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AUTHOR Daghrery, Arwa and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Xu, Jinping and Golafshan, Nasim and Kaigler, Darnell and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Tissue-specific melt electrowritten polymeric scaffolds for coordinated regeneration of soft and hard periodontal tissues [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Bioactive Materials
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Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that often causes serious damage to tooth-supporting tissues. The limited successful outcomes of clinically available approaches underscore the need for therapeutics that cannot only provide structural guidance to cells but can also modulate the local immune response. Here, three-dimensional melt electrowritten (i.e., poly(ε-caprolactone)) scaffolds with tissue-specific attributes were engineered to guide differentiation of human-derived periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) and mediate macrophage polarization. The investigated tissue-specific scaffold attributes comprised fiber morphology (aligned vs. random) and highly-ordered architectures with distinct strand spacings (small 250 μm and large 500 μm). Macrophages exhibited an elongated morphology in aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds, while maintaining their round-shape on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds. Expressions of periostin and IL-10 were more pronounced on the aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds. While hPDLSCs on the scaffolds with 500 μm strand spacing show higher expression of osteogenic marker (Runx2) over 21 days, cells on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds showed upregulation of M1 markers. In an orthotopic mandibular fenestration defect model, findings revealed that the tissue-specific scaffolds (i.e., aligned fibers for periodontal ligament and highly-ordered 500 μm strand spacing fluorinated calcium phosphate [F/CaP]-coated fibers for bone) could enhance the mimicking of regeneration of natural periodontal tissues.
AUTHOR Nothdurfter, Daniel and Ploner, Christian and Coraça-Huber, Débora C. and Wilflingseder, Doris and Müller, Thomas and Hermann, Martin and Hagenbuchner, Judith and Ausserlechner, Michael J.
Title 3D bioprinted, vascularized neuroblastoma tumor environment in fluidic chip devices for precision medicine drug testing [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Neuroblastoma is an extracranial solid tumor which develops in early childhood and still has a poor prognosis. One strategy to increase cure rates is the identification of patient-specific drug responses in tissue models that mimic the interaction between patient cancer cells and tumor environment. We therefore developed a perfused and micro-vascularized tumor-environment model that is directly bioprinted into custom-manufactured fluidic chips. A gelatin-methacrylate/fibrin-based matrix containing multiple cell types mimics the tumor-microenvironment that promotes spontaneous micro-vessel formation by embedded endothelial cells. We demonstrate that both, adipocyte- and iPSC-derived mesenchymal stem cells can guide this process. Bioprinted channels are coated with endothelial cells post printing to form a dense vessel - tissue barrier. The tissue model thereby mimics structure and function of human soft tissue with endothelial cell-coated larger vessels for perfusion and micro-vessel networks within the hydrogel-matrix. Patient-derived neuroblastoma spheroids are added to the matrix during the printing process and grown for more than two weeks. We demonstrate that micro-vessels are attracted by and grow into tumor spheroids and that neuroblastoma cells invade the tumor-environment as soon as the spheroids disrupt. In summary, we describe the first bioprinted, micro-vascularized neuroblastoma – tumor-environment model directly printed into fluidic chips and a novel medium-throughput biofabrication platform suitable for studying tumor angiogenesis and metastasis in precision medicine approaches in future.
AUTHOR Terpstra, Margo L. and Li, Jinyu and Mensinga, Anneloes and de Ruijter, Myl{`{e}}ne and van Rijen, Mattie H. P. and Androulidakis, Charalampos and Galiotis, Costas and Papantoniou, Ioannis and Matsusaki, Michiya and Malda, Jos and Levato, Riccardo
Title Bioink with cartilage-derived extracellular matrix microfibers enables spatial control of vascular capillary formation in bioprinted constructs [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Microvasculature is essential for the exchange of gas and nutrient for most tissues in our body. Some tissue structures such as the meniscus presents spatially confined blood vessels adjacent to non-vascularized regions. In biofabrication, mimicking the spatial distribution of such vascular components is paramount, as capillary ingrowth into non-vascularized tissues can lead to tissue matrix alterations and subsequent pathology. Multi-material three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting strategies have the potential to resolve anisotropic tissue features, although building complex constructs comprising stable vascularized and non-vascularized regions remains a major challenge to date. In this study, we developed endothelial cell-laden pro- and anti-angiogenic bioinks, supplemented with bioactive matrix-derived microfibers (MFs) that were created from type I collagen sponges (col-1) and cartilage decellularized extracellular matrix (CdECM), respectively. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)-driven capillary networks started to form 2 d after bioprinting. Supplementing cartilage-derived MFs to endothelial-cell laden bioinks reduced the total length of neo-microvessels by 29%, and the number of microvessel junctions by 37% after 14 d, compared to bioinks with pro-angiogenic col-1 MFs. As a proof of concept, the bioinks were bioprinted into an anatomical meniscus shape with a biomimetic vascularized outer and non-vascularized inner region, using a gellan gum microgel suspension bath. These 3D meniscus-like constructs were cultured up to 14 d, with in the outer zone the HUVEC-, mural cell-, and col-1 MF-laden pro-angiogenic bioink, and in the inner zone a meniscus progenitor cell (MPC)- and CdECM MF-laden anti-angiogenic bioink, revealing successful spatial confinement of the nascent vascular network only in the outer zone. Further, to co-facilitate both microvessel formation and MPC-derived matrix formation, we formulated cell culture medium conditions with a temporal switch. Overall, this study provides a new strategy that could be applied to develop zonal biomimetic meniscal constructs. Moreover, the use of ECM-derived MFs to promote or inhibit capillary networks opens new possibilities for the biofabrication of tissues with anisotropic microvascular distribution. These have potential for many applications including in vitro models of vascular-to-avascular tissue interfaces, cancer progression, and for testing anti-angiogenic therapies.
AUTHOR Dufour, A. and Gallostra, X. Barceló and O'Keeffe, C. and Eichholz, K. and Von Euw, S. and Garcia, O. and Kelly, D. J.
Title Integrating melt electrowriting and inkjet bioprinting for engineering structurally organized articular cartilage [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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Successful cartilage engineering requires the generation of biological grafts mimicking the structure, composition and mechanical behaviour of the native tissue. Here melt electrowriting (MEW) was used to produce arrays of polymeric structures whose function was to orient the growth of cellular aggregates spontaneously generated within these structures, and to provide tensile reinforcement to the resulting tissues. Inkjet printing was used to deposit defined numbers of cells into MEW structures, which self-assembled into an organized array of spheroids within hours, ultimately generating a hybrid tissue that was hyaline-like in composition. Structurally, the engineered cartilage mimicked the histotypical organization observed in skeletally immature synovial joints. This biofabrication framework was then used to generate scaled-up (50 mm × 50 mm) cartilage implants containing over 3,500 cellular aggregates in under 15 min. After 8 weeks in culture, a 50-fold increase in the compressive stiffness of these MEW reinforced tissues were observed, while the tensile properties were still dominated by the polymer network, resulting in a composite construct demonstrating tension-compression nonlinearity mimetic of the native tissue. Helium ion microscopy further demonstrated the development of an arcading collagen network within the engineered tissue. This hybrid bioprinting strategy provides a versatile and scalable approach to engineer cartilage biomimetic grafts for biological joint resurfacing.
AUTHOR D'Agostino, Stefania and Rimann, Markus and Gamba, Piergiorgio and Perilongo, Giorgio and Pozzobon, Michela and Raghunath, Michael
Title Macromolecular crowding tuned extracellular matrix deposition in a bioprinted human rhabdomyosarcoma model [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
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The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in tumor recurrence and metastasis has been gaining attention. Indeed, not only cellular, but also structural proteins influence migratory and invasive capacity of tumor cells, including growth and resistance to drugs. Therefore, new in vitro tumor models that entail improved ECM formation and deposition are needed. Here, we are developed three-dimensional (3D) models of pediatric soft tissue sarcoma (Rhabdomyosarcoma [RMS]) with the two major subgroups, the embryonal (ERMS) and the alveolar (ARMS) form. We applied macromolecular crowding (MMC) technology to monolayer cultures, spheroids, and 3D bioprinted constructs. In all culture models, exposure to MMC significantly increased ECM deposition. Interestingly, bioprinted constructs showed a collagen and fibronectin matrix architecture that was comparable to that of tumor xenografts. Furthermore, the bioprinted model not only showed tumor cell growth inside the structure but also displayed cell clusters leaving the edges of the bioprinted construct, probably emulating a metastatic mechanism. ARMS and ERMS cells reacted differently in the bioprinted structure. Indeed, the characteristic metastatic behavior was much more pronounced in the more aggressive ARMS subtype. This promising approach opens new avenues for studying RMS microenvironment and creating a platform for cancer drug testing including the native tumor ECM.
AUTHOR Daghrery, Arwa and Ferreira, Jessica A. and de Souza Araújo, Isaac J. and Clarkson, Brian H. and Eckert, George J. and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Malda, Jos and Bottino, Marco C.
Title A Highly Ordered, Nanostructured Fluorinated CaP-Coated Melt Electrowritten Scaffold for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory, bacteria-triggered disorder affecting nearly half of American adults. Although some level of tissue regeneration is realized, its low success in complex cases demands superior strategies to amplify regenerative capacity. Herein, highly ordered scaffolds are engineered via Melt ElectroWriting (MEW), and the effects of strand spacing, as well as the presence of a nanostructured fluorinated calcium phosphate (F/CaP) coating on the adhesion/proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human-derived periodontal ligament stem cells, are investigated. Upon initial cell-scaffold interaction screening aimed at defining the most suitable design, MEW poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds with 500 µm strand spacing are chosen. Following an alkali treatment, scaffolds are immersed in a pre-established solution to allow for coating formation. The presence of a nanostructured F/CaP coating leads to a marked upregulation of osteogenic genes and attenuated bacterial growth. In vivo findings confirm that the F/CaP-coated scaffolds are biocompatible and lead to periodontal regeneration when implanted in a rat mandibular periodontal fenestration defect model. In aggregate, it is considered that this work can contribute to the development of personalized scaffolds capable of enabling tissue-specific differentiation of progenitor cells, and thus guide simultaneous and coordinated regeneration of soft and hard periodontal tissues, while providing antimicrobial protection.
AUTHOR Habelt, Bettina and Wirth, Christopher and Afanasenkau, Dzmitry and Mihaylova, Lyudmila and Winter, Christine and Arvaneh, Mahnaz and Minev, Ivan R. and Bernhardt, Nadine
Title A Multimodal Neuroprosthetic Interface to Record, Modulate and Classify Electrophysiological Biomarkers Relevant to Neuropsychiatric Disorders [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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Most mental disorders, such as addictive diseases or schizophrenia, are characterized by impaired cognitive function and behavior control originating from disturbances within prefrontal neural networks. Their often chronic reoccurring nature and the lack of efficient therapies necessitate the development of new treatment strategies. Brain-computer interfaces, equipped with multiple sensing and stimulation abilities, offer a new toolbox whose suitability for diagnosis and therapy of mental disorders has not yet been explored. This study, therefore, aimed to develop a biocompatible and multimodal neuroprosthesis to measure and modulate prefrontal neurophysiological features of neuropsychiatric symptoms. We used a 3D-printing technology to rapidly prototype customized bioelectronic implants through robot-controlled deposition of soft silicones and a conductive platinum ink. We implanted the device epidurally above the medial prefrontal cortex of rats and obtained auditory event-related brain potentials in treatment-naïve animals, after alcohol administration and following neuromodulation through implant-driven electrical brain stimulation and cortical delivery of the anti-relapse medication naltrexone. Towards smart neuroprosthetic interfaces, we furthermore developed machine learning algorithms to autonomously classify treatment effects within the neural recordings. The neuroprosthesis successfully captured neural activity patterns reflecting intact stimulus processing and alcohol-induced neural depression. Moreover, implant-driven electrical and pharmacological stimulation enabled successful enhancement of neural activity. A machine learning approach based on stepwise linear discriminant analysis was able to deal with sparsity in the data and distinguished treatments with high accuracy. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of multimodal bioelectronic systems to monitor, modulate and identify healthy and affected brain states with potential use in a personalized and optimized therapy of neuropsychiatric disorders.
AUTHOR Bouwmeester, Manon C. and Bernal, Paulina N. and Oosterhoff, Loes A. and van Wolferen, Monique E. and Lehmann, Vivian and Vermaas, Monique and Buchholz, Maj-Britt and Peiffer, Quentin C. and Malda, Jos and van der Laan, Luc J. W. and Kramer, Nynke I. and Schneeberger, Kerstin and Levato, Riccardo and Spee, Bart
Title Bioprinting of Human Liver-Derived Epithelial Organoids for Toxicity Studies [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Macromolecular Bioscience
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Abstract There is a need for long-lived hepatic in vitro models to better predict drug induced liver injury (DILI). Human liver-derived epithelial organoids are a promising cell source for advanced in vitro models. Here, organoid technology is combined with biofabrication techniques, which holds great potential for the design of in vitro models with complex and customizable architectures. Here, porous constructs with human hepatocyte-like cells derived from organoids are generated using extrusion-based printing technology. Cell viability of bioprinted organoids remains stable for up to ten days (88–107% cell viability compared to the day of printing). The expression of hepatic markers, transporters, and phase I enzymes increased compared to undifferentiated controls, and is comparable to non-printed controls. Exposure to acetaminophen, a well-known hepatotoxic compound, decreases cell viability of bioprinted liver organoids to 21–51% (p < 0.05) compared to the start of exposure, and elevated levels of damage marker miR-122 are observed in the culture medium, indicating the potential use of the bioprinted constructs for toxicity testing. In conclusion, human liver-derived epithelial organoids can be combined with a biofabrication approach, thereby paving the way to create perfusable, complex constructs which can be used as toxicology- and disease-models.
AUTHOR Ng, Wei Long and Ayi, Teck Choon and Liu, Yi-Chun and Sing, Swee Leong and Yeong, Wai Yee and Tan, Boon-Huan
Title Fabrication and Characterization of 3D Bioprinted Triple-layered Human Alveolar Lung Models [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International journal of bioprinting
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The global prevalence of respiratory diseases caused by infectious pathogens has resulted in an increased demand for realistic in-vitro alveolar lung models to serve as suitable disease models. This demand has resulted in the fabrication of numerous two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) in-vitro alveolar lung models. The ability to fabricate these 3D in-vitro alveolar lung models in an automated manner with high repeatability and reliability is important for potential scalable production. In this study, we reported the fabrication of human triple-layered alveolar lung models comprising of human lung epithelial cells, human endothelial cells, and human lung fibroblasts using the drop-on-demand (DOD) 3D bioprinting technique. The polyvinylpyrrolidone-based bio-inks and the use of a 300 mm nozzle diameter improved the repeatability of the bioprinting process by achieving consistent cell output over time using different human alveolar lung cells. The 3D bioprinted human triple-layered alveolar lung models were able to maintain cell viability with relative similar proliferation profile over time as compared to non-printed cells. This DOD 3D bioprinting platform offers an attractive tool for highly repeatable and scalable fabrication of 3D in-vitro human alveolar lung models.
AUTHOR Alave Reyes-Furrer, Angela and De Andrade, Sonia and Bachmann, Dominic and Jeker, Heidi and Steinmann, Martin and Accart, Nathalie and Dunbar, Andrew and Rausch, Martin and Bono, Epifania and Rimann, Markus and Keller, Hansjoerg
Title Matrigel 3D bioprinting of contractile human skeletal muscle models recapitulating exercise and pharmacological responses [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Communications Biology
Reftype Alave Reyes-Furrer2021
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A key to enhance the low translatability of preclinical drug discovery are in vitro human three-dimensional (3D) microphysiological systems (MPS). Here, we show a new method for automated engineering of 3D human skeletal muscle models in microplates and functional compound screening to address the lack of muscle wasting disease medication. To this end, we adapted our recently described 24-well plate 3D bioprinting platform with a printhead cooling system to allow microvalve-based drop-on-demand printing of cell-laden Matrigel containing primary human muscle precursor cells. Mini skeletal muscle models develop within a week exhibiting contractile, striated myofibers aligned between two attachment posts. As an in vitro exercise model, repeated high impact stimulation of contractions for 3 h by a custom-made electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) system for 24-well plates induced interleukin-6 myokine expression and Akt hypertrophy pathway activation. Furthermore, the known muscle stimulators caffeine and Tirasemtiv acutely increase EPS-induced contractile force of the models. This validated new human muscle MPS will benefit development of drugs against muscle wasting diseases. Moreover, our Matrigel 3D bioprinting platform will allow engineering of non-self-organizing complex human 3D MPS.
AUTHOR He, Shaolong and Radeke, Carmen and Jacobsen, Jette and Lind, Johan Ulrik and Mu, Huiling
Title Multi-material 3D printing of programmable and stretchable oromucosal patches for delivery of saquinavir [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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Oromucosal patches for drug delivery allow fast onset of action and ability to circumvent hepatic first pass metabolism of drugs. While conventional fabrication methods such as solvent casting or hot melt extrusion are ideal for scalable production of low-cost delivery patches, these methods chiefly allow for simple, homogenous patch designs. As alternative, a multi-material direct-ink-write 3D printing for rapid fabrication of complex oromucosal patches with unique design features was demonstrated in the present study. Specifically, three print-materials: an acidic saquinavir-loaded hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ink, an alkaline effervescent sodium carbonate-loaded ink, and a methyl cellulose backing material were combined in various designs. The CO2 content and pH of the microenvironment were controlled by adjusting the number of alkaline layers in the patch. Additionally, the rigid and brittle patches were converted to compliant and stretchable patches by implementing mesh-like designs. Our results illustrate how 3D printing can be used for rapid design and fabrication of multifunctional or customized oromucosal patches with tailored dosages and changed drug permeation.
AUTHOR Asulin, Masha and Michael, Idan and Shapira, Assaf and Dvir, Tal
Title One-Step 3D Printing of Heart Patches with Built-In Electronics for Performance Regulation [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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Abstract Three dimensional (3D) printing of heart patches usually provides the ability to precisely control cell location in 3D space. Here, one-step 3D printing of cardiac patches with built-in soft and stretchable electronics is reported. The tissue is simultaneously printed using three distinct bioinks for the cells, for the conducting parts of the electronics and for the dielectric components. It is shown that the hybrid system can withstand continuous physical deformations as those taking place in the contracting myocardium. The electronic patch is flexible, stretchable, and soft, and the electrodes within the printed patch are able to monitor the function of the engineered tissue by providing extracellular potentials. Furthermore, the system allowed controlling tissue function by providing electrical stimulation for pacing. It is envisioned that such transplantable patches may regain heart contractility and allow the physician to monitor the implant function as well as to efficiently intervene from afar when needed.
AUTHOR Madiedo-Podvrsan, Sabrina and Belaïdi, Jean-Philippe and Desbouis, Stephanie and Simonetti, Lucie and Ben-Khalifa, Youcef and Soeur, Jérémie and Rielland, Maïté
Title Utilization of patterned bioprinting for heterogeneous and physiologically representative reconstructed epidermal skin models [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Scientific Reports
Reftype Madiedo-Podvrsan2021
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Organotypic skin tissue models have decades of use for basic research applications, the treatment of burns, and for efficacy/safety evaluation studies. The complex and heterogeneous nature of native human skin however creates difficulties for the construction of physiologically comparable organotypic models. Within the present study, we utilized bioprinting technology for the controlled deposition of separate keratinocyte subpopulations to create a reconstructed epidermis with two distinct halves in a single insert, each comprised of a different keratinocyte sub-population, in order to better model heterogonous skin and reduce inter-sample variability. As an initial proof-of-concept, we created a patterned epidermal skin model using GPF positive and negative keratinocyte subpopulations, both printed into 2 halves of a reconstructed skin insert, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. We then demonstrated the physiological relevance of this bioprinting technique by generating a heterogeneous model comprised of dual keratinocyte population with either normal or low filaggrin expression. The resultant model exhibited a well-organized epidermal structure with each half possessing the phenotypic characteristics of its constituent cells, indicative of a successful and stable tissue reconstruction. This patterned skin model aims to mimic the edge of lesions as seen in atopic dermatitis or ichthyosis vulgaris, while the use of two populations within a single insert allows for paired statistics in evaluation studies, likely increasing study statistical power and reducing the number of models required per study. This is the first report of human patterned epidermal model using a predefined bioprinted designs, and demonstrates the relevance of bioprinting to faithfully reproduce human skin microanatomy.
AUTHOR Kajtez, Janko and Buchmann, Sebastian and Vasudevan, Shashank and Birtele, Marcella and Rocchetti, Stefano and Pless, Christian Jonathan and Heiskanen, Arto and Barker, Roger A. and Martínez-Serrano, Alberto and Parmar, Malin and Lind, Johan Ulrik and Emnéus, Jenny
Title 3D-Printed Soft Lithography for Complex Compartmentalized Microfluidic Neural Devices [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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Abstract Compartmentalized microfluidic platforms are an invaluable tool in neuroscience research. However, harnessing the full potential of this technology remains hindered by the lack of a simple fabrication approach for the creation of intricate device architectures with high-aspect ratio features. Here, a hybrid additive manufacturing approach is presented for the fabrication of open-well compartmentalized neural devices that provides larger freedom of device design, removes the need for manual postprocessing, and allows an increase in the biocompatibility of the system. Suitability of the method for multimaterial integration allows to tailor the device architecture for the long-term maintenance of healthy human stem-cell derived neurons and astrocytes, spanning at least 40 days. Leveraging fast-prototyping capabilities at both micro and macroscale, a proof-of-principle human in vitro model of the nigrostriatal pathway is created. By presenting a route for novel materials and unique architectures in microfluidic systems, the method provides new possibilities in biological research beyond neuroscience applications.
AUTHOR Browning, James R. and Derr, Paige and Derr, Kristy and Doudican, Nicole and Michael, Sam and Lish, Samantha R. and Taylor, Nicholas A. and Krueger, James G. and Ferrer, Marc and Carucci, John A. and Gareau, Daniel S.
Title A 3D biofabricated cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma tissue model with multi-channel confocal microscopy imaging biomarkers to quantify antitumor effects of chemotherapeutics in tissue [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Oncotarget; Vol 11, No 27
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// James R. Browning 1 , Paige Derr 2 , Kristy Derr 2 , Nicole Doudican 3 , Sam Michael 2 , Samantha R. Lish 1 , Nicholas A. Taylor 3 , James G. Krueger 1 , Marc Ferrer 2 , John A. Carucci 3 and Daniel S. Gareau 1 1 Laboratory for Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA 2 National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, USA 3 The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA Correspondence to: Daniel S. Gareau, email: dgareau@rockefeller.edu Keywords: squamous cell carcinoma; screening; 3D printing; in vitro model; confocal microscopy Received: January 05, 2020     Accepted: April 03, 2020     Published: July 07, 2020 ABSTRACT Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) causes approximately 10,000 deaths annually in the U. S. Current therapies are largely ineffective against metastatic and locally advanced cSCC. There is a need to identify novel, effective, and less toxic small molecule cSCC therapeutics. We developed a 3-dimensional bioprinted skin (3DBPS) model of cSCC tumors together with a microscopy assay to test chemotherapeutic effects in tissue. The full thickness SCC tissue model was validated using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical histological staining, confocal microscopy, and cDNA microarray analysis. A nondestructive, 3D fluorescence confocal imaging assay with tdTomato-labeled A431 SCC and ZsGreen-labeled keratinocytes was developed to test efficacy and general toxicity of chemotherapeutics. Fluorescence-derived imaging biomarkers indicated that 50% of cancer cells were killed in the tissue after 1?M 5-Fluorouracil 48-hour treatment, compared to a baseline of 12% for untreated controls. The imaging biomarkers also showed that normal keratinocytes were less affected by treatment (11% killed) than the untreated tissue, which had no significant killing effect. Data showed that 5-Fluorouracil selectively killed cSCC cells more than keratinocytes. Our 3DBPS assay platform provides cellular-level measurement of cell viability and can be adapted to achieve nondestructive high-throughput screening (HTS) in bio-fabricated tissues.
AUTHOR Monferrer, Ezequiel and Martín-Vañó, Susana and Carretero, Aitor and García-Lizarribar, Andrea and Burgos-Panadero, Rebeca and Navarro, Samuel and Samitier, Josep and Noguera, Rosa
Title A three-dimensional bioprinted model to evaluate the effect of stiffness on neuroblastoma cell cluster dynamics and behavior [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Scientific Reports
Reftype Monferrer2020
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Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted culture systems allow to accurately control microenvironment components and analyze their effects at cellular and tissue levels. The main objective of this study was to identify, quantify and localize the effects of physical-chemical communication signals between tumor cells and the surrounding biomaterial stiffness over time, defining how aggressiveness increases in SK-N-BE(2) neuroblastoma (NB) cell line. Biomimetic hydrogels with SK-N-BE(2) cells, methacrylated gelatin and increasing concentrations of methacrylated alginate (AlgMA 0%, 1% and 2%) were used. Young’s modulus was used to define the stiffness of bioprinted hydrogels and NB tumors. Stained sections of paraffin-embedded hydrogels were digitally quantified. Human NB and 1% AlgMA hydrogels presented similar Young´s modulus mean, and orthotopic NB mice tumors were equally similar to 0% and 1% AlgMA hydrogels. Porosity increased over time; cell cluster density decreased over time and with stiffness, and cell cluster occupancy generally increased with time and decreased with stiffness. In addition, cell proliferation, mRNA metabolism and antiapoptotic activity advanced over time and with stiffness. Together, this rheological, optical and digital data show the potential of the 3D in vitro cell model described herein to infer how intercellular space stiffness patterns drive the clinical behavior associated with NB patients.
AUTHOR Benmeridja, Lara and De Moor, Lise and De Maere, Elisabeth and Vanlauwe, Florian and Ryx, Michelle and Tytgat, Liesbeth and Vercruysse, Chris and Dubruel, Peter and Van Vlierberghe, Sandra and Blondeel, Phillip and Declercq, Heidi
Title High-throughput fabrication of vascularized adipose microtissues for 3D bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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Abstract For patients with soft tissue defects, repair with autologous in vitro engineered adipose tissue could be a promising alternative to current surgical therapies. A volume-persistent engineered adipose tissue construct under in vivo conditions can only be achieved by early vascularization after transplantation. The combination of 3D bioprinting technology with self-assembling microvascularized units as building blocks can potentially answer the need for a microvascular network. In the present study, co-culture spheroids combining adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were created with an ideal geometry for bioprinting. When applying the favourable seeding technique and condition, compact viable spheroids were obtained, demonstrating high adipogenic differentiation and capillary-like network formation after 7 and 14 days of culture, as shown by live/dead analysis, immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. Moreover, we were able to successfully 3D bioprint the encapsulated spheroids, resulting in compact viable spheroids presenting capillary-like structures, lipid droplets and spheroid outgrowth after 14 days of culture. This is the first study that generates viable high-throughput (pre-)vascularized adipose microtissues as building blocks for bioprinting applications using a novel ASC/HUVEC co-culture spheroid model, which enables both adipogenic differentiation while simultaneously supporting the formation of prevascular-like structures within engineered tissues in vitro.
AUTHOR Dubey, Nileshkumar and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Daghrery, Arwa and Aytac, Zeynep and Malda, Jos and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Highly Tunable Bioactive Fiber-Reinforced Hydrogel for Guided Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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One of the most damaging pathologies that affects the health of both soft and hard tissues around the tooth is periodontitis. Clinically, periodontal tissue destruction has been managed by an integrated approach involving elimination of injured tissues followed by regenerative strategies with bone substitutes and/or barrier membranes. Regrettably, a barrier membrane with predictable mechanical integrity and multifunctional therapeutic features has yet to be established. Herein, we report a fiber-reinforced hydrogel with unprecedented tunability in terms of mechanical competence and therapeutic features by integration of highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) fibrous mesh(es) with well-controlled 3D architecture into bioactive amorphous magnesium phosphate-laden gelatin methacryloyl hydrogels. The presence of amorphous magnesium phosphate and PCL mesh in the hydrogel can control the mechanical properties and improve the osteogenic ability, opening a tremendous opportunity in guided bone regeneration (GBR). Results demonstrate that the presence of PCL meshes fabricated via melt electrowriting can delay hydrogel degradation preventing soft tissue invasion and providing the mechanical barrier to allow time for slower migrating progenitor cells to participate in bone regeneration due to their ability to differentiate into bone-forming cells. Altogether, our approach offers a platform technology for the development of the next-generation of GBR membranes with tunable mechanical and therapeutic properties to amplify bone regeneration in compromised sites.
AUTHOR Peiffer, Quentin C. and de Ruijter, Mylène and van Duijn, Joost and Crottet, Denis and Dominic, Ernst and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel
Title Melt electrowriting onto anatomically relevant biodegradable substrates: Resurfacing a diarthrodial joint [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials & Design
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Abstract
Three-dimensional printed hydrogel constructs with well-organized melt electrowritten (MEW) fibre-reinforcing scaffolds have been demonstrated as a promising regenerative approach to treat small cartilage defects. Here, we investige how to translate the fabrication of small fibre-reinforced structures on flat surfaces to anatomically relevant structures. In particular, the accurate deposition of MEW-fibres onto curved surfaces of conductive and non-conductive regenerative biomaterials is studied. This study reveals that clinically relevant materials with low conductivities are compatible with resurfacing with organized MEW fibres. Importantly, accurate patterning on non-flat surfaces was successfully shown, provided that a constant electrical field strength and an electrical force normal to the substrate material is maintained. Furthermore, the application of resurfacing the geometry of the medial human femoral condyle is confirmed by the fabrication of a personalised osteochondral implant. The implant composed of an articular cartilage-resident chondroprogenitor cells (ACPCs)-laden hydrogel reinforced with a well-organized MEW scaffold retained its personalised shape, improved its compressive properties and supported neocartilage formation after 28 days in vitro culture. Overall, this study establishes the groundwork for translating MEW from planar and non-resorbable material substrates to anatomically relevant geometries and regenerative materials that the regenerative medicine field aims to create.
AUTHOR Afanasenkau, Dzmitry and Kalinina, Daria and Lyakhovetskii, Vsevolod and Tondera, Christoph and Gorsky, Oleg and Moosavi, Seyyed and Pavlova, Natalia and Merkulyeva, Natalia and Kalueff, Allan V. and Minev, Ivan R. and Musienko, Pavel
Title Rapid prototyping of soft bioelectronic implants for use as neuromuscular interfaces [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Nature Biomedical Engineering
Reftype Afanasenkau2020
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Neuromuscular interfaces are required to translate bioelectronic technologies for application in clinical medicine. Here, by leveraging the robotically controlled ink-jet deposition of low-viscosity conductive inks, extrusion of insulating silicone pastes and in situ activation of electrode surfaces via cold-air plasma, we show that soft biocompatible materials can be rapidly printed for the on-demand prototyping of customized electrode arrays well adjusted to specific anatomical environments, functions and experimental models. We also show, with the monitoring and activation of neuronal pathways in the brain, spinal cord and neuromuscular system of cats, rats and zebrafish, that the printed bioelectronic interfaces allow for long-term integration and functional stability. This technology might enable personalized bioelectronics for neuroprosthetic applications.
AUTHOR Fanous, Marina and Gold, Sarah and Muller, Silvain and Hirsch, Stefan and Ogorka, Joerg and Imanidis, Georgios
Title Simplification of fused deposition modeling 3D-printing paradigm: Feasibility of 1-step direct powder printing for immediate release dosage form production [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Direct powder three-dimensional (3D)-printing (DPP) of tablets to simplify fused deposition modelling (FDM) was explored. The FDM paradigm involving hot-melt extrusion for making 3D-printable drug-loaded filaments as intermediate products for tablet manufacturing has been gaining attention for the decentralized on-site production of personalized dosage forms. For direct 3D-printing, powder blends were loaded into a cartridge-like head and were successfully printed with honeycomb design following heating of the extrusion cartridge. This 1-step DPP with incorporation of in-built porosity providing higher surface area served as proof of concept for manufacture of rapid release dosage forms. Water soluble hydroxypropylcellulose SSL was chosen as matrix former and caffeine as model drug. The effect of PEG4000 as plasticizer/pore former and Kollidon VA64 as rapidly dissolving polymer on DPP processability and dissolution rate was investigated. Directly 3D-printed tablets with low (30%) infill density showed rapid dissolution independently of the formulation, whereas for high (80%) infill density a combination of PEG4000 and Kollidon VA64 was required to achieve rapid release. The obtained tablets demonstrated good uniformity of percent drug content but had variable weight. Caffeine was present in crystalline state and in the stable polymorph in the tablets. Hence, DPP feasibility for immediate release dosage form manufacture was demonstrated. This technique might create an opportunity to avoid hot-melt extrusion allowing 3D-printing independently of mechanical properties of a filament and potentially prolonging product shelf life by reducing thermal stress.
AUTHOR Wei, Zhengxi and Liu, Xue and Ooka, Masato and Zhang, Li and Song, Min Jae and Huang, Ruili and Kleinstreuer, Nicole C. and Simeonov, Anton and Xia, Menghang and Ferrer, Marc
Title Two-Dimensional Cellular and Three-Dimensional Bio-Printed Skin Models to Screen Topical-Use Compounds for Irritation Potential [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Assessing skin irritation potential is critical for the safety evaluation of topical drugs and other consumer products such as cosmetics. The use of advanced cellular models, as an alternative to replace animal testing in the safety evaluation for both consumer products and ingredients, is already mandated by law in the European Union (EU) and other countries. However, there has not yet been a large-scale comparison of the effects of topical-use compounds in different cellular skin models. This study assesses the irritation potential of topical-use compounds in different cellular models of the skin that are compatible with high throughput screening (HTS) platforms. A set of 451 topical-use compounds were first tested for cytotoxic effects using two-dimensional (2D) monolayer models of primary neonatal keratinocytes and immortalized human keratinocytes. Forty-six toxic compounds identified from the initial screen with the monolayer culture systems were further tested for skin irritation potential on reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) and full thickness skin (FTS) three-dimensional (3D) tissue model constructs. Skin irritation potential of the compounds was assessed by measuring tissue viability, trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), and secretion of cytokines interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α) and interleukin 18 (IL-18). Among known irritants, high concentrations of methyl violet and methylrosaniline decreased viability, lowered TEER, and increased IL-1α secretion in both RhE and FTS models, consistent with irritant properties. However, at low concentrations, these two compounds increased IL-18 secretion without affecting levels of secreted IL-1α, and did not reduce tissue viability and TEER, in either RhE or FTS models. This result suggests that at low concentrations, methyl violet and methylrosaniline have an allergic potential without causing irritation. Using both HTS-compatible 2D cellular and 3D tissue skin models, together with irritation relevant activity endpoints, we obtained data to help assess the irritation effects of topical-use compounds and identify potential dermal hazards.
AUTHOR Noor, Nadav and Shapira, Assaf and Edri, Reuven and Gal, Idan and Wertheim, Lior and Dvir, Tal
Title 3D Printing of Personalized Thick and Perfusable Cardiac Patches and Hearts [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Generation of thick vascularized tissues that fully match the patient still remains an unmet challenge in cardiac tissue engineering. Here, a simple approach to 3D-print thick, vascularized, and perfusable cardiac patches that completely match the immunological, cellular, biochemical, and anatomical properties of the patient is reported. To this end, a biopsy of an omental tissue is taken from patients. While the cells are reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cells, and differentiated to cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, the extracellular matrix is processed into a personalized hydrogel. Following, the two cell types are separately combined with hydrogels to form bioinks for the parenchymal cardiac tissue and blood vessels. The ability to print functional vascularized patches according to the patient's anatomy is demonstrated. Blood vessel architecture is further improved by mathematical modeling of oxygen transfer. The structure and function of the patches are studied in vitro, and cardiac cell morphology is assessed after transplantation, revealing elongated cardiomyocytes with massive actinin striation. Finally, as a proof of concept, cellularized human hearts with a natural architecture are printed. These results demonstrate the potential of the approach for engineering personalized tissues and organs, or for drug screening in an appropriate anatomical structure and patient-specific biochemical microenvironment.
AUTHOR Kleger, Nicole and Cihova, Martina and Masania, Kunal and Studart, André R. and Löffler, Jörg F.
Title 3d printing of salt as a template for magnesium with structured porosity [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings advanced materials
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Porosity is an essential feature in a wide range of applications that combine light weight with high surface area and tunable density. Porous materials can be easily prepared with a vast variety of chemistries using the salt-leaching technique. However, this templating approach has so far been limited to the fabrication of structures with random porosity and relatively simple macroscopic shapes. Here, a technique is reported that combines the ease of salt leaching with the complex shaping possibilities given by additive manufacturing (AM). By tuning the composition of surfactant and solvent, the salt-based paste is rheologically engineered and printed via direct ink writing into grid-like structures displaying structured pores that span from the sub-millimeter to the macroscopic scale. As a proof of concept, dried and sintered NaCl templates are infiltrated with magnesium (Mg), which is typically highly challenging to process by conventional AM techniques due to its highly oxidative nature and high vapor pressure. Mg scaffolds with well-controlled, ordered porosity are obtained after salt removal. The tunable mechanical properties and the potential to be predictably bioresorbed by the human body make these Mg scaffolds attractive for biomedical implants and demonstrate the great potential of this additive technique.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Biofabrication of spatially organised tissues by directing the growth of cellular spheroids within 3D printed polymeric microchambers [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Successful tissue engineering requires the generation of human scale implants that mimic the structure, composition and mechanical properties of native tissues. Here, we report a novel biofabrication strategy that enables the engineering of structurally organised tissues by guiding the growth of cellular spheroids within arrays of 3D printed polymeric microchambers. With the goal of engineering stratified articular cartilage, inkjet bioprinting was used to deposit defined numbers of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes into pre-printed microchambers. These jetted cell suspensions rapidly underwent condensation within the hydrophobic microchambers, leading to the formation of organised arrays of cellular spheroids. The microchambers were also designed to provide boundary conditions to these spheroids, guiding their growth and eventual fusion, leading to the development of stratified cartilage tissue with a depth-dependant collagen fiber architecture that mimicked the structure of native articular cartilage. Furthermore, the composition and biomechanical properties of the bioprinted cartilage was also comparable to the native tissue. Using multi-tool biofabrication, we were also able to engineer anatomically accurate, human scale, osteochondral templates by printing this microchamber system on top of a hypertrophic cartilage region designed to support endochondral bone formation and then maintaining the entire construct in long-term bioreactor culture to enhance tissue development. This bioprinting strategy provides a versatile and scalable approach to engineer structurally organised cartilage tissues for joint resurfacing applications.
AUTHOR Derr, Kristy and Zou, Jinyun and Luo, Keren and Song, Min Jae and Sittampalam, G. Sitta and Zhou, Chao and Michael, Samuel and Ferrer, Marc and Derr, Paige
Title Fully 3D Bioprinted Skin Equivalent Constructs with Validated Morphology and Barrier Function [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Development of high throughput, reproducible, three-dimensional bioprinted skin equivalents that are morphologically and functionally comparable to native skin tissue is advancing research in skin diseases, and providing a physiologically relevant platform for the development of therapeutics, transplants for regenerative medicine, and testing of skin products like cosmetics. Current protocols for the production of engineered skin rafts are limited in their ability to control three dimensional geometry of the structure and contraction leading to variability of skin function between constructs. Here we describe a method for the biofabrication of skin equivalents that are fully bioprinted using an open market bioprinter, made with commercially available primary cells and natural hydrogels. The unique hydrogel formulation allows for the production of a human-like skin equivalent with minimal lateral tissue contraction in a multiwell plate format, thus making them suitable for high throughput bioprinting in a single print with fast print and relatively short incubation times. The morphology and barrier function of the fully three-dimensional bioprinted skin equivalents are validated by immunohistochemistry staining, optical coherence tomography, and permeation assays.
AUTHOR Gonzalez-Fernandez, T. and Rathan, S. and Hobbs, C. and Pitacco, P. and Freeman, F. E. and Cunniffe, G. M. and Dunne, N. J. and McCarthy, H. O. and Nicolosi, V. and O'Brien, F. J. and Kelly, D. J.
Title Pore-forming bioinks to enable Spatio-temporally defined gene delivery in bioprinted tissues [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Controlled Release
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
The regeneration of complex tissues and organs remains a major clinical challenge. With a view towards bioprinting such tissues, we developed a new class of pore-forming bioink to spatially and temporally control the presentation of therapeutic genes within bioprinted tissues. By blending sacrificial and stable hydrogels, we were able to produce bioinks whose porosity increased with time following printing. When combined with amphipathic peptide-based plasmid DNA delivery, these bioinks supported enhanced non-viral gene transfer to stem cells in vitro. By modulating the porosity of these bioinks, it was possible to direct either rapid and transient (pore-forming bioinks), or slower and more sustained (solid bioinks) transfection of host or transplanted cells in vivo. To demonstrate the utility of these bioinks for the bioprinting of spatially complex tissues, they were next used to zonally position stem cells and plasmids encoding for either osteogenic (BMP2) or chondrogenic (combination of TGF-β3, BMP2 and SOX9) genes within networks of 3D printed thermoplastic fibers to produce mechanically reinforced, gene activated constructs. In vivo, these bioprinted tissues supported the development of a vascularised, bony tissue overlaid by a layer of stable cartilage. When combined with multiple-tool biofabrication strategies, these gene activated bioinks can enable the bioprinting of a wide range of spatially complex tissues.
AUTHOR Laternser, Sandra and Keller, Hansjoerg and Leupin, Olivier and Rausch, Martin and Graf-Hausner, Ursula and Rimann, Markus
Title A Novel Microplate 3D Bioprinting Platform for the Engineering of Muscle and Tendon Tissues [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings SLAS TECHNOLOGY: Translating Life Sciences Innovation
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures do not reflect the in vivo situation, and thus it is important to develop predictive three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models with enhanced reliability and robustness for drug screening applications. Treatments against muscle-related diseases are becoming more prominent due to the growth of the aging population worldwide. In this study, we describe a novel drug screening platform with automated production of 3D musculoskeletal-tendon-like tissues. With 3D bioprinting, alternating layers of photo-polymerized gelatin-methacryloyl-based bioink and cell suspension tissue models were produced in a dumbbell shape onto novel postholder cell culture inserts in 24-well plates. Monocultures of human primary skeletal muscle cells and rat tenocytes were printed around and between the posts. The cells showed high viability in culture and good tissue differentiation, based on marker gene and protein expressions. Different printing patterns of bioink and cells were explored and calcium signaling with Fluo4-loaded cells while electrically stimulated was shown. Finally, controlled co-printing of tenocytes and myoblasts around and between the posts, respectively, was demonstrated followed by co-culture and co-differentiation. This screening platform combining 3D bioprinting with a novel microplate represents a promising tool to address musculoskeletal diseases.
AUTHOR Khaled, Shaban A. and Alexander, Morgan R. and Irvine, Derek J. and Wildman, Ricky D. and Wallace, Martin J. and Sharpe, Sonja and Yoo, Jae and Roberts, Clive J.
Title Extrusion 3D Printing of Paracetamol Tablets from a Single Formulation with Tunable Release Profiles Through Control of Tablet Geometry [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings AAPS PharmSciTech
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
An extrusion-based 3D printer was used to fabricate paracetamol tablets with different geometries (mesh, ring and solid) from a single paste-based formulation formed from standard pharmaceutical ingredients. The tablets demonstrate that tunable drug release profiles can be achieved from this single formulation even with high drug loading (>{thinspace}80{%} w/w). The tablets were evaluated for drug release using a USP dissolution testing type I apparatus. The tablets showed well-defined release profiles (from immediate to sustained release) controlled by their different geometries. The dissolution results showed dependency of drug release on the surface area/volume (SA/V) ratio and the SA of the different tablets. The tablets with larger SA/V ratios and SA had faster drug release. The 3D printed tablets were also evaluated for physical and mechanical properties including tablet dimension, drug content, weight variation and breaking force and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the US Pharmacopoeia. X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to identify the physical form of the active and to assess possible drug-excipient interactions. These data again showed that the tablets meet USP requirement. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of 3D printing to create unique pharmaceutical manufacturing, and potentially clinical, opportunities. The ability to use a single unmodified formulation to achieve defined release profiles could allow, for example, relatively straightforward personalization of medicines for individuals with different metabolism rates for certain drugs and hence could offer significant development and clinical opportunities.
AUTHOR de Ruijter, Mylène and Ribeiro, Alexandre and Dokter, Inge and Castilho, Miguel and Malda, Jos
Title Simultaneous Micropatterning of Fibrous Meshes and Bioinks for the Fabrication of Living Tissue Constructs [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Fabrication of biomimetic tissues holds much promise for the regeneration of cells or organs that are lost or damaged due to injury or disease. To enable the generation of complex, multicellular tissues on demand, the ability to design and incorporate different materials and cell types needs to be improved. Two techniques are combined: extrusion-based bioprinting, which enables printing of cell-encapsulated hydrogels; and melt electrowriting (MEW), which enables fabrication of aligned (sub)-micrometer fibers into a single-step biofabrication process. Composite structures generated by infusion of MEW fiber structures with hydrogels have resulted in mechanically and biologically competent constructs; however, their preparation involves a two-step fabrication procedure that limits freedom of design of microfiber architectures and the use of multiple materials and cell types. How convergence of MEW and extrusion-based bioprinting allows fabrication of mechanically stable constructs with the spatial distributions of different cell types without compromising cell viability and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells is demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this converged printing approach improves freedom of design of the MEW fibers, enabling 3D fiber deposition. This is an important step toward biofabrication of voluminous and complex hierarchical structures that can better resemble the characteristics of functional biological tissues.
AUTHOR Cunniffe, Gráinne and Gonzalez-Fernandez, Tomas and Daly, Andrew and Nelson Sathy, Binulal and Jeon, Oju and Alsberg, Eben and J. Kelly, Daniel
Title Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Polycaprolactone Reinforced Gene Activated Bioinks for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part A
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Regeneration of complex bone defects remains a significant clinical challenge. Multi-tool biofabrication has permitted the combination of various biomaterials to create multifaceted composites with tailorable mechanical properties and spatially controlled biological function. In this study we sought to use bioprinting to engineer nonviral gene activated constructs reinforced by polymeric micro-filaments. A gene activated bioink was developed using RGD-g-irradiated alginate and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) complexed to plasmid DNA (pDNA). This ink was combined with bonemarrow-derived mesenchymal stemcells (MSCs) and then co-printed with a polycaprolactone supporting mesh to provide mechanical stability to the construct. Reporter genes were first used to demonstrate successful cell transfection using this system, with sustained expression of the transgene detected over 14 days postbioprinting. Delivery of a combination of therapeutic genes encoding for bone morphogenic protein and transforming growth factor promoted robust osteogenesis of encapsulated MSCs in vitro, with enhanced levels of matrix deposition and mineralization observed following the incorporation of therapeutic pDNA. Gene activated MSC-laden constructs were then implanted subcutaneously, directly postfabrication, and were found to support superior levels of vascularization andmineralization compared to cell-free controls. These results validate the use of a gene activated bioink to impart biological functionality to three-dimensional bioprinted constructs.
AUTHOR Khaled, Shaban A. and Burley, Jonathan C. and Alexander, Morgan R. and Yang, Jing and Roberts, Clive J.
Title 3D printing of five-in-one dose combination polypill with defined immediate and sustained release profiles [Abstract]
Year 2015
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Controlled Release
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract We have used three dimensional (3D) extrusion printing to manufacture a multi-active solid dosage form or so called polypill. This contains five compartmentalised drugs with two independently controlled and well-defined release profiles. This polypill demonstrates that complex medication regimes can be combined in a single personalised tablet. This could potentially improve adherence for those patients currently taking many separate tablets and also allow ready tailoring of a particular drug combination/drug release for the needs of an individual. The polypill here represents a cardiovascular treatment regime with the incorporation of an immediate release compartment with aspirin and hydrochlorothiazide and three sustained release compartments containing pravastatin, atenolol, and ramipril. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used to assess drug-excipient interaction. The printed polypills were evaluated for drug release using {USP} dissolution testing. We found that the polypill showed the intended immediate and sustained release profiles based upon the active/excipient ratio used.
AUTHOR Yao, Y. and Raymond, J. E. and Kauffmann, F. and Maekawa, S. and Sugai, J. V. and Lahann, J. and Giannobile, W. V.
Title Multicompartmental Scaffolds for Coordinated Periodontal Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Dental Research
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Successful periodontal repair and regeneration requires the coordinated responses from soft and hard tissues as well as the soft tissue–to–bone interfaces. Inspired by the hierarchical structure of native periodontal tissues, tissue engineering technology provides unique opportunities to coordinate multiple cell types into scaffolds that mimic the natural periodontal structure in vitro. In this study, we designed and fabricated highly ordered multicompartmental scaffolds by melt electrowriting, an advanced 3-dimensional (3D) printing technique. This strategy attempted to mimic the characteristic periodontal microenvironment through multicompartmental constructs comprising 3 tissue-specific regions: 1) a bone compartment with dense mesh structure, 2) a ligament compartment mimicking the highly aligned periodontal ligaments (PDLs), and 3) a transition region that bridges the bone and ligament, a critical feature that differentiates this system from mono- or bicompartmental alternatives. The multicompartmental constructs successfully achieved coordinated proliferation and differentiation of multiple cell types in vitro within short time, including both ligamentous- and bone-derived cells. Long-term 3D coculture of primary human osteoblasts and PDL fibroblasts led to a mineral gradient from calcified to uncalcified regions with PDL-like insertions within the transition region, an effect that is challenging to achieve with mono- or bicompartmental platforms. This process effectively recapitulates the key feature of interfacial tissues in periodontium. Collectively, this tissue-engineered approach offers a fundament for engineering periodontal tissue constructs with characteristic 3D microenvironments similar to native tissues. This multicompartmental 3D printing approach is also highly compatible with the design of next-generation scaffolds, with both highly adjustable compartmentalization properties and patient-specific shapes, for multitissue engineering in complex periodontal defects.
AUTHOR Roopesh, Ramesh Pai and Muthusamy, Senthilkumar and Velayudhan, Shiny and Sabareeswaran, Arumugham and Anil Kumar, Pallickaveedu RajanAsari
Title High-throughput production of liver parenchymal microtissues and enrichment of organ-specific functions in gelatin methacrylamide microenvironment [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Liver parenchymal microtissues (LPMTs) are three-dimensional (3D) aggregates of hepatocytes that recapitulate in vivo-like cellular assembly. They are considered as a valuable model to study drug metabolism, disease biology, and serve as ideal building blocks for liver tissue engineering. However, their integration into the mainstream drug screening process has been hindered due to the lack of simple, rapid techniques to produce a large number of uniform microtissues and preserve their structural–functional integrity over the long term. Here, we present a high-throughput methodology to produce LPMTs in a novel, economic, and reusable Hanging-drop Culture Chamber (HdCC). A drop-on-demand bioprinting approach was optimized to generate droplets of HepG2 cell suspension on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The substrates carrying droplets were placed inside a novel HdCC and incubated to obtain 1600 LPMTs having a size of 200–300 μm. Tissue size, cell viability, cellular arrangement and polarity, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake by LPMTs were analyzed. The microtissues were viable and exhibited an active response to insulin stimulation. Cells within the microtissue reorganized to form hepatic plate-like structures and expressed apical (Multidrug Resistance Protein 2 [MRP2]) and epithelial (Zonula Occludens 1 [ZO1]) markers. Further to maintain the structural integrity and enhance the functional capabilities, LPMTs were sandwiched within gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA) hydrogel and the liver-specific functions were monitored for 2 weeks. The results showed that the 3D structure of LPMTs in GelMA sandwich was maintained while the albumin secretion, urea synthesis, and cytochrome P450 activity were enhanced compared with LPMTs in suspension. In conclusion, this study presents a novel culture chamber for mass production of microtissues and a method for enhancing organ-specific functions of LPMTs in vitro.
AUTHOR Dusserre, Nathalie and Stachowicz, Marie-Laure and Medina, Chantal and Henri, Baptiste and Fricain, Jean-Christophe and Paris, François and Oliveira, Hugo
Title Microvalve bioprinting as a biofabrication tool to decipher tumor and endothelial cell crosstalk: Application to a simplified glioblastoma model [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Bioprinting technologies are powerful new bioengineering tools that can spatially reproduce multiple microenvironmental cues in a highly controlled, tunable, and precise manner. In this study, microvalve bioprinting technology was successfully used to print in close proximity endothelial and tumor cells at higher concentrations than previously thought possible, while preserving their viability. We propose that the resulting multicellular models, bioprinted in a controlled extracellular matrix microenvironment, are well-suited to study endothelial and cancer cell crosstalk within a cancer niche. As proof of concept, microvalve bioprinting was applied to the bioengineering of a simplified glioblastoma model in which biological processes involved in tumor expansion, such as tumor cell invasion patterns, cell proliferation, and senescence could be easily visualized and quantified. In this model, U251 glioblastoma cells and primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exhibited good printability and high viability after printing. U251 cells formed physiologically relevant clusters and invasion margins, while HUVECs generated vascular-like networks when primary fibroblasts were added to the model. An oxidative stress mimicking the one encountered within a tumor microenvironment during radiotherapy or genotoxic chemotherapy was shown to both diminish endothelial cells proliferation and to increase their senescence. Results also suggested that stressed glioblastoma cells may alter normal endothelial cell proliferation but not impact their senescence. This data demonstrates the potential of microvalve bioprinting to fabricate in vitro models that can help decipher endothelial and tumor cell crosstalk, within controlled and modulable microenvironments, and can then be used to address critical questions in the context of cancer recurrence.
AUTHOR Freeman, Fiona E. and Pitacco, Pierluca and van Dommelen, Lieke H. A. and Nulty, Jessica and Browe, David C. and Shin, Jung-Youn and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D bioprinting spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors to tightly control tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Science Advances
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Therapeutic growth factor delivery typically requires supraphysiological dosages, which can cause undesirable off-target effects. The aim of this study was to 3D bioprint implants containing spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors optimized for coupled angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Using nanoparticle functionalized bioinks, it was possible to print implants with distinct growth factor patterns and release profiles spanning from days to weeks. The extent of angiogenesis in vivo depended on the spatial presentation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Higher levels of vessel invasion were observed in implants containing a spatial gradient of VEGF compared to those homogenously loaded with the same total amount of protein. Printed implants containing a gradient of VEGF, coupled with spatially defined BMP-2 localization and release kinetics, accelerated large bone defect healing with little heterotopic bone formation. This demonstrates the potential of growth factor printing, a putative point of care therapy, for tightly controlled tissue regeneration.
AUTHOR Lee, Ji Seung and Park, Hae Sang and Jung, Harry and Lee, Hanna and Hong, Heesun and Lee, Young Jin and Suh, Ye Ji and Lee, Ok Joo and Kim, Soon Hee and Park, Chan Hum
Title 3D-printable photocurable bioink for cartilage regeneration of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Additive Manufacturing
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Cartilage regeneration is challenging because of the poor intrinsic self-repair capacity of avascular tissue. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has gained significant attention in the field of tissue engineering and is a promising technology to overcome current difficulties in cartilage regeneration. Although bioink is an essential component of bioprinting technology, several challenges remain in satisfying different requirements for ideal bioink, including biocompatibility and printability based on specific biological requirements. Gelatin and hyaluronic acid (HA) have been shown to be ideal biomimetic hydrogel sources for cartilage regeneration. However, controlling their structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and degradation rate for cartilage repair remains a challenge. Here, we show a photocurable bioink created by hybridization of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and glycidyl-methacrylated HA (GMHA) for material extrusion 3D bioprinting in cartilage regeneration. GelMA and GMHA were mixed in various ratios, and the mixture of 7% GelMA and 5% GMHA bioink (G7H5) demonstrated the most reliable mechanical properties, rheological properties, and printability. This G7H5 bioink allowed us to build a highly complex larynx structure, including the hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, arytenoid cartilage, and cervical trachea. This bioink also provided an excellent microenvironment for chondrogenesis of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) in vitro and in vivo. In summary, this study presents the ideal formulation of GelMA/GMHA hybrid bioink to generate a well-suited photocurable bioink for cartilage regeneration of TMSCs using a material extrusion bioprinter, and could be applied to cartilage tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Liu, Xue and Michael, Samuel and Bharti, Kapil and Ferrer, Marc and Song, Min Jae
Title A biofabricated vascularized skin model of atopic dermatitis for preclinical studies [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) biofabrication techniques enable the production of multicellular tissue models as assay platforms for drug screening. The increased cellular and physiological complexity in these 3D tissue models should recapitulate the relevant biological environment found in the body. Here we describe the use of 3D bioprinting techniques to fabricate skin equivalent tissues of varying physiological complexity, including human epidermis, non-vascularized and vascularized full-thickness skin tissue equivalents, in a multi-well platform to enable drug screening. Human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and pericytes, and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived endothelial cells were used in the biofabrication process to produce the varying complexity. The skin equivalents exhibit the correct structural markers of dermis and epidermis stratification, with physiological functions of the skin barrier. The robustness, versatility and reproducibility of the biofabrication techniques are further highlighted by the generation of atopic dermatitis (AD)-disease like tissues. These AD models demonstrate several clinical hallmarks of the disease, including: (i) spongiosis and hyperplasia; (ii) early and terminal expression of differentiation proteins; and (iii) increases in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We show the pre-clinical relevance of the biofabricated AD tissue models to correct disease phenotype by testing the effects of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, and three Janus Kinase inhibitors from clinical trials for AD. This study demonstrates the development of a versatile and reproducible bioprinting approach to create human skin equivalents with a range of cellular complexity for disease modelling. In addition, we establish several assay readouts that are quantifiable, robust, AD relevant, and can be scaled up for compound screening. The results show that the cellular complexity of the tissues develops a more physiologically relevant AD disease model. Thus, the skin models in this study offer an in vitro approach for the rapid understanding of pathological mechanisms, and testing for efficacy of action and toxic effects of drugs.
AUTHOR Colle, Julien and Blondeel, Phillip and De Bruyne, Axelle and Bochar, Silke and Tytgat, Liesbeth and Vercruysse, Chris and Van Vlierberghe, Sandra and Dubruel, Peter and Declercq, Heidi
Title Bioprinting predifferentiated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell spheroids with methacrylated gelatin ink for adipose tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine
Reftype Colle2020
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
The increasing number of mastectomies results in a greater demand for breast reconstruction characterized by simplicity and a low complication profile. Reconstructive surgeons are investigating tissue engineering (TE) strategies to overcome the current surgical drawbacks. 3D bioprinting is the rising technique for the fabrication of large tissue constructs which provides a potential solution for unmet clinical needs in breast reconstruction building on decades of experience in autologous fat grafting, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ASC) biology and TE. A scaffold was bioprinted using encapsulated ASC spheroids in methacrylated gelatin ink (GelMA). Uniform ASC spheroids with an ideal geometry and diameter for bioprinting were formed, using a high-throughput non-adhesive agarose microwell system. ASC spheroids in adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM) were evaluated through live/dead staining, histology (HE, Oil Red O), TEM and RT-qPCR. Viable spheroids were obtained for up to 14 days post-printing and showed multilocular microvacuoles and successful differentiation toward mature adipocytes shown by gene expression analysis. Moreover, spheroids were able to assemble at random in GelMA, creating a macrotissue. Combining the advantage of microtissues to self-assemble and the controlled organization by bioprinting technologies, these ASC spheroids can be useful as building blocks for the engineering of soft tissue implants.
AUTHOR Zhang, Danwei and Jonhson, Win and Herng, Tun Seng and Ang, Yong Quan and Yang, Lin and Tan, Swee Ching and Peng, Erwin and He, Hui and Ding, Jun
Title A 3D-printing method of fabrication for metals{,} ceramics{,} and multi-materials using a universal self-curable technique for robocasting [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Materials Horizons
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Ceramics and metals are important materials that modern technologies are constructed from. The capability to produce such materials in a complex geometry with good mechanical properties can revolutionize the way we engineer our devices. Current curing techniques pose challenges such as high energy requirements{,} limitations of materials with high refractive index{,} tedious post-processing heat treatment processes{,} uneven drying shrinkages{,} and brittleness of green bodies. In this paper{,} a novel modified self-curable epoxide–amine 3D printing system is proposed to print a wide range of ceramics (metal oxides{,} nitrides{,} and carbides) and metals without the need for an external curing source. Through this technique{,} complex multi-material structures (with metal–ceramic and ceramic–ceramic combinations) can also be realized. Tailoring and matching the sintering temperatures of different materials through sintering additives and dopants{,} combined with a structural design providing maximum adhesion between interfaces{,} allow us to successfully obtain superior quality sintered multi-material structures. High-quality ceramic and metallic materials have been achieved (e.g.{,} zirconia with >98% theoretical density). Also{,} highly conductive metals and magnetic ceramics were printed and shaped uniquely without the need for a sacrificial support. With the addition of low molecular weight plasticizers and a multi-stage heat treatment process{,} crack-free and dense high-quality integrated multi-material structures fabricated by 3D printing can thus be a reality in the near future.
AUTHOR Khaled, Shaban A. and Alexander, Morgan R. and Wildman, Ricky D. and Wallace, Martin J. and Sharpe, Sonja and Yoo, Jae and Roberts, Clive J.
Title 3D extrusion printing of high drug loading immediate release paracetamol tablets [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
The manufacture of immediate release high drug loading paracetamol oral tablets was achieved using an extrusion based 3D printer from a premixed water based paste formulation. The 3D printed tablets demonstrate that a very high drug (paracetamol) loading formulation (80% w/w) can be printed as an acceptable tablet using a method suitable for personalisation and distributed manufacture. Paracetamol is an example of a drug whose physical form can present challenges to traditional powder compression tableting. Printing avoids these issues and facilitates the relatively high drug loading. The 3D printed tablets were evaluated for physical and mechanical properties including weight variation, friability, breaking force, disintegration time, and dimensions and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) was used to identify the physical form of the active. Additionally, XRPD, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to assess possible drug-excipient interactions. The 3D printed tablets were evaluated for drug release using a USP dissolution testing type I apparatus. The tablets showed a profile characteristic of the immediate release profile as intended based upon the active/excipient ratio used with disintegration in less than 60 s and release of most of the drug within 5 min. The results demonstrate the capability of 3D extrusion based printing to produce acceptable high-drug loading tablets from approved materials that comply with current USP standards.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Pitacco, Pierluca and Nulty, Jessica and Cunniffe, Gráinne M. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D printed microchannel networks to direct vascularisation during endochondral bone repair [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Bone tissue engineering strategies that recapitulate the developmental process of endochondral ossification offer a promising route to bone repair. Clinical translation of such endochondral tissue engineering strategies will require overcoming a number of challenges, including the engineering of large and often anatomically complex cartilage grafts, as well as the persistence of core regions of avascular cartilage following their implantation into large bone defects. Here 3D printing technology is utilized to develop a versatile and scalable approach to guide vascularisation during endochondral bone repair. First, a sacrificial pluronic ink was used to 3D print interconnected microchannel networks in a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) laden gelatin-methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel. These constructs (with and without microchannels) were next chondrogenically primed in vitro and then implanted into critically sized femoral bone defects in rats. The solid and microchanneled cartilage templates enhanced bone repair compared to untreated controls, with the solid cartilage templates (without microchannels) supporting the highest levels of total bone formation. However, the inclusion of 3D printed microchannels was found to promote osteoclast/immune cell invasion, hydrogel degradation, and vascularisation following implantation. In addition, the endochondral bone tissue engineering strategy was found to support comparable levels of bone healing to BMP-2 delivery, whilst promoting lower levels of heterotopic bone formation, with the microchanneled templates supporting the lowest levels of heterotopic bone formation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 3D printed hypertrophic cartilage grafts represent a promising approach for the repair of complex bone fractures, particularly for larger defects where vascularisation will be a key challenge.
AUTHOR Ng, Wei Long and Qi, Jovina Tan Zhi and Yeong, Wai Yee and Naing, May Win
Title Proof-of-concept: 3D bioprinting of pigmented human skin constructs [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) pigmented human skin constructs have been fabricated using a 3D bioprinting approach. The 3D pigmented human skin constructs are obtained from using three different types of skin cells (keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts from three different skin donors) and they exhibit similar constitutive pigmentation (pale pigmentation) as the skin donors. A two-step drop-on-demand bioprinting strategy facilitates the deposition of cell droplets to emulate the epidermal melanin units (pre-defined patterning of keratinocytes and melanocytes at the desired positions) and manipulation of the microenvironment to fabricate 3D biomimetic hierarchical porous structures found in native skin tissue. The 3D bioprinted pigmented skin constructs are compared to the pigmented skin constructs fabricated by conventional a manual-casting approach; in-depth characterization of both the 3D pigmented skin constructs has indicated that the 3D bioprinted skin constructs have a higher degree of resemblance to native skin tissue in term of the presence of well-developed stratified epidermal layers and the presence of a continuous layer of basement membrane proteins as compared to the manually-cast samples. The 3D bioprinting approach facilitates the development of 3D in vitro pigmented human skin constructs for potential toxicology testing and fundamental cell biology research.
AUTHOR Khaled, Shaban A. and Burley, Jonathan C. and Alexander, Morgan R. and Yang, Jing and Roberts, Clive J.
Title 3D printing of tablets containing multiple drugs with defined release profiles [Abstract]
Year 2015
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract We have employed three-dimensional (3D) extrusion-based printing as a medicine manufacturing technique for the production of multi-active tablets with well-defined and separate controlled release profiles for three different drugs. This ‘polypill’ made by a 3D additive manufacture technique demonstrates that complex medication regimes can be combined in a single tablet and that it is viable to formulate and ‘dial up’ this single tablet for the particular needs of an individual. The tablets used to illustrate this concept incorporate an osmotic pump with the drug captopril and sustained release compartments with the drugs nifedipine and glipizide. This combination of medicines could potentially be used to treat diabetics suffering from hypertension. The room temperature extrusion process used to print the formulations used excipients commonly employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were used to assess drug–excipient interaction. The printed formulations were evaluated for drug release using {USP} dissolution testing. We found that the captopril portion showed the intended zero order drug release of an osmotic pump and noted that the nifedipine and glipizide portions showed either first order release or Korsmeyer–Peppas release kinetics dependent upon the active/excipient ratio used.
AUTHOR Kajtez, Janko and Wesseler, Milan Finn and Birtele, Marcella and Khorasgani, Farinaz Riyahi and Rylander Ottosson, Daniella and Heiskanen, Arto and Kamperman, Tom and Leijten, Jeroen and Martínez-Serrano, Alberto and Larsen, Niels B. and Angelini, Thomas E. and Parmar, Malin and Lind, Johan U. and Emnéus, Jenny
Title Embedded 3D Printing in Self-Healing Annealable Composites for Precise Patterning of Functionally Mature Human Neural Constructs [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Human in vitro models of neural tissue with tunable microenvironment and defined spatial arrangement are needed to facilitate studies of brain development and disease. Towards this end, embedded printing inside granular gels holds great promise as it allows precise patterning of extremely soft tissue constructs. However, granular printing support formulations are restricted to only a handful of materials. Therefore, there has been a need for novel materials that take advantage of versatile biomimicry of bulk hydrogels while providing high-fidelity support for embedded printing akin to granular gels. To address this need, Authors present a modular platform for bioengineering of neuronal networks via direct embedded 3D printing of human stem cells inside Self-Healing Annealable Particle-Extracellular matrix (SHAPE) composites. SHAPE composites consist of soft microgels immersed in viscous extracellular-matrix solution to enable precise and programmable patterning of human stem cells and consequent generation mature subtype-specific neurons that extend projections into the volume of the annealed support. The developed approach further allows multi-ink deposition, live spatial and temporal monitoring of oxygen levels, as well as creation of vascular-like channels. Due to its modularity and versatility, SHAPE biomanufacturing toolbox has potential to be used in applications beyond functional modeling of mechanically sensitive neural constructs.
AUTHOR Kessel, Benjamin and Lee, Mihyun and Bonato, Angela and Tinguely, Yann and Tosoratti, Enrico and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title 3D Bioprinting of Macroporous Materials Based on Entangled Hydrogel Microstrands [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Hydrogels are excellent mimetics of mammalian extracellular matrices and have found widespread use in tissue engineering. Nanoporosity of monolithic bulk hydrogels, however, limits mass transport of key biomolecules. Microgels used in 3D bioprinting achieve both custom shape and vastly improved permissivity to an array of cell functions, however spherical-microbead-based bioinks are challenging to upscale, are inherently isotropic, and require secondary crosslinking. Here, bioinks based on high-aspect-ratio hydrogel microstrands are introduced to overcome these limitations. Pre-crosslinked, bulk hydrogels are deconstructed into microstrands by sizing through a grid with apertures of 40–100 µm. The microstrands are moldable and form a porous, entangled structure, stable in aqueous medium without further crosslinking. Entangled microstrands have rheological properties characteristic of excellent bioinks for extrusion bioprinting. Furthermore, individual microstrands align during extrusion and facilitate the alignment of myotubes. Cells can be placed either inside or outside the hydrogel phase with >90% viability. Chondrocytes co-printed with the microstrands deposit abundant extracellular matrix, resulting in a modulus increase from 2.7 to 780.2 kPa after 6 weeks of culture. This powerful approach to deconstruct bulk hydrogels into advanced bioinks is both scalable and versatile, representing an important toolbox for 3D bioprinting of architected hydrogels.
AUTHOR Zhang, Danwei and Peng, Erwin and Borayek, Ramadan and Ding, Jun
Title Controllable Ceramic Green-Body Configuration for Complex Ceramic Architectures with Fine Features [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Functional Materials
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Fabrication of dense ceramic articles with intricate fine features and geometrically complex morphology by using a relatively simple and the cost-effective process still remains a challenge. Ceramics, either in its green- or sintered-form, are known for being hard yet brittle which limits further shape reconfiguration. In this work, a combinatorial process of ceramic robocasting and photopolymerization is demonstrated to produce either flexible and/or stretchable ceramic green-body (Flex-Body or Stretch-Body) that can undergo a postprinting reconfiguration process. Secondary shaping may proceed through: i) self-assembly-assisted shaping and ii) mold-assisted shaping process, which allows a well-controlled ceramic structure morphology. With a proposed well-controlled thermal heating process, the ceramic Sintered-Body can achieve >99.0% theoretical density with good mechanical rigidity. Complex and dense ceramic articles with fine features down to 65 μm can be fabricated. When combined with a multi-nozzle deposition process, i) self-shaping ceramic structures can be realized through anisotropic shrinkage induced by suspensions' composition variation and ii) technical and functional multiceramic structures can be fabricated. The simplicity of the proposed technique and its inexpensive processing cost make it an attractive approach for fabricating geometrically complex ceramic articles with unique macrostructures, which complements the existing state of-the-art ceramic additive manufacturing techniques.
AUTHOR Azim, N. and Hart, C. and Sommerhage, F. and Aubin, M. and Hickman, J. J. and Rajaraman, S.
Title Precision Plating of Human Electrogenic Cells on Microelectrodes Enhanced With Precision Electrodeposited Nano-Porous Platinum for Cell-Based Biosensing Applications [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Microelectrode Arrays are established platforms for biosensing applications; however, limitations in electrode impedance and cell-electrode coupling still exist. In this paper, the SNR of 25 μm diameter gold (Au) microelectrodes was improved by decreasing the impedance with precision electrodeposition. SEM determined that N-P Pt. microelectrodes had nanoporous structures that filled the insulation cylinders. EIS, CV, and RMS noise measurements concluded that the optimized electrodeposition of N-P Pt. led to a lowered impedance of 18.36 kΩ ± 2.6 kΩ at 1 kHz, a larger double layer capacitance of 73 nF, and lowered RMS noise of 2.08±0.16 μV as compared to the values for Au of 159 kΩ ± 28 kΩ at 1 kHz, 17nF, and 3.14 ± 0.42 μV, respectively. Human motoneurons and human cardiomyocytes were cultured on N-P Pt. devices to assess their biocompatibility and signal quality. In order to improve the cell-electrode coupling, a precision plating technique was used. Both cell types were electrically active on devices for up to 10 weeks, demonstrated improved SNR, and expected responses to precision chemical and electrical stimulation. The modification of Au microelectrodes with nanomaterials in combination with precision culturing of human cell types provides cost effective, highly sensitive, well coupled and relevant biosensing platforms for medical and pharmaceutical research.
AUTHOR Kokkinis, Dimitri and Bouville, Florian and Studart, André R.
Title 3D Printing of Materials with Tunable Failure via Bioinspired Mechanical Gradients [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Materials
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Mechanical gradients are useful to reduce strain mismatches in heterogeneous materials and thus prevent premature failure of devices in a wide range of applications. While complex graded designs are a hallmark of biological materials, gradients in manmade materials are often limited to 1D profiles due to the lack of adequate fabrication tools. Here, a multimaterial 3D‐printing platform is developed to fabricate elastomer gradients spanning three orders of magnitude in elastic modulus and used to investigate the role of various bioinspired gradient designs on the local and global mechanical behavior of synthetic materials. The digital image correlation data and finite element modeling indicate that gradients can be effectively used to manipulate the stress state and thus circumvent the weakening effect of defect‐rich interfaces or program the failure behavior of heterogeneous materials. Implementing this concept in materials with bioinspired designs can potentially lead to defect‐tolerant structures and to materials whose tunable failure facilitates repair of biomedical implants, stretchable electronics, or soft robotics.
AUTHOR Schaffner, Manuel and Faber, Jakob A. and Pianegonda, Lucas and Rühs, Patrick A. and Coulter, Fergal and Studart, André R.
Title 3D printing of robotic soft actuators with programmable bioinspired architectures [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Nature Communications
Reftype Schaffner2018
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Soft actuation allows robots to interact safely with humans, other machines, and their surroundings. Full exploitation of the potential of soft actuators has, however, been hindered by the lack of simple manufacturing routes to generate multimaterial parts with intricate shapes and architectures. Here, we report a 3D printing platform for the seamless digital fabrication of pneumatic silicone actuators exhibiting programmable bioinspired architectures and motions. The actuators comprise an elastomeric body whose surface is decorated with reinforcing stripes at a well-defined lead angle. Similar to the fibrous architectures found in muscular hydrostats, the lead angle can be altered to achieve elongation, contraction, or twisting motions. Using a quantitative model based on lamination theory, we establish design principles for the digital fabrication of silicone-based soft actuators whose functional response is programmed within the material's properties and architecture. Exploring such programmability enables 3D printing of a broad range of soft morphing structures.
AUTHOR Schaffner, Manuel and R{"u}hs, Patrick A. and Coulter, Fergal and Kilcher, Samuel and Studart, Andr{'e} R.
Title 3D printing of bacteria into functional complex materials [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Science Advances
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Despite recent advances to control the spatial composition and dynamic functionalities of bacteria embedded in materials, bacterial localization into complex three-dimensional (3D) geometries remains a major challenge. We demonstrate a 3D printing approach to create bacteria-derived functional materials by combining the natural diverse metabolism of bacteria with the shape design freedom of additive manufacturing. To achieve this, we embedded bacteria in a biocompatible and functionalized 3D printing ink and printed two types of {textquotedblleft}living materials{textquotedblright} capable of degrading pollutants and of producing medically relevant bacterial cellulose. With this versatile bacteria-printing platform, complex materials displaying spatially specific compositions, geometry, and properties not accessed by standard technologies can be assembled from bottom up for new biotechnological and biomedical applications.
AUTHOR Schroeder, Thomas B. H. and Guha, Anirvan and Lamoureux, Aaron and VanRenterghem, Gloria and Sept, David and Shtein, Max and Yang, Jerry and Mayer, Michael
Title An electric-eel-inspired soft power source from stacked hydrogels [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Nature
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Progress towards the integration of technology into livingo ganisms requires electrical power sources that are biocompatible, mechanically flexible, and able to harness the chemical energy available inside biological systems. Conventional batteries were not designed with these criteria in mind. The electric organ of the knifefish Electrophorus electricus (commonly known as the electric eel) is, however, an example of an electrical power source that operates within biological constraints while featuring power characteristics that include peak potential differences of 600 volts and currents of 1 ampere1,2. Here we introduce an electric eel-inspired power concept that uses gradients of ions between miniature polyacrylamide hydrogel compartments bounded by a repeating sequence of cation- and anion-selective hydrogel membranes. The system uses a scalable stacking or folding geometry that generates 110 volts at open circuit or 27 milliwatts per square metre per gel cell upon simultaneous, self-registered mechanical contact activation of thousands of gel compartments in series while circumventing power dissipation before contact. Unlike typical batteries, these systems are soft, flexible, transparent, and potentially biocompatible. These characteristics suggest that artificial electric organs could be used to power next-generation implant materials such as pacemakers, implantable sensors, or prosthetic devices in hybrids of living and non-living systems3–6.�
AUTHOR Liu, Chun and Dai, Ting and Wu, Xiaoyu and Ma, Jiayi and Liu, Jun and Wu, Siyu and Yang, Lei and Zhao, Hongbin
Title 3D bioprinting of cell-laden nano-attapulgite/gelatin methacrylate composite hydrogel scaffolds for bone tissue repair [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Materials Science & Technology
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Bone tissue engineering (BTE) has proven to be a promising strategy for bone defect repair. Due to its excellent biological properties, gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels have been used as bioinks for 3D bioprinting in some BTE studies to produce scaffolds for bone regeneration. However, applications for load-bearing defects are limited by poor mechanical properties and a lack of bioactivity. In this study, 3D printing technology was used to create nano-attapulgite (nano-ATP)/GelMA composite hydrogels loaded into mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and mouse umbilical vein endothelial cells (MUVECs). The bioprintability, physicochemical properties, and mechanical properties were all thoroughly evaluated. Our findings showed that nano-ATP groups outperform the control group in terms of printability, indicating that nano-ATP is beneficial for printability. Additionally, after incorporation with nano-ATP, the mechanical strength of the composite hydrogels was significantly improved, resulting in adequate mechanical properties for bone regeneration. The presence of nano-ATP in the scaffolds has also been studied for cell-material interactions. The findings show that cells within the scaffold not only have high viability but also a clear proclivity to promote osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Besides, the MUVECs-loaded composite hydrogels demonstrated increased angiogenic activity. A cranial defect model was also developed to evaluate the bone repair capability of scaffolds loaded with rat BMSCs. According to histological analysis, cell-laden nano-ATP composite hydrogels can effectively improve bone regeneration and promote angiogenesis. This study demonstrated the potential of nano-ATP for bone tissue engineering, which should also increase the clinical practicality of nano-ATP.
AUTHOR Wesdorp, Marinus A. and Schwab, Andrea and Bektas, Ezgi Irem and Narcisi, Roberto and Eglin, David and Stoddart, Martin J. and Van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M. and D'Este, Matteo
Title A culture model to analyze the acute biomaterial-dependent reaction of human primary neutrophils in vitro [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Bioactive Materials
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Neutrophils play a pivotal role in orchestrating the immune system response to biomaterials, the onset and resolution of chronic inflammation, and macrophage polarization. However, the neutrophil response to biomaterials and the consequent impact on tissue engineering approaches is still scarcely understood. Here, we report an in vitro culture model that comprehensively describes the most important neutrophil functions in the light of tissue repair. We isolated human primary neutrophils from peripheral blood and exposed them to a panel of hard, soft, naturally- and synthetically-derived materials. The overall trend showed increased neutrophil survival on naturally derived constructs, together with higher oxidative burst, decreased myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase and decreased cytokine secretion compared to neutrophils on synthetic materials. The culture model is a step to better understand the immune modulation elicited by biomaterials. Further studies are needed to correlate the neutrophil response to tissue healing and to elucidate the mechanism triggering the cell response and their consequences in determining inflammation onset and resolution.
AUTHOR Pitacco, Pierluca and Sadowska, Joanna M. and O'Brien, Fergal J. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D bioprinting of cartilaginous templates for large bone defect healing [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Damaged or diseased bone can be treated using autografts or a range of different bone grafting biomaterials, however limitations with such approaches has motivated increased interest in developmentally inspired bone tissue engineering (BTE) strategies that seek to recapitulate the process of endochondral ossification (EO) as a means of regenerating critically sized defects. The clinical translation of such strategies will require the engineering of scaled-up, geometrically defined hypertrophic cartilage grafts that can be rapidly vascularised and remodelled into bone in mechanically challenging defect environments. The goal of this study was to 3D bioprint mechanically reinforced cartilaginous templates and to assess their capacity to regenerate critically sized femoral bone defects. Human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) were incorporated into fibrin based bioinks and bioprinted into polycaprolactone (PCL) frameworks to produce mechanically reinforced constructs. Chondrogenic priming of such hMSC laden constructs was required to support robust vascularisation and graft mineralisation in vivo following their subcutaneous implantation into nude mice. With a view towards maximising their potential to support endochondral bone regeneration, we next explored different in vitro culture regimes to produce chondrogenic and early hypertrophic engineered grafts. Following their implantation into femoral bone defects within transiently immunosuppressed rats, such bioprinted constructs were rapidly remodelled into bone in vivo, with early hypertrophic constructs supporting higher levels of vascularisation and bone formation compared to the chondrogenic constructs. Such early hypertrophic bioprinted constructs also supported higher levels of vascularisation and spatially distinct patterns of new formation compared to BMP-2 loaded collagen scaffolds (here used as a positive control). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that fibrin based bioinks support chondrogenesis of hMSCs in vitro, which enables the bioprinting of mechanically reinforced hypertrophic cartilaginous templates capable of supporting large bone defect regeneration. These results support the use of 3D bioprinting as a strategy to scale-up the engineering of developmentally inspired templates for BTE. Statement of significance Despite the promise of developmentally inspired tissue engineering strategies for bone regeneration, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to enable clinical translation. This work reports the development and assessment (in vitro and in vivo) of a 3D bioprinting strategy to engineer mechanically-reinforced cartilaginous templates for large bone defect regeneration using human MSCs. Using distinct in vitro priming protocols, it was possible to generate cartilage grafts with altered phenotypes. More hypertrophic grafts, engineered in vitro using TGF-β3 and BMP-2, supported higher levels of blood vessel infiltration and accelerated bone regeneration in vivo. This study also identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages of such endochondral bone TE strategies over the direct delivery of BMP-2 from collagen-based scaffolds.
AUTHOR Leu Alexa, Rebeca and Cucuruz, Andreia and Ghițulică, Cristina-Daniela and Voicu, Georgeta and Stamat (Balahura), Liliana-Roxana and Dinescu, Sorina and Vlasceanu, George Mihail and Stavarache, Cristina and Ianchis, Raluca and Iovu, Horia and Costache, Marieta
Title 3D Printable Composite Biomaterials Based on GelMA and Hydroxyapatite Powders Doped with Cerium Ions for Bone Tissue Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
The main objective was to produce 3D printable hydrogels based on GelMA and hydroxyapatite doped with cerium ions with potential application in bone regeneration. The first part of the study regards the substitution of Ca2+ ions from hydroxyapatite structure with cerium ions (Ca10-xCex(PO4)6(OH)2, xCe = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5). The second part followed the selection of the optimal concentration of HAp doped, which will ensure GelMA-based scaffolds with good biocompatibility, viability and cell proliferation. The third part aimed to select the optimal concentrations of GelMA for the 3D printing process (20%, 30% and 35%). In vitro biological assessment presented the highest level of cell viability and proliferation potency of GelMA-HC5 composites, along with a low cytotoxic potential, highlighting the beneficial effects of cerium on cell growth, also supported by Live/Dead results. According to the 3D printing experiments, the 30% GelMA enriched with HC5 was able to generate 3D scaffolds with high structural integrity and homogeneity, showing the highest suitability for the 3D printing process. The osteogenic differentiation experiments confirmed the ability of 30% GelMA-3% HC5 scaffold to support and efficiently maintain the osteogenesis process. Based on the results, 30% GelMA-3% HC5 3D printed scaffolds could be considered as biomaterials with suitable characteristics for application in bone tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Katcharava, Zviadi and Marinow, Anja and Bhandary, Rajesh and Binder, Wolfgang H.
Title 3D Printable Composite Polymer Electrolytes: Influence of SiO2 Nanoparticles on 3D-Printability [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Nanomaterials
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
We here demonstrate the preparation of composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) for Li-ion batteries, applicable for 3D printing process via fused deposition modeling. The prepared composites consist of modified poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and SiO2-based nanofillers. PEG was successfully end group modified yielding telechelic PEG containing either ureidopyrimidone (UPy) or barbiturate moieties, capable to form supramolecular networks via hydrogen bonds, thus introducing self-healing to the electrolyte system. Silica nanoparticles (NPs) were used as a filler for further adjustment of mechanical properties of the electrolyte to enable 3D-printability. The surface functionalization of the NPs with either ionic liquid (IL) or hydrophobic alkyl chains is expected to lead to an improved dispersion of the NPs within the polymer matrix. Composites with different content of NPs (5%, 10%, 15%) and LiTFSI salt (EO/Li+ = 5, 10, 20) were analyzed via rheology for a better understanding of 3D printability, and via Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy (BDS) for checking their ionic conductivity. The composite electrolyte PEG 1500 UPy2/LiTFSI (EO:Li 5:1) mixed with 15% NP-IL was successfully 3D printed, revealing its suitability for application as printable composite electrolytes.
AUTHOR Leu Alexa, Rebeca and Cucuruz, Andreia and Ghițulică, Cristina-Daniela and Voicu, Georgeta and Stamat (Balahura), Liliana-Roxana and Dinescu, Sorina and Vlasceanu, George Mihail and Iovu, Horia and Serafim, Andrada and Ianchis, Raluca and Ciocan, Lucian-Toma and Costache, Marieta
Title 3D Printed Composite Scaffolds of GelMA and Hydroxyapatite Nanopowders Doped with Mg/Zn Ions to Evaluate the Expression of Genes and Proteins of Osteogenic Markers [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Nanomaterials
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
As bone diseases and defects are constantly increasing, the improvement of bone regeneration techniques is constantly evolving. The main purpose of this scientific study was to obtain and investigate biomaterials that can be used in tissue engineering. In this respect, nanocomposite inks of GelMA modified with hydroxyapatite (HA) substituted with Mg and Zn were developed. Using a 3D bioprinting technique, scaffolds with varying shapes and dimensions were obtained. The following analyses were used in order to study the nanocomposite materials and scaffolds obtained by the 3D printing technique: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT). The swelling and dissolvability of each scaffold were also studied. Biological studies, osteopontin (OPN), and osterix (OSX) gene expression evaluations were confirmed at the protein levels, using immunofluorescence coupled with confocal microscopy. These findings suggest the positive effect of magnesium and zinc on the osteogenic differentiation process. OSX fluorescent staining also confirmed the capacity of GelMA-HM5 and GelMA-HZ5 to support osteogenesis, especially of the magnesium enriched scaffold.
AUTHOR Kuthe, Sudhanshu and Schlothauer, Arthur and Bodkhe, Sampada and Hulme, Christopher and Ermanni, Paolo
Title 3D printed mechanically representative aortic model made of gelatin fiber reinforced silicone composite [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Materials Letters
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) is a useful technology to produce artificial aortic models for the training of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) surgery. With AM, the models can be tailored towards the individualized aortic anatomy of patients. Most of these reported models so far are manufactured using single rubber-like materials. However, such materials do not replicate the mechanical properties of natural aortic tissue, especially the stress–strain response in higher strain (>0.1) regions. This could be problematic for surgeons training for surgeries using a model which does not exhibit properties of the real aorta. To overcome this limitation, we developed a 3D-printed, mechanically representative aortic model comprising gelatin fibers and silicone. The model is promising as a realistic analog of aortic sinus for mock TAVR surgery. Computerized tomography data was analyzed beforehand using medical imaging to identify the anatomy of a specific patient’s aortic sinus and the surrounding blood vessels. A novel silicone matrix composite reinforced with gelatin fibers designed in this work was tested and compared with the stress–strain response of aortic tissue. Such a model comprising both patient-specific geometries as well as realistic material properties of aortic tissue can be helpful for the development of next-generation medical phantoms.
AUTHOR Kamdem Tamo, Arnaud and Tran, Tuan Anh and Doench, Ingo and Jahangir, Shaghayegh and Lall, Aastha and David, Laurent and Peniche-Covas, Carlos and Walther, Andreas and Osorio-Madrazo, Anayancy
Title 3D Printing of Cellulase-Laden Cellulose Nanofiber/Chitosan Hydrogel Composites: Towards Tissue Engineering Functional Biomaterials with Enzyme-Mediated Biodegradation [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Materials
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Abstract
The 3D printing of a multifunctional hydrogel biomaterial with bioactivity for tissue engineering, good mechanical properties and a biodegradability mediated by free and encapsulated cellulase was proposed. Bioinks of cellulase-laden and cellulose nanofiber filled chitosan viscous suspensions were used to 3D print enzymatic biodegradable and biocompatible cellulose nanofiber (CNF) reinforced chitosan (CHI) hydrogels. The study of the kinetics of CNF enzymatic degradation was studied in situ in fibroblast cell culture. To preserve enzyme stability as well as to guarantee its sustained release, the cellulase was preliminarily encapsulated in chitosan–caseinate nanoparticles, which were further incorporated in the CNF/CHI viscous suspension before the 3D printing of the ink. The incorporation of the enzyme within the CHI/CNF hydrogel contributed to control the decrease of the CNF mechanical reinforcement in the long term while keeping the cell growth-promoting property of chitosan. The hydrolysis kinetics of cellulose in the 3D printed scaffolds showed a slow but sustained degradation of the CNFs with enzyme, with approximately 65% and 55% relative activities still obtained after 14 days of incubation for the encapsulated and free enzyme, respectively. The 3D printed composite hydrogels showed excellent cytocompatibility supporting fibroblast cell attachment, proliferation and growth. Ultimately, the concomitant cell growth and biodegradation of CNFs within the 3D printed CHI/CNF scaffolds highlights the remarkable potential of CHI/CNF composites in the design of tissue models for the development of 3D constructs with tailored in vitro/in vivo degradability for biomedical applications.
AUTHOR Hashimi, Noura Sayed Al and Soman, Soja Saghar and Govindharaj, Mano and Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj
Title 3D printing of complex architected metamaterial structures by simple material extrusion for bone tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Materials Today Communications
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Abstract
Triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) are gaining popularity as scaffolds for bioapplications due to their unique structure, offering strong mechanical properties and biomorphic surfaces which enhance cell attachment and proliferation. In this work, polymer TPMS sheet lattices were printed using a well-known yet unprecedented technique of manufacturing such structures; which is material extrusion (specifically, pneumatic melt extrusion). This method offers a one step, straightforward yet reliable way to print complex porous structures while retaining design accuracy and significantly simplifying the process. Multiple primitive, gyroid and cubic structures were designed using MSLattice and Solidworks with 70% porosity and 2×2×3 unit cells. The scaffolds were printed by melt extrusion of polycaprolactone (PCL) at different parameters to establish the optimal settings. Morphological features (pore size and strut thickness) were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the accuracy of print was determined by comparing to the design, showing high print accuracy and minimal percentage errors of less than 15% in all prints. Uniaxial compression testing was used to demonstrate the different deformation processes of the scaffolds and evaluate their mechanical properties, with primitive having the highest modulus and gyroid the highest yield strength. Finally, cell viability was quantified by alamar blue cell viability assay and visualized by SEM, displaying significant increase in cell proliferation and attachment, specifically in the primitive structure. Herein we will explain the challenges faced with design and print optimization and how we overcame them, making this work the first of its kind in material extrusion (pneumatic melt extrusion) printing of TPMS scaffolds.
AUTHOR Hilgeroth, Philipp S. and Thümmler, Justus F. and Binder, Wolfgang H.
Title 3D Printing of Triamcinolone Acetonide in Triblock Copolymers of Styrene–Isobutylene–Styrene as a Slow-Release System [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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Abstract
Additive manufacturing has a wide range of applications and has opened up new methods of drug formulation, in turn achieving attention in medicine. We prepared styrene–isobutylene–styrene triblock copolymers (SIBS; Mn = 10 kDa–25 kDa, PDI 1,3–1,6) as a drug carrier for triamcinolone acetonide (TA), further processed by fused deposition modeling to create a solid drug release system displaying improved bioavailability and applicability. Living carbocationic polymerization was used to exert control over block length and polymeric architecture. Thermorheological properties of the SIBS polymer (22.3 kDa, 38 wt % S) were adjusted to the printability of SIBS/TA mixtures (1–5% of TA), generating an effective release system effective for more than 60 days. Continuous drug release and morphological investigations were conducted to probe the influence of the 3D printing process on the drug release, enabling 3D printing as a formulation method for a slow-release system of Triamcinolone.
AUTHOR Liu, Guangde and Yu, Rongrong and Liu, Dong and Xia, Yuanhua and Pei, Xiaoyuan and Wang, Wei and Min, Chunying and Liu, Shengkai and Shao, Ruiqi and Xu, Zhiwei
Title 3D-printed TiO2-Ti3C2Tx heterojunction/rGO/PDMS composites with gradient pore size for electromagnetic interference shielding and thermal management [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing
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