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You are researching: Calcium Phosphates (Hydroxyapatite-TCP-Bioglass)
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AUTHOR Dubey, Nileshkumar and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Daghrery, Arwa and Aytac, Zeynep and Malda, Jos and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Highly Tunable Bioactive Fiber-Reinforced Hydrogel for Guided Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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One of the most damaging pathologies that affects the health of both soft and hard tissues around the tooth is periodontitis. Clinically, periodontal tissue destruction has been managed by an integrated approach involving elimination of injured tissues followed by regenerative strategies with bone substitutes and/or barrier membranes. Regrettably, a barrier membrane with predictable mechanical integrity and multifunctional therapeutic features has yet to be established. Herein, we report a fiber-reinforced hydrogel with unprecedented tunability in terms of mechanical competence and therapeutic features by integration of highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) fibrous mesh(es) with well-controlled 3D architecture into bioactive amorphous magnesium phosphate-laden gelatin methacryloyl hydrogels. The presence of amorphous magnesium phosphate and PCL mesh in the hydrogel can control the mechanical properties and improve the osteogenic ability, opening a tremendous opportunity in guided bone regeneration (GBR). Results demonstrate that the presence of PCL meshes fabricated via melt electrowriting can delay hydrogel degradation preventing soft tissue invasion and providing the mechanical barrier to allow time for slower migrating progenitor cells to participate in bone regeneration due to their ability to differentiate into bone-forming cells. Altogether, our approach offers a platform technology for the development of the next-generation of GBR membranes with tunable mechanical and therapeutic properties to amplify bone regeneration in compromised sites.
AUTHOR Cunniffe, Gráinne and Gonzalez-Fernandez, Tomas and Daly, Andrew and Nelson Sathy, Binulal and Jeon, Oju and Alsberg, Eben and J. Kelly, Daniel
Title Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Polycaprolactone Reinforced Gene Activated Bioinks for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part A
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Regeneration of complex bone defects remains a significant clinical challenge. Multi-tool biofabrication has permitted the combination of various biomaterials to create multifaceted composites with tailorable mechanical properties and spatially controlled biological function. In this study we sought to use bioprinting to engineer nonviral gene activated constructs reinforced by polymeric micro-filaments. A gene activated bioink was developed using RGD-g-irradiated alginate and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) complexed to plasmid DNA (pDNA). This ink was combined with bonemarrow-derived mesenchymal stemcells (MSCs) and then co-printed with a polycaprolactone supporting mesh to provide mechanical stability to the construct. Reporter genes were first used to demonstrate successful cell transfection using this system, with sustained expression of the transgene detected over 14 days postbioprinting. Delivery of a combination of therapeutic genes encoding for bone morphogenic protein and transforming growth factor promoted robust osteogenesis of encapsulated MSCs in vitro, with enhanced levels of matrix deposition and mineralization observed following the incorporation of therapeutic pDNA. Gene activated MSC-laden constructs were then implanted subcutaneously, directly postfabrication, and were found to support superior levels of vascularization andmineralization compared to cell-free controls. These results validate the use of a gene activated bioink to impart biological functionality to three-dimensional bioprinted constructs.
AUTHOR Freeman, Fiona E. and Pitacco, Pierluca and van Dommelen, Lieke H. A. and Nulty, Jessica and Browe, David C. and Shin, Jung-Youn and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D bioprinting spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors to tightly control tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Science Advances
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Therapeutic growth factor delivery typically requires supraphysiological dosages, which can cause undesirable off-target effects. The aim of this study was to 3D bioprint implants containing spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors optimized for coupled angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Using nanoparticle functionalized bioinks, it was possible to print implants with distinct growth factor patterns and release profiles spanning from days to weeks. The extent of angiogenesis in vivo depended on the spatial presentation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Higher levels of vessel invasion were observed in implants containing a spatial gradient of VEGF compared to those homogenously loaded with the same total amount of protein. Printed implants containing a gradient of VEGF, coupled with spatially defined BMP-2 localization and release kinetics, accelerated large bone defect healing with little heterotopic bone formation. This demonstrates the potential of growth factor printing, a putative point of care therapy, for tightly controlled tissue regeneration.
AUTHOR Bagnol, Romain and Sprecher, Christoph and Peroglio, Marianna and Chevalier, Jerome and Mahou, Redouan and Büchler, Philippe and Richards, Geoff and Eglin, David
Title Coaxial micro-extrusion of a calcium phosphate ink with aqueous solvents improves printing stability, structure fidelity and mechanical properties [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Micro-extrusion-based 3D printing of complex geometrical and porous calcium phosphate (CaP) can improve treatment of bone defects through the production of personalized bone substitutes. However, achieving printing and post-printing shape stabilities for the efficient fabrication and application of rapid hardening protocol are still challenging. In this work, the coaxial printing of a self-setting CaP cement with water and ethanol mixtures aiming to increase the ink yield stress upon extrusion and the stability of fabricated structures was explored. Printing height of overhang structure was doubled when aqueous solvents were used and a 2 log increase of the stiffness was achieved post-printing. A standard and fast steam sterilization protocol applied as hardening step on the coaxial printed CaP cement (CPC) ink resulted in constructs with 4 to 5 times higher compressive moduli in comparison to extrusion process in the absence of solvent. This improved mechanical performance is likely due to rapid CPC setting, preventing cracks formation during hardening process. Thus, coaxial micro-extrusion-based 3D printing of a CPC ink with aqueous solvent enhances printability and allows the use of the widespread steam sterilization cycle as a standalone post-processing technique for production of 3D printed personalized CaP bone substitutes. Statement of Significance Coaxial micro-extrusion-based 3D printing of a self-setting CaP cement with water:ethanol mixtures increased the ink yield stress upon extrusion and the stability of fabricated structures. Printing height of overhang structure was doubled when aqueous solvents were used, and a 2 orders of magnitude log increase of the stiffness was achieved post-printing. A fast hardening step consisting of a standard steam sterilization was applied. Four to 5 times higher compressive moduli was obtained for hardened coaxially printed constructs. This improved mechanical performance is likely due to rapid CPC setting in the coaxial printing, preventing cracks formation during hardening process.
AUTHOR Zamani, Yasaman and Amoabediny, Ghassem and Mohammadi, Javad and Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz and Klein-Nulend, Jenneke and Helder, Marco N.
Title Increased Osteogenic Potential of Pre-Osteoblasts on Three-Dimensional Printed Scaffolds Compared to Porous Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Iranian Biomedical Journal
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Background: One of the main challenges with conventional scaffold fabrication methods is the inability to control scaffold architecture. Recently, scaffolds with controlled shape and architecture have been fabricated using three-dimensional printing (3DP). Herein, we aimed to determine whether the much tighter control of microstructure of 3DP poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid/β-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) scaffolds is more effective in promoting osteogenesis than porous scaffolds produced by solvent casting/porogen leaching. Methods: Physical and mechanical properties of porous and 3DP scaffolds were studied. The response of pre-osteoblasts to the scaffolds was analyzed after 14 days. Results: The 3DP scaffolds had a smoother surface (Ra: 22 ± 3 µm) relative to the highly rough surface of porous scaffolds (Ra: 110 ± 15 µm). Water contact angle was 112 ± 4° on porous and 76 ± 6° on 3DP scaffolds. Porous and 3DP scaffolds had the pore size of 408 ± 90 and 315 ± 17 µm and porosity of 85 ± 5% and 39 ± 7%, respectively. Compressive strength of 3DP scaffolds (4.0 ± 0.3 MPa) was higher than porous scaffolds (1.7 ± 0.2 MPa). Collagenous matrix deposition was similar on both scaffolds. Cells proliferated from day 1 to day 14 by fourfold in porous and by 3.8-fold in 3DP scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was 21-fold higher in 3DP scaffolds than porous scaffolds. Conclusion: The 3DP scaffolds show enhanced mechanical properties and ALP activity compared to porous scaffolds in vitro, suggesting that 3DP PLGA/β-TCP scaffolds are possibly more favorable for bone formation.
AUTHOR Daskalakis, Evangelos and Liu, Fengyuan and Huang, Boyang and Acar, Anil A. and Cooper, Glen and Weightman, Andrew and Blunn, Gordon and Koç, Bahattin and Bartolo, Paulo
Title Investigating the Influence of Architecture and Material Composition of 3D Printed Anatomical Design Scaffolds for Large Bone Defects [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Bioprinting; Vol 7, No 2 (2021)
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There is a significant unmet clinical need to prevent amputations due to large bone loss injuries. We are addressing this problem by developing a novel, cost-effective osseointegrated prosthetic solution based on the use of modular pieces, bone bricks, made with biocompatible and biodegradable materials that fit together in a Lego-like way to form the prosthesis. This paper investigates the anatomical designed bone bricks with different architectures, pore size gradients, and material compositions. Polymer and polymer-composite 3D printed bone bricks are extensively morphological, mechanical, and biological characterized. Composite bone bricks were produced by mixing polycaprolactone (PCL) with different levels of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tri-calcium phosphate (TCP). Results allowed to establish a correlation between bone bricks architecture and material composition and bone bricks performance. Reinforced bone bricks showed improved mechanical and biological results. Best mechanical properties were obtained with PCL/TCP bone bricks with 38 double zig-zag filaments and 14 spiral-like pattern filaments, while the best biological results were obtained with PCL/HA bone bricks based on 25 double zig-zag filaments and 14 spiral-like pattern filaments.
AUTHOR Chen, Shengyang and Jang, Tae-Sik and Pan, Houwen Matthew and Jung, Hyun-Do and Sia, Ming Wei and Xie, Shuying and Hang, Yao and Chong, Seow and Wong, Dongan
Title 3D Freeform Printing of Nanocomposite Hydrogels through in situ Precipitation in Reactive Viscous Fluid
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Bioprinting
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AUTHOR Lin, Che-Wei and Su, Yu-Feng and Lee, Chih-Yun and Kang, Lin and Wang, Yan-Hsiung and Lin, Sung-Yen and Wang, Chih-Kuang
Title 3D printed bioceramics fabricated using negative thermoresponsive hydrogels and silicone oil sealing to promote bone formation in calvarial defects [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Ceramics International
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The purpose of the present work was to investigate the potential for application and the effectiveness of osteoconductive scaffolds with bicontinuous phases of 3D printed bioceramics (3DP-BCs) based on reverse negative thermoresponsive hydrogels (poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(methacrylic acid)]; p(NiPAAm-MAA)). 3DP-BCs have bioceramic objects and microchannel pores when created using robotic deposition additive manufacturing. We evaluated the benefits of silicone oil sealing on the 3DP-BC green body during the sintering process in terms of densification and structural stability. The shrinkage, density, porosity, element composition, phase structure and microstructural analyses and compression strength measurements of sintered 3DP-BC objects are presented and discussed in this study. In addition, the results of cell viability assays and bone healing analyses of the calvarial bone defects in a rabbit model were used to evaluate 3DP-BC performance. The main results indicated that these 3DP-BC scaffolds have optimal continuous pores and adequate compressive strength, which can enable the protection of calvarial defects and provide an environment for cell growth. Therefore, 3DP-BC scaffolds have better new bone regeneration efficiency in rabbit calvarial bone defect models than empty scaffolds and mold-forming bioceramic scaffolds (MF-BCs).
AUTHOR Huang, Boyang and Vyas, Cian and Byun, Jae Jong and El-Newehy, Mohamed and Huang, Zhucheng and Bártolo, Paulo
Title Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes with nanohydroxyapatite in a 3D printed polycaprolactone scaffold stimulates osteogenic differentiation [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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The development of highly biomimetic scaffolds in terms of composition and structures, to repair or replace damaged bone tissues, is particularly relevant for tissue engineering. This paper investigates a 3D printed porous scaffold containing aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA), mimicking the natural bone tissue from the nanoscale to macroscale level. MWCNTs with similar dimensions as collagen fibres are coupled with nHA and mixed within a polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix to produce scaffolds using a screw-assisted extrusion-based additive manufacturing system. Scaffolds with different material compositions were extensively characterised from morphological, mechanical and biological points of views. Transmission electron microscopy and polarised Raman spectroscopy confirm the presence of aligned MWCNTs within the printed filaments. The PCL/HA/MWCNTs scaffold are similar to the nanostructure of native bone and shows overall increased mechanical properties, cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and scaffold mineralisation, indicating a promising approach for bone tissue regeneration.
AUTHOR Zamani, Yasaman and Mohammadi, Javad and Amoabediny, Ghassem and Helder, Marco N. and Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz and Klein-Nulend, Jenneke
Title Bioprinting of Alginate-Encapsulated Pre-osteoblasts in PLGA/β-TCP Scaffolds Enhances Cell Retention but Impairs Osteogenic Differentiation Compared to Cell Seeding after 3D-Printing [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Regenerative Engineering and Translational Medicine
Reftype Zamani2020
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In tissue engineering, cellularization of scaffolds has typically been performed by seeding the cells after scaffold fabrication. 3D-printing technology now allows bioprinting of cells encapsulated in a hydrogel simultaneously with the scaffold material. Here, we aimed to investigate whether bioprinting or cell seeding post-printing is more effective in enhancing responses of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line derived from mouse calvaria.
AUTHOR Diloksumpan, Paweena and de Ruijter, Myl{`{e}}ne and Castilho, Miguel and Gbureck, Uwe and Vermonden, Tina and van Weeren, P. Ren{'{e}} and Malda, Jos and Levato, Riccardo
Title Combining multi-scale 3D printing technologies to engineer reinforced hydrogel-ceramic interfaces [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Multi-material 3D printing technologies that resolve features at different lengths down to the microscale open new avenues for regenerative medicine, particularly in the engineering of tissue interfaces. Herein, extrusion printing of a bone-biomimetic ceramic ink and melt electrowriting (MEW) of spatially organized polymeric microfibres are integrated for the biofabrication of an osteochondral plug, with a mechanically reinforced bone-to-cartilage interface. A printable physiological temperature-setting bioceramic, based on α-tricalcium phosphate, nanohydroxyapatite and a custom-synthesized biodegradable and crosslinkable poloxamer, was developed as bone support. The mild setting reaction of the bone ink enabled us to print directly within melt electrowritten polycaprolactone meshes, preserving their micro-architecture. Ceramic-integrated MEW meshes protruded into the cartilage region of the composite plug, and were embedded with mechanically soft gelatin-based hydrogels, laden with articular cartilage chondroprogenitor cells. Such interlocking design enhanced the hydrogel-to-ceramic adhesion strength >6.5-fold, compared with non-interlocking fibre architectures, enabling structural stability during handling and surgical implantation in osteochondral defects ex vivo. Furthermore, the MEW meshes endowed the chondral compartment with compressive properties approaching those of native cartilage (20-fold reinforcement versus pristine hydrogel). The osteal and chondral compartment supported osteogenesis and cartilage matrix deposition in vitro, and the neo-synthesized cartilage matrix further contributed to the mechanical reinforcement at the ceramic-hydrogel interface. This multi-material, multi-scale 3D printing approach provides a promising strategy for engineering advanced composite constructs for the regeneration of musculoskeletal and connective tissue interfaces.
AUTHOR Müller, Michael and Fisch, Philipp and Molnar, Marc and Eggert, Sebastian and Binelli, Marco and Maniura-Weber, Katharina and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Development and thorough characterization of the processing steps of an ink for 3D printing for bone tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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Achieving reproducibility in the 3D printing of biomaterials requires a robust polymer synthesis method to reduce batch-to-batch variation as well as methods to assure a thorough characterization throughout the manufacturing process. Particularly biomaterial inks containing large solid fractions such as ceramic particles, often required for bone tissue engineering applications, are prone to inhomogeneity originating from inadequate mixing or particle aggregation which can lead to inconsistent printing results. The production of such an ink for bone tissue engineering consisting of gellan gum methacrylate (GG-MA), hyaluronic acid methacrylate and hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles was therefore optimized in terms of GG-MA synthesis and ink preparation process, and the ink's printability was thoroughly characterized to assure homogeneous and reproducible printing results. A new buffer mediated synthesis method for GG-MA resulted in consistent degrees of substitution which allowed the creation of large 5 g batches. We found that both the new synthesis as well as cryomilling of the polymer components of the ink resulted in a decrease in viscosity from 113 kPa·s to 11.3 kPa·s at a shear rate of 0.1 s−1 but increased ink homogeneity. The ink homogeneity was assessed through thermogravimetric analysis and a newly developed extrusion force measurement setup. The ink displayed strong inter-layer adhesion between two printed ink layers as well as between a layer of ink with and a layer without HAp. The large polymer batch production along with the characterization of the ink during the manufacturing process allows ink production in the gram scale and could be used in applications such as the printing of osteochondral grafts.
AUTHOR Song, Jie-Liang and Fu, Xin-Ye and Raza, Ali and Shen, Nai-An and Xue, Ya-Qi and Wang, Hua-Jie and Wang, Jin-Ye
Title Enhancement of mechanical strength of TCP-alginate based bioprinted constructs [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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To overcome the mechanical drawback of bioink, we proposed a supporter model to enhance the mechanical strength of bioprinted 3D constructs, in which a unit-assembly idea was involved. Based on Computed Tomography images of critical-sized rabbit bone defect, the 3D re-construction was accomplished by a sequenced process using Mimics 17.0, BioCAM and BioCAD software. 3D constructs were bioprinted using polycaprolactone (PCL) ink for the outer supporter under extrusion mode, and cell-laden tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/alginate bioink for the inner filler under air pressure dispensing mode. The relationship of viscosity of bioinks, 3D bioprinting pressure, TCP/alginate ratio and cell survival were investigated by the shear viscosities analysis, live/dead cell test and cell-counting kit 8 measurement. The viscosity of bioinks at 1.0 s−1-shear rate could be adjusted within the range of 1.75 ± 0.29 Pa·s to 155.65 ± 10.86 Pa·s by changing alginate concentration, corresponding to 10 kPa–130 kPa of printing pressure. This design with PCL supporter could significantly enhance the compressive strength and compressive modulus of standardized 3D mechanical testing specimens up to 2.15 ± 0.14 MPa to 2.58 ± 0.09 MPa, and 42.83 ± 4.75 MPa to 53.12 ± 1.19 MPa, respectively. Cells could maintain the high viability (over 80%) under the given printing pressure but cell viability declined with the increase of TCP content. Cell survival after experiencing 7 days of cell culture could be achieved when the ratio of TCP/alginate was 1 : 4. All data supported the feasibility of the supporter and unit-assembly model to enhance mechanical properties of bioprinted 3D constructs.
AUTHOR Dubey, Nileshkumar and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Malda, Jos and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Extracellular Matrix/Amorphous Magnesium Phosphate Bioink for 3D Bioprinting of Craniomaxillofacial Bone Tissue [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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Bioprinting, a promising field in regenerative medicine, holds great potential to create three-dimensional, defect-specific vascularized bones with tremendous opportunities to address unmet craniomaxillofacial reconstructive challenges. A cytocompatible bioink is a critical prerequisite to successfully regenerate functional bone tissue. Synthetic self-assembling peptides have a nanofibrous structure resembling the native extracellular matrix (ECM), making them an excellent bioink component. Amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) have shown greater levels of resorption while maintaining high biocompatibility, osteoinductivity, and low inflammatory response, as compared to their calcium phosphate counterparts. Here, we have established a novel bioink formulation (ECM/AMP) that combines an ECM-based hydrogel containing 2% octapeptide FEFEFKFK and 98% water with AMP particles to realize high cell function with desirable bioprintability. We analyzed the osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) encapsulated in the bioink, as well as in vivo bone regeneration, to define the potential of the formulated bioink as a growth factor-free bone-forming strategy. Cell-laden AMP-modified bioprinted constructs showed an improved cell morphology but similar cell viability (∼90%) compared to their AMP-free counterpart. In functional assays, the cell-laden bioprinted constructs modified with AMP exhibited a high level of mineralization and osteogenic gene expression without the use of growth factors, thus suggesting that the presence of AMP-triggered DPSCs’ osteogenic differentiation. Cell-free ECM-based bioprinted constructs were implanted in vivo. In comparison with the ECM group, bone volume per total volume for ECM/1.0AMP was approximately 1.7- and 1.4-fold higher at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Further, a significant increase in the bone density was observed in ECM/1.0AMP from 4 to 8 weeks. These results demonstrate that the presence of AMP in the bioink significantly increased bone formation, thus showing promise for in situ bioprinting strategies. We foresee significant potential in translating this innovative bioink toward the regeneration of patient-specific bone tissue for regenerative dentistry. Bioprinting, a promising field in regenerative medicine, holds great potential to create three-dimensional, defect-specific vascularized bones with tremendous opportunities to address unmet craniomaxillofacial reconstructive challenges. A cytocompatible bioink is a critical prerequisite to successfully regenerate functional bone tissue. Synthetic self-assembling peptides have a nanofibrous structure resembling the native extracellular matrix (ECM), making them an excellent bioink component. Amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) have shown greater levels of resorption while maintaining high biocompatibility, osteoinductivity, and low inflammatory response, as compared to their calcium phosphate counterparts. Here, we have established a novel bioink formulation (ECM/AMP) that combines an ECM-based hydrogel containing 2% octapeptide FEFEFKFK and 98% water with AMP particles to realize high cell function with desirable bioprintability. We analyzed the osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) encapsulated in the bioink, as well as in vivo bone regeneration, to define the potential of the formulated bioink as a growth factor-free bone-forming strategy. Cell-laden AMP-modified bioprinted constructs showed an improved cell morphology but similar cell viability (∼90%) compared to their AMP-free counterpart. In functional assays, the cell-laden bioprinted constructs modified with AMP exhibited a high level of mineralization and osteogenic gene expression without the use of growth factors, thus suggesting that the presence of AMP-triggered DPSCs’ osteogenic differentiation. Cell-free ECM-based bioprinted constructs were implanted in vivo. In comparison with the ECM group, bone volume per total volume for ECM/1.0AMP was approximately 1.7- and 1.4-fold higher at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Further, a significant increase in the bone density was observed in ECM/1.0AMP from 4 to 8 weeks. These results demonstrate that the presence of AMP in the bioink significantly increased bone formation, thus showing promise for in situ bioprinting strategies. We foresee significant potential in translating this innovative bioink toward the regeneration of patient-specific bone tissue for regenerative dentistry.
AUTHOR Fisch, Philipp and Holub, Martin and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Improved accuracy and precision of bioprinting through progressive cavity pump-controlled extrusion [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings bioRxiv
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3D bioprinting has seen a tremendous growth in recent years in a variety of fields such as tissue and organ models, drug testing and regenerative medicine. This growth has led researchers and manufacturers to continuously advance and develop novel bioprinting techniques and materials. Although new bioprinting methods are emerging (e.g. contactless and volumetric bioprinting), micro-extrusion bioprinting remains the most widely used method. Micro-extrusion bioprinting, however, is still largely dependent on the conventional pneumatic extrusion process, which relies heavily on homogenous biomaterial inks and bioinks to maintain a constant material flowrate. Augmenting the functionality of the bioink with the addition of nanoparticles, cells or biopolymers can induce inhomogeneities resulting in uneven material flow during printing and/or clogging of the nozzle, leading to defects in the printed construct. In this work, we evaluated a novel extrusion technique based on a miniaturized progressive cavity pump. We compared the accuracy and precision of this system to the pneumatic extrusion system and tested both for their effect on cell viability after extrusion. The progressive cavity pump achieved a significantly higher accuracy and precision compared to the pneumatic system while maintaining good viability and was able to maintain its reliability independently of the bioink composition, printing speed or nozzle size. Progressive cavity pumps are a promising tool for bioprinting and could help provide standardized and validated bioprinted constructs while leaving the researcher more freedom in the design of the bioinks with increased functionality.
AUTHOR Diloksumpan, Paweena and Bolaños, Rafael Vindas and Cokelaere, Stefan and Pouran, Behdad and de Grauw, Janny and van Rijen, Mattie and van Weeren, René and Levato, Riccardo and Malda, Jos
Title Orthotopic Bone Regeneration within 3D Printed Bioceramic Scaffolds with Region-Dependent Porosity Gradients in an Equine Model [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract The clinical translation of three-dimensionally printed bioceramic scaffolds with tailored architectures holds great promise toward the regeneration of bone to heal critical-size defects. Herein, the long-term in vivo performance of printed hydrogel-ceramic composites made of methacrylated-oligocaprolactone-poloxamer and low-temperature self-setting calcium-phosphates is assessed in a large animal model. Scaffolds printed with different internal architectures, displaying either a designed porosity gradient or a constant pore distribution, are implanted in equine tuber coxae critical size defects. Bone ingrowth is challenged and facilitated only from one direction via encasing the bioceramic in a polycaprolactone shell. After 7 months, total new bone volume and scaffold degradation are significantly greater in structures with constant porosity. Interestingly, gradient scaffolds show lower extent of remodeling and regeneration even in areas having the same porosity as the constant scaffolds. Low regeneration in distal regions from the interface with native bone impairs ossification in proximal regions of the construct, suggesting that anisotropic architectures modulate the cross-talk between distant cells within critical-size defects. The study provides key information on how engineered architectural patterns impact osteoregeneration in vivo, and also indicates the equine tuber coxae as promising orthotopic model for studying materials stimulating bone formation.
AUTHOR Marchiori, Gregorio and Berni, Matteo and Boi, Marco and Petretta, Mauro and Grigolo, Brunella and Bellucci, Devis and Cannillo, Valeria and Garavelli, Chiara and Bianchi, Michele
Title Design of a novel procedure for the optimization of the mechanical performances of 3D printed scaffolds for bone tissue engineering combining CAD, Taguchi method and FEA [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Medical Engineering and Physics
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In order to increase manufacturing and experimental efficiency, a certain degree of control over design performances before realization phase is recommended. In this context, this paper presents an integrated procedure to design 3D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The procedure required a combination of Computer Aided Design (CAD), Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and Design methodologies Of Experiments (DOE), firstly to understand the influence of the design parameters, and then to control them. Based on inputs from the literature and limitations imposed by the chosen manufacturing process (Precision Extrusion Deposition), 36 scaffold architectures have been drawn. The porosity of each scaffold has been calculated with CAD. Thereafter, a generic scaffold material was considered and its variable parameters were combined with the geometrical ones according to the Taguchi method, i.e. a DOE method. The compressive response of those principal combinations was simulated by FEA, and the influence of each design parameter on the scaffold compressive behaviour was clarified. Finally, a regression model was obtained correlating the scaffold's mechanical performances to its geometrical and material parameters. This model has been applied to a novel composite material made of polycaprolactone and innovative bioactive glass. By setting specific porosity (50%) and stiffness (0.05 GPa) suitable for trabecular bone substitutes, the model selected 4 of the 36 initial scaffold architectures. Only these 4 more promising geometries will be realized and physically tested for advanced indications on compressive strength and biocompatibility.
AUTHOR Dooley, Max and Prasopthum, Aruna and Liao, Zhiyu and Sinjab, Faris and McLaren, Jane and Rose, Felicity R. A. J. and Yang, Jing and Notingher, Ioan
Title Spatially-offset Raman spectroscopy for monitoring mineralization of bone tissue engineering scaffolds: feasibility study based on phantom samples [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Biomedical Optics Express
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Using phantom samples, we investigated the feasibility of spatially-offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) as a tool for monitoring non-invasively the mineralization of bone tissue engineering scaffold in-vivo. The phantom samples consisted of 3D-printed scaffolds of poly-caprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA) blends, with varying concentrations of HA, to mimic the mineralisation process. The scaffolds were covered by a 4 mm layer of skin to simulate the real in-vivo measurement conditions. At a concentration of HA approximately 1/3 that of bone (~0.6 g/cm3), the characteristic Raman band of HA (960 cm−1) was detectable when the PCL:HA layer was located at 4 mm depth within the scaffold (i.e. 8 mm below the skin surface). For the layers of the PCL:HA immediately under the skin (i.e. top of the scaffold), the detection limit of HA was 0.18 g/cm3, which is approximately one order of magnitude lower than that of bone. Similar results were also found for the phantoms simulating uniform and inward gradual mineralisation of the scaffold, indicating the suitability of SORS to detect early stages of mineralisation. Nevertheless, the results also show that the contribution of the materials surrounding the scaffold can be significant and methods for subtraction need to be investigated in the future. In conclusion, these results indicate that spatially-offset Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique for in-vivo longitudinal monitoring scaffold mineralization and bone re-growth.
AUTHOR Wang, Hanxiao and das Neves Domingos, Marco Andre and Scenini, Fabio
Title Advanced mechanical and thermal characterization of 3D bioextruded poly(ε-caprolactone)-based composites [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Rapid Prototyping Journal
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Abstract
Purpose The main purpose of the present work is to study the effect of nano hydroxyapatite (HA) and graphene oxide (GO) particles on thermal and mechanical performances of 3D printed poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) filaments used in Bone Tissue Engineering (BTE). Design/methodology/approach Raw materials were prepared by melt blending, followed by 3D printing via 3D Discovery (regenHU Ltd., CH) with all fabricating parameters kept constant. Filaments, including pure PCL, PCL/HA, and PCL/GO, were tested under the same conditions. Several techniques were used to mechanically, thermally, and microstructurally evaluate properties of these filaments, including Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), tensile test, nano indentation, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Findings Results show that both HA and GO nano particles are capable of improving mechanical performance of PCL. Enhanced mechanical properties of PCL/HA result from reinforcing effect of HA, while a different mechanism is observed in PCL/GO, where degree of crystallinity plays an important role. In addition, GO is more efficient at enhancing mechanical performance of PCL compared with HA. Originality/value For the first time, a systematic study about effects of nano HA and GO particles on bioactive scaffolds produced by Additive Manufacturing (AM) for bone tissue engineering applications is conducted in this work. Mechanical and thermal behaviors of each sample, pure PCL, PCL/HA and PCL/GO, are reported, correlated, and compared with literature.
AUTHOR Prasopthum, Aruna and Shakesheff, Kevin M. and Yang, Jing
Title Direct three-dimensional printing of polymeric scaffolds with nanofibrous topography [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a powerful manufacturing tool for making 3D structures with well-defined architectures for a wide range of applications. The field of tissue engineering has also adopted this technology to fabricate scaffolds for tissue regeneration. The ability to control architecture of scaffolds, e.g. matching anatomical shapes and having defined pore size, has since been improved significantly. However, the material surface of these scaffolds is smooth and does not resemble that found in natural extracellular matrix (ECM), in particular, the nanofibrous morphology of collagen. This natural nanoscale morphology plays a critical role in cell behaviour. Here, we have developed a new approach to directly fabricate polymeric scaffolds with an ECM-like nanofibrous topography and defined architectures using extrusion-based 3D printing. 3D printed tall scaffolds with interconnected pores were created with disparate features spanning from nanometres to centimetres. Our approach removes the need for a sacrificial mould and subsequent mould removal compared to previous methods. Moreover, the nanofibrous topography of the 3D printed scaffolds significantly enhanced protein absorption, cell adhesion and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells when compared to those with smooth material surfaces. These 3D printed scaffolds with both defined architectures and nanoscale ECM-mimicking morphologies have potential applications in cartilage and bone regeneration.
AUTHOR Kelder, Cindy and Bakker, Astrid Diana and Klein-Nulend, Jenneke and Wismeijer, Daniël
Title The 3D Printing of Calcium Phosphate with K-Carrageenan under Conditions Permitting the Incorporation of Biological Components—A Method [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Functional Biomaterials
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Abstract
Critical-size bone defects are a common clinical problem. The golden standard to treat these defects is autologous bone grafting. Besides the limitations of availability and co-morbidity, autografts have to be manually adapted to fit in the defect, which might result in a sub-optimal fit and impaired healing. Scaffolds with precise dimensions can be created using 3-dimensional (3D) printing, enabling the production of patient-specific, ‘tailor-made’ bone substitutes with an exact fit. Calcium phosphate (CaP) is a popular material for bone tissue engineering due to its biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and biodegradable properties. To enhance bone formation, a bioactive 3D-printed CaP scaffold can be created by combining the printed CaP scaffold with biological components such as growth factors and cytokines, e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the 3D-printing of CaP with a biological component is challenging since production techniques often use high temperatures or aggressive chemicals, which hinders/inactivates the bioactivity of the incorporated biological components. Therefore, in our laboratory, we routinely perform extrusion-based 3D-printing with a biological binder at room temperature to create porous scaffolds for bone healing. In this method paper, we describe in detail a 3D-printing procedure for CaP paste with K-carrageenan as a biological binder.
AUTHOR Reitmaier, Sandra and Kovtun, Anna and Schuelke, Julian and Kanter, Britta and Lemm, Madlin and Hoess, Andreas and Heinemann, Sascha and Nies, Berthold and Ignatius, Anita
Title Strontium(II) and mechanical loading additively augment bone formation in calcium phosphate scaffolds [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Orthopaedic Research
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Abstract
Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are widely used for bone-defect treatment. Current developments comprise the fabrication of porous scaffolds by three-dimensional plotting and doting using biologically active substances, such as strontium. Strontium is known to increase osteoblast activity and simultaneously to decrease osteoclast resorption. This study investigated the short- and long-term in vivo performances of strontium(II)-doted CPC (SrCPC) scaffolds compared to non-doted CPC scaffolds after implantation in unloaded or load-bearing trabecular bone defects in sheep. After 6 weeks, both CPC and SrCPC scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility and osseointegration. Fluorochrome labeling revealed that both scaffolds were penetrated by newly formed bone already after 4 weeks. Neither strontium doting nor mechanical loading significantly influenced early bone formation. In contrast, after 6 months, bone formation was significantly enhanced in SrCPC compared to CPC scaffolds. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated the release of strontium from the SrCPC into the bone. Strontium addition did not significantly influence material resorption or osteoclast formation. Mechanical loading significantly stimulated bone formation in both CPC and SrCPC scaffolds after 6 months without impairing scaffold integrity. The most bone was found in SrCPC scaffolds under load-bearing conditions. Concluding, these results demonstrate that strontium doting and mechanical loading additively stimulated bone formation in CPC scaffolds and that the scaffolds exhibited mechanical stability under moderate load, implying good clinical suitability. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res
AUTHOR Carrel, Jean‐Pierre and Wiskott, Anselm and Scherrer, Susanne and Durual, Stéphane
Title Large Bone Vertical Augmentation Using a Three‐Dimensional Printed TCP/HA Bone Graft: A Pilot Study in Dog Mandible [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research
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Abstract Background Osteoflux is a three‐dimensional printed calcium phosphate porous structure for oral bone augmentation. It is a mechanically stable scaffold with a well‐defined interconnectivity and can be readily shaped to conform to the bone bed's morphology. Purpose An animal experiment is reported whose aim was to assess the performance and safety of the scaffold in promoting vertical growth of cortical bone in the mandible. Materials and methods Four three‐dimensional blocks (10 mm length, 5 mm width, 5 mm height) were affixed to edentulous segments of the dog's mandible and covered by a collagen membrane. During bone bed preparation, particular attention was paid not to create defects 0.5 mm or more so that the real potential of the three‐dimensional block in driving vertical bone growth can be assessed. Histomorphometric analyses were performed after 8 weeks. Results At 8 weeks, the three‐dimensional blocks led to substantial vertical bone growth up to 4.5 mm from the bone bed. Between 0 and 1 mm in height, 44% of the surface was filled with new bone, at 1 to 3 mm it was 20% to 35%, 18% at 3 to 4, and ca. 6% beyond 4 mm. New bone was evenly distributed along in mesio‐distal direction and formed a new crest contour in harmony with the natural mandibular shape. Conclusions After two months of healing, the three‐dimensional printed blocks conducted new bone growth above its natural bed, up to 4.5 mm in a canine mandibular model. Furthermore, the new bone was evenly distributed in height and density along the block. These results are very promising and need to be further evaluated by a complete powerful study using the same model.
AUTHOR Geven, Mike A. and Sprecher, Christoph and Guillaume, Olivier and Eglin, David and Grijpma, Dirk W.
Title Micro-porous composite scaffolds of photo-crosslinked poly(trimethylene carbonate) and nano-hydroxyapatite prepared by low-temperature extrusion-based additive manufacturing [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings Polymers for Advanced Technologies
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Complex bony defects such as those of the orbital floor are challenging to repair. Additive manufacturing techniques open up possibilities for the fabrication of implants with a designed macro-porosity for the reconstruction of such defects. Apart from a designed macro-porosity for tissue ingrowth, a micro-porosity in the implant struts will be beneficial for nutrient diffusion, protein adsorption and drug loading and release. In this work, we report on a low-temperature extrusion-based additive manufacturing method for the preparation of composite photo-crosslinked structures of poly(trimethylene carbonate) with bone-forming nano-hydroxyapatite and noricaritin (derived from bone growth stimulating icariin). In this method, we extrude a dispersion of nano-hydroxyapatite and noricaritin particles in a solution of photo-crosslinkable poly(trimethylene carbonate) in ethylene carbonate into defined three-dimensional structures. The ethylene carbonate is subsequently crystallized and extracted after photo-crosslinking. We show that this results in designed macro-porous structures with micro-pores in the struts. The dispersion used to fabricate these structures shows favorable properties for extrusion-based processing, such as a sharp crystallization response and shear thinning. The formed photo-crosslinked materials have a micro-porosity of up to 48%, and the E modulus, ultimate tensile strength and toughness are in excess of 24 MPa, 2.0 N/mm2 and 113 N/mm2 respectively. A sustained release of noricaritin from these materials was also achieved. The results show that the technique described here is promising for the fabrication of micro-porous photo-crosslinked composite structures of poly(trimethylene carbonate) with nano-hydroxyapatite and that these may be applied in the reconstruction of orbital floor defects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
AUTHOR Kesti, Matti and Eberhardt, Christian and Pagliccia, Guglielmo and Kenkel, David and Grande, Daniel and Boss, Andreas and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Bioprinting Complex Cartilaginous Structures with Clinically Compliant Biomaterials [Abstract]
Year 2015
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Functional Materials
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Bioprinting is an emerging technology for the fabrication of patient-specific, anatomically complex tissues and organs. A novel bioink for printing cartilage grafts is developed based on two unmodified FDA-compliant polysaccharides, gellan and alginate, combined with the clinical product BioCartilage (cartilage extracellular matrix particles). Cell-friendly physical gelation of the bioink occurs in the presence of cations, which are delivered by co-extrusion of a cation-loaded transient support polymer to stabilize overhanging structures. Rheological properties of the bioink reveal optimal shear thinning and shear recovery properties for high-fidelity bioprinting. Tensile testing of the bioprinted grafts reveals a strong, ductile material. As proof of concept, 3D auricular, nasal, meniscal, and vertebral disk grafts are printed based on computer tomography data or generic 3D models. Grafts after 8 weeks in vitro are scanned using magnetic resonance imaging and histological evaluation is performed. The bioink containing BioCartilage supports proliferation of chondrocytes and, in the presence of transforming growth factor beta-3, supports strong deposition of cartilage matrix proteins. A clinically compliant bioprinting method is presented which yields patient-specific cartilage grafts with good mechanical and biological properties. The versatile method can be used with any type of tissue particles to create tissue-specific and bioactive scaffolds.
AUTHOR Moussa, Mira and Carrel, Jean-Pierre and Scherrer, Susanne and Cattani-Lorente, Maria and Wiskott, Anselm and Durual, Stéphane
Title Medium-Term Function of a 3D Printed TCP/HA Structure as a New Osteoconductive Scaffold for Vertical Bone Augmentation: A Simulation by BMP-2 Activation [Abstract]
Year 2015
Journal/Proceedings Materials
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Introduction: A 3D-printed construct made of orthogonally layered strands of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and hydroxyapatite has recently become available. The material provides excellent osteoconductivity. We simulated a medium-term experiment in a sheep calvarial model by priming the blocks with BMP-2. Vertical bone growth/maturation and material resorption were evaluated. Materials and methods: Titanium hemispherical caps were filled with either bare- or BMP-2 primed constructs and placed onto the calvaria of adult sheep (n = 8). Histomorphometry was performed after 8 and 16 weeks. Results: After 8 weeks, relative to bare constructs, BMP-2 stimulation led to a two-fold increase in bone volume (Bare: 22% ± 2.1%; BMP-2 primed: 50% ± 3%) and a 3-fold decrease in substitute volume (Bare: 47% ± 5%; BMP-2 primed: 18% ± 2%). These rates were still observed at 16 weeks. The new bone grew and matured to a haversian-like structure while the substitute material resorbed via cell- and chemical-mediation. Conclusion: By priming the 3D construct with BMP-2, bone metabolism was physiologically accelerated, that is, enhancing vertical bone growth and maturation as well as material bioresorption. The scaffolding function of the block was maintained, leaving time for the bone to grow and mature to a haversian-like structure. In parallel, the material resorbed via cell-mediated and chemical processes. These promising results must be confirmed in clinical tests.
AUTHOR Carrel, Jean-Pierre and Wiskott, Anselm and Moussa, Mira and Rieder, Philippe and Scherrer, Susanne and Durual, St{'{e}}phane
Title A 3D printed TCP/HA structure as a new osteoconductive scaffold for vertical bone augmentation [Abstract]
Year 2014
Journal/Proceedings Clinical Oral Implants Research
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Introduction OsteoFlux® (OF) is a 3D printed porous block of layered strands of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and hydroxyapatite. Its porosity and interconnectivity are defined, and it can be readily shaped to conform the bone bed's morphology. We investigated the performance of OF as a scaffold to promote the vertical growth of cortical bone in a sheep calvarial model. Materials and methods Six titanium hemispheres were filled with OF, Bio-Oss (particulate bovine bone, BO), or Ceros (particulate TCP, CO) and placed onto the calvaria of 12 adult sheep (6 hemispheres/sheep). Histomorphometric analyses were performed after 8 and 16 weeks. Results OF led to substantial vertical bone growth by 8 weeks and outperformed BO and CO by a factor 2 yielding OF 22% ± 2.1; BO 11.5% ± 1.9; and CO 12.9% ± 2.1 total new bone. 3 mm away from the bony bed, OF led to a fourfold increase in new bone relative to BO and CO (n = 8, P < 0.002). At 16 weeks, OF, BO, and CO behaved similarly and showed marked new bone synthesis. A moderate degradation was observed at 16 weeks for all bone substitutes. Conclusion When compared to existing bone substitutes, OF enhances vertical bone growth during the first 2 months after implantation in a sheep calvarial model. The controlled porous structure translated in a high osteoconductivity and resulted in a bone mass 3 mm above the bony bed that was four times greater than that obtained with standard substitutes. These results are promising but must be confirmed in clinical tests.