, cells adhesion, viability and proliferation are largely promoted in the scaffolds containing nanometric HA with respect to pure PCL, the best results being revealed when mussel shell-derived HA is used. Indeed, different biological sources result in different cell proliferation rates, pointing that the biological origin has an impact on the cells-scaffold interaction. In general, the results show that PCL/bio-HA scaffolds possess improved mechanical properties and enhanced bioactivity when compared with pure PCL ones.
AUTHOR Vyas, Cian and Zhang, Jun and Øvrebø, Øystein and Huang, Boyang and Roberts, Iwan and Setty, Mohan and Allardyce, Benjamin and Haugen, Håvard and Rajkhowa, Rangam and Bartolo, Paulo
Title 3D printing of silk microparticle reinforced polycaprolactone scaffolds for tissue engineering applications [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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Abstract
Polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds have been widely investigated for tissue engineering applications, however, they exhibit poor cell adhesion and mechanical properties. Subsequently, PCL composites have been produced to improve the material properties. This study utilises a natural material, Bombyx mori silk microparticles (SMP) prepared by milling silk fibre, to produce a composite to enhance the scaffolds properties. Silk is biocompatible and biodegradable with excellent mechanical properties. However, there are no studies using SMPs as a reinforcing agent in a 3D printed thermoplastic polymer scaffold. PCL/SMP (10, 20, 30 wt%) composites were prepared by melt blending. Rheological analysis showed that SMP loading increased the shear thinning and storage modulus of the material. Scaffolds were fabricated using a screw-assisted extrusion-based additive manufacturing system. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography was used to determine scaffold morphology. The scaffolds had high interconnectivity with regular printed fibres and pore morphologies within the designed parameters. Compressive mechanical testing showed that the addition of SMP significantly improved the compressive Young's modulus of the scaffolds. The scaffolds were more hydrophobic with the inclusion of SMP which was linked to a decrease in total protein adsorption. Cell behaviour was assessed using human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells. A cytotoxic effect was observed at higher particle loading (30 wt%) after 7 days of culture. By day 21, 10 wt% loading showed significantly higher cell metabolic activity and proliferation, high cell viability, and cell migration throughout the scaffold. Calcium mineral deposition was observed on the scaffolds during cell culture. Large calcium mineral deposits were observed at 30 wt% and smaller calcium deposits were observed at 10 wt%. This study demonstrates that SMPs incorporated into a PCL scaffold provided effective mechanical reinforcement, improved the rate of degradation, and increased cell proliferation, demonstrating potential suitability for bone tissue engineering applications.
AUTHOR Golafshan, Nasim and Willemsen, Koen and Kadumudi, Firoz Babu and Vorndran, Elke and Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza and Weinans, Harrie and van der Wal, Bart C. H. and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel
Title 3D-Printed Regenerative Magnesium Phosphate Implant Ensures Stability and Restoration of Hip Dysplasia [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract
Abstract Osteoarthritis of the hip is a painful and debilitating condition commonly occurring in humans and dogs. One of the main causes that leads to hip osteoarthritis is hip dysplasia. Although the current surgical methods to correct dysplasia work satisfactorily in many circumstances, these are associated with serious complications, tissue resorption, and degeneration. In this study, a one-step fabrication of a regenerative hip implant with a patient-specific design and load-bearing properties is reported. The regenerative hip implant is fabricated based on patient imaging files and by an extrusion assisted 3D printing process using a flexible, bone-inducing biomaterial. The novel implant can be fixed with metallic screws to host bone and can be loaded up to physiological loads without signs of critical permanent deformation or failure. Moreover, after exposing the hip implant to accelerated in vitro degradation, it is confirmed that it is still able to support physiological loads even after losing ≈40% of its initial mass. In addition, the osteopromotive properties of the novel hip implant is demonstrated as shown by an increased expression of osteonectin and osteocalcin by cultured human mesenchymal stem cells after 21 days. Overall, the proposed hip implant provides an innovative regenerative and mechanically stable solution for hip dysplasia treatment.
AUTHOR Otto, I. A. and Capendale, P. E. and Garcia, J. P. and de Ruijter, M. and van Doremalen, R. F. M. and Castilho, M. and Lawson, T. and Grinstaff, M. W. and Breugem, C. C. and Kon, M. and Levato, R. and Malda, J.
Title Biofabrication of a shape-stable auricular structure for the reconstruction of ear deformities [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Today Bio
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Abstract
Bioengineering of the human auricle remains a significant challenge, where the complex and unique shape, the generation of high-quality neocartilage, and shape preservation are key factors. Future regenerative medicine–based approaches for auricular cartilage reconstruction will benefit from a smart combination of various strategies. Our approach to fabrication of an ear-shaped construct uses hybrid bioprinting techniques, a recently identified progenitor cell population, previously validated biomaterials, and a smart scaffold design. Specifically, we generated a 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold via fused deposition modeling, photocrosslinked a human auricular cartilage progenitor cell–laden gelatin methacryloyl (gelMA) hydrogel within the scaffold, and cultured the bioengineered structure in vitro in chondrogenic media for 30 days. Our results show that the fabrication process maintains the viability and chondrogenic phenotype of the cells, that the compressive properties of the combined PCL and gelMA hybrid auricular constructs are similar to native auricular cartilage, and that biofabricated hybrid auricular structures exhibit excellent shape fidelity compared with the 3D digital model along with deposition of cartilage-like matrix in both peripheral and central areas of the auricular structure. Our strategy affords an anatomically enhanced auricular structure with appropriate mechanical properties, ensures adequate preservation of the auricular shape during a dynamic in vitro culture period, and enables chondrogenically potent progenitor cells to produce abundant cartilage-like matrix throughout the auricular construct. The combination of smart scaffold design with 3D bioprinting and cartilage progenitor cells holds promise for the development of clinically translatable regenerative medicine strategies for auricular reconstruction.
AUTHOR Nulty, Jessica and Burdis, Ross and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Biofabrication of Prevascularised Hypertrophic Cartilage Microtissues for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Bone tissue engineering (TE) has the potential to transform the treatment of challenging musculoskeletal pathologies. To date, clinical translation of many traditional TE strategies has been impaired by poor vascularisation of the implant. Addressing such challenges has motivated research into developmentally inspired TE strategies, whereby implants mimicking earlier stages of a tissue’s development are engineered in vitro and then implanted in vivo to fully mature into the adult tissue. The goal of this study was to engineer in vitro tissues mimicking the immediate developmental precursor to long bones, specifically a vascularised hypertrophic cartilage template, and to then assess the capacity of such a construct to support endochondral bone formation in vivo. To this end, we first developed a method for the generation of large numbers of hypertrophic cartilage microtissues using a microwell system, and encapsulated these microtissues into a fibrin-based hydrogel capable of supporting vasculogenesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The microwells supported the formation of bone marrow derived stem/stromal cell (BMSC) aggregates and their differentiation toward a hypertrophic cartilage phenotype over 5 weeks of cultivation, as evident by the development of a matrix rich in sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG), collagen types I, II, and X, and calcium. Prevascularisation of these microtissues, undertaken in vitro 1 week prior to implantation, enhanced their capacity to mineralise, with significantly higher levels of mineralised tissue observed within such implants after 4 weeks in vivo within an ectopic murine model for bone formation. It is also possible to integrate such microtissues into 3D bioprinting systems, thereby enabling the bioprinting of scaled-up, patient-specific prevascularised implants. Taken together, these results demonstrate the development of an effective strategy for prevascularising a tissue engineered construct comprised of multiple individual microtissue “building blocks,” which could potentially be used in the treatment of challenging bone defects.
AUTHOR Burdis, Ross and Chariyev-Prinz, Farhad and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Bioprinting of biomimetic self-organised cartilage with a supporting joint fixation device [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Abstract
Despite sustained efforts, engineering truly biomimetic articular cartilage (AC) via traditional top-down approaches remains challenging. Emerging biofabrication strategies, from 3D bioprinting to scaffold-free approaches that leverage principles of cellular self-organisation, are generating significant interest in the field of cartilage tissue engineering as a means of developing biomimetic tissue analogues in vitro. Although such strategies have advanced the quality of engineered cartilage, recapitulation of many key structural features of native AC, in particular a collagen network mimicking the tissue’s ‘Benninghoff arcade’, remains elusive. Additionally, a complete solution to fixating engineered cartilages in situ within damaged synovial joints has yet to be identified. This study sought to address both of these key challenges by engineering biomimetic AC within a device designed to anchor the tissue within a synovial joint defect. We first designed and fabricated a fixation device capable of anchoring engineered cartilage into the subchondral bone. Next, we developed a strategy for inkjet printing porcine mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) into this supporting fixation device, which was also designed to provide instructive cues to direct the self-organisation of MSC condensations towards a stratified engineered AC. We found that a higher starting cell-density supported the development of a more zonally defined collagen network within the engineered tissue. Dynamic culture was implemented to further enhance the quality of this engineered tissue, resulting in an approximate 3 fold increase in glycosaminoglycan and collagen accumulation. Ultimately this strategy supported the development of AC that exhibited near-native levels of glycosaminoglycan accumulation (>5% WW), as well as a biomimetic collagen network organisation with a perpendicular to a parallel fibre arrangement (relative to the tissue surface) from the deep to superficial zones via arcading fibres within the middle zone of the engineered tissue. Collectively, this work demonstrates the successful convergence of novel biofabrication methods, bioprinting strategies and culture regimes to engineer a hybrid implant suited to resurfacing AC defects.
AUTHOR Petretta, Mauro and Gambardella, Alessandro and Boi, Marco and Berni, Matteo and Cavallo, Carola and Marchiori, Gregorio and Maltarello, Maria Cristina and Bellucci, Devis and Fini, Milena and Baldini, Nicola and Grigolo, Brunella and Cannillo, Valeria
Title Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration Based on PCL and Mg-Containing Bioactive Glasses [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Biology
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Abstract
Polycaprolactone (PCL) is widely used in additive manufacturing for the construction of scaffolds for tissue engineering because of its good bioresorbability, biocompatibility, and processability. Nevertheless, its use is limited by its inadequate mechanical support, slow degradation rate and the lack of bioactivity and ability to induce cell adhesion and, thus, bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we fabricated 3D PCL scaffolds reinforced with a novel Mg-doped bioactive glass (Mg-BG) characterized by good mechanical properties and biological reactivity. An optimization of the printing parameters and scaffold fabrication was performed; furthermore, an extensive microtopography characterization by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy was carried out. Nano-indentation tests accounted for the mechanical properties of the scaffolds, whereas SBF tests and cytotoxicity tests using human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were performed to evaluate the bioactivity and in vitro viability. Our results showed that a 50/50 wt% of the polymer-to-glass ratio provides scaffolds with a dense and homogeneous distribution of Mg-BG particles at the surface and roughness twice that of pure PCL scaffolds. Compared to pure PCL (hardness H = 35 ± 2 MPa and Young’s elastic modulus E = 0.80 ± 0.05 GPa), the 50/50 wt% formulation showed H = 52 ± 11 MPa and E = 2.0 ± 0.2 GPa, hence, it was close to those of trabecular bone. The high level of biocompatibility, bioactivity, and cell adhesion encourages the use of the composite PCL/Mg-BG scaffolds in promoting cell viability and supporting mechanical loading in the host trabecular bone.
AUTHOR Bello, Thomas and Paindelli, Claudia and Diaz-Gomez, Luis A. and Melchiorri, Anthony and Mikos, Antonios G. and Nelson, Peter S. and Dondossola, Eleonora and Gujral, Taranjit S.
Title Computational modeling identifies multitargeted kinase inhibitors as effective therapies for metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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Abstract
Metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is an advanced prostate cancer with limited therapeutic options and poor patient outcomes. To investigate whether multitargeted kinase inhibitors (KIs) represent an opportunity for mCRPC drug development, we applied machine learning{textendash}based functional screening and identified two KIs, PP121 and SC-1, which demonstrated strong suppression of CRPC growth in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we show the marked ability of these KIs to improve on standard-of-care chemotherapy in both tumor response and survival, suggesting that combining multitargeted KIs with chemotherapy represents a promising avenue for mCRPC treatment. Overall, our findings demonstrate the application of a multidisciplinary strategy that blends bench science with machine-learning approaches for rapidly identifying KIs that result in desired phenotypic effects.Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is an advanced subtype of prostate cancer with limited therapeutic options. Here, we applied a systems-based modeling approach called kinome regularization (KiR) to identify multitargeted kinase inhibitors (KIs) that abrogate CRPC growth. Two predicted KIs, PP121 and SC-1, suppressed CRPC growth in two-dimensional in vitro experiments and in vivo subcutaneous xenografts. An ex vivo bone mimetic environment and in vivo tibia xenografts revealed resistance to these KIs in bone. Combining PP121 or SC-1 with docetaxel, standard-of-care chemotherapy for late-stage CRPC, significantly reduced tibia tumor growth in vivo, decreased growth factor signaling, and vastly extended overall survival, compared to either docetaxel monotherapy. These results highlight the utility of computational modeling in forming physiologically relevant predictions and provide evidence for the role of multitargeted KIs as chemosensitizers for late-stage, metastatic CRPC.All study data are included in the article and/or supporting information.
AUTHOR Dai, Michèle and Belaïdi, Jean-Philippe and Fleury, Guillaume and Garanger, Elisabeth and Rielland, Maïté and Schultze, Xavier and Lecommandoux, Sébastien
Title Elastin-like Polypeptide-Based Bioink: A Promising Alternative for 3D Bioprinting
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Biomacromolecules
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AUTHOR Paindelli, Claudia and Casarin, Stefano and Wang, Feng and Diaz-Gomez, Luis and Zhang, Jianhua and Mikos, Antonios G. and Logothetis, Christopher J. and Friedl, Peter and Dondossola, Eleonora
Title Enhancing Radium 223 treatment efficacy by anti-beta 1 integrin targeting [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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Abstract
Radium 223 (223Ra) is an α-emitter approved for the treatment of bone metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), which exerts direct cytotoxicity towards PCa cells near the bone interface, whereas cells positioned in the core respond poorly, due to short α-particle penetrance. β1 integrin (β1I) interference has been shown to increase radiosensitivity and significantly enhance external beam radiation efficiency. We hypothesized that targeting β1I would improve 223Ra outcome. We tested the effect of combining 223Ra and anti-β1I antibody treatment in PC3 and C4-2B PCa cell models expressing high and low β1I levels, respectively. In vivo tumor growth was evaluated through bioluminescence. Cellular and molecular determinants of response were analyzed by ex vivo three-dimensional imaging of bone lesions, proteomic analysis and further confirmed by computational modeling and in vitro functional analysis in tissue-engineered bone mimetic systems. Interference with β1I combined with 223Ra reduced PC3 cell growth in bone and significantly improved overall mouse survival, while no change was achieved in C4-2B tumors. Anti-β1I treatment decreased PC3 tumor cell mitosis index and spatially expanded 223Ra lethal effects two-fold, in vivo and in silico. Regression was paralleled by decreased expression of radio-resistance mediators. Targeting β1I significantly improves 223Ra outcome and points towards combinatorial application in PCa tumors with high β1I expression.
AUTHOR Wibowo, Arie and Tajalla, Gusti U. N. and Marsudi, Maradhana A. and Cooper, Glen and Asri, Lia A.T.W. and Liu, Fengyuan and Ardy, Husaini and Bartolo, Paulo J.D.S.
Title Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Extract of Cilembu Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L var. Rancing) as Potential Filler for 3D Printed Electroactive and Anti-Infection Scaffolds [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Molecules
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Abstract
Electroactive biomaterials are fascinating for tissue engineering applications because of their ability to deliver electrical stimulation directly to cells, tissue, and organs. One particularly attractive conductive filler for electroactive biomaterials is silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) because of their high conductivity, antibacterial activity, and ability to promote bone healing. However, production of AgNPs involves a toxic reducing agent which would inhibit biological scaffold performance. This work explores facile and green synthesis of AgNPs using extract of Cilembu sweet potato and studies the effect of baking and precursor concentrations (1, 10 and 100 mM) on AgNPs’ properties. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results revealed that the smallest particle size of AgNPs (9.95 ± 3.69 nm) with nodular morphology was obtained by utilization of baked extract and ten mM AgNO3. Polycaprolactone (PCL)/AgNPs scaffolds exhibited several enhancements compared to PCL scaffolds. Compressive strength was six times greater (3.88 ± 0.42 MPa), more hydrophilic (contact angle of 76.8 ± 1.7°), conductive (2.3 ± 0.5 × 10−3 S/cm) and exhibited anti-bacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC3658 (99.5% reduction of surviving bacteria). Despite the promising results, further investigation on biological assessment is required to obtain comprehensive study of this scaffold. This green synthesis approach together with the use of 3D printing opens a new route to manufacture AgNPs-based electroactive with improved anti-bacterial properties without utilization of any toxic organic solvents.
AUTHOR Paulo Roberto {Lopes Nalesso} and Weiguang Wang and Yanhao Hou and Leonardo Bagne and Amanda Tavares Pereira and Julia Venturini Helaehil and Thiago Antônio {Moretti de Andrade} and Gabriela Bortolança Chiarotto and Paulo Bártolo and Guilherme Ferreira Caetano
Title In vivo investigation of 3D printed polycaprolactone/graphene electro-active bone scaffolds [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Additive manufactured scaffolds are widely used as 3D support structures for tissue engineering. This paper investigates the mechanisms behind bone regeneration due to the combined use of 3D printed poly (ϵ-caprolactone)/graphene (PCL/G) electro-active scaffolds and electrical stimulation. A comprehensive in vivo study was conducted to assess the proposed approach, using a rat model. Results show that the combined use of electro-active scaffolds and electrical stimulation therapy accelerates the bone regeneration process and the formation of more organized new bone, through fast angiogenesis, and a rapid transition to the mineralization and bone remodelling phase. The mechanism is investigated and explained.
AUTHOR e Silva, Edney P. and Huang, Boyang and Helaehil, Júlia V. and Nalesso, Paulo R. L. and Bagne, Leonardo and de Oliveira, Maraiara A. and Albiazetti, Gabriela C. C. and Aldalbahi, Ali and El-Newehy, Mohamed and Santamaria-Jr, Milton and Mendonça, Fernanda A. S. and Bártolo, Paulo and Caetano, Guilherme F.
Title In vivo study of conductive 3D printed PCL/MWCNTs scaffolds with electrical stimulation for bone tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Bio-Design and Manufacturing
Reftype e Silva2021
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Critical bone defects are considered one of the major clinical challenges in reconstructive bone surgery. The combination of 3D printed conductive scaffolds and exogenous electrical stimulation (ES) is a potential favorable approach for bone tissue repair. In this study, 3D conductive scaffolds made with biocompatible and biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were produced using the extrusion-based additive manufacturing to treat large calvary bone defects in rats. Histology results show that the use of PCL/MWCNTs scaffolds and ES contributes to thicker and increased bone tissue formation within the bone defect. Angiogenesis and mineralization are also significantly promoted using high concentration of MWCNTs (3 wt%) and ES. Moreover, scaffolds favor the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive cell formation, while the addition of MWCNTs seems to inhibit the osteoclastogenesis but present limited effects on the osteoclast functionalities (receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expressions). The use of ES promotes the osteoclastogenesis and RANKL expressions, showing a dominant effect in the bone remodeling process. These results indicate that the combination of 3D printed conductive PCL/MWCNTs scaffold and ES is a promising strategy to treat critical bone defects and provide a cue to establish an optimal protocol to use conductive scaffolds and ES for bone tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Daskalakis, Evangelos and Liu, Fengyuan and Huang, Boyang and Acar, Anil A. and Cooper, Glen and Weightman, Andrew and Blunn, Gordon and Koç, Bahattin and Bartolo, Paulo
Title Investigating the Influence of Architecture and Material Composition of 3D Printed Anatomical Design Scaffolds for Large Bone Defects