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AUTHOR Ainsworth, Madison Jade and Chirico, Nino and de Ruijter, Mylène and Hrynevich, Andrei and Dokter, Inge and Sluijter, Joost P. G. and Malda, Jos and van Mil, Alain and Castilho, Miguel
Title Convergence of melt electrowriting and extrusion-based bioprinting for vascular patterning of a myocardial construct [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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To progress cardiac tissue engineering strategies closer to the clinic, thicker constructs are required to meet the functional need following a cardiac event. Consequently, pre-vascularization of these constructs needs to be investigated to ensure survival and optimal performance of implantable engineered heart tissue. The aim of this research is to investigate the potential of combining extrusion-based bioprinting (EBB) and melt electrowriting for the fabrication of a myocardial construct with a precisely patterned pre-vascular pathway. Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) was investigated as a base hydrogel for the respective myocardial and vascular bioinks with collagen, Matrigel and fibrinogen as interpenetrating polymers to support myocardial functionality. Subsequently, extrusion-based printability and viability were investigated to determine the optimal processing parameters for printing into melt electrowritten meshes. Finally, an anatomically inspired vascular pathway was implemented in a dual EBB set-up into melt electrowritten meshes, creating a patterned pre-vascularized myocardial construct. It was determined that a blend of 5% GelMA and 0.8 mg·ml−1 collagen with a low crosslinked density was optimal for myocardial cellular arrangement and alignment within the constructs. For the vascular fraction, the optimized formulation consisted of 5% GelMA, 0.8 mg·ml−1 collagen and 1 mg·ml−1 fibrinogen with a higher crosslinked density, which led to enhanced vascular cell connectivity. Printability assessment confirmed that the optimized bioinks could effectively fill the microfiber mesh while supporting cell viability (∼70%). Finally, the two bioinks were applied using a dual EBB system for the fabrication of a pre-vascular pathway with the shape of a left anterior descending artery within a myocardial construct, whereby the distinct cell populations could be visualized in their respective patterns up to D14. This research investigated the first step towards developing a thick engineered cardiac tissue construct in which a pre-vascularization pathway is fabricated within a myocardial construct.
AUTHOR Ribezzi, Davide and Gueye, Marième and Florczak, Sammy and Dusi, Franziska and de Vos, Dieuwke and Manente, Francesca and Hierholzer, Andreas and Fussenegger, Martin and Caiazzo, Massimiliano and Blunk, Torsten and Malda, Jos and Levato, Riccardo
Title Shaping Synthetic Multicellular and Complex Multimaterial Tissues via Embedded Extrusion-Volumetric Printing of Microgels [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Materials
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Abstract In living tissues, cells express their functions following complex signals from their surrounding microenvironment. Capturing both hierarchical architectures at the micro- and macroscale, and anisotropic cell patterning remains a major challenge in bioprinting, and a bottleneck towards creating physiologically-relevant models. Addressing this limitation, we introduced a novel technique, termed Embedded Extrusion-Volumetric Printing (EmVP), converging extrusion-bioprinting and layer-less, ultra-fast volumetric bioprinting, allowing to spatially pattern multiple inks/cell types. Light-responsive microgels were developed for the first time as bioresins (μResins) for light-based volumetric bioprinting, providing a microporous environment permissive for cell homing and self-organization. Tuning the mechanical and optical properties of gelatin-based microparticles enables their use as support bath for suspended extrusion printing, in which features containing high cell densities can be easily introduced. μResins can be sculpted within seconds with tomographic light projections into centimetre-scale, granular hydrogel-based, convoluted constructs. Interstitial microvoids enhanced differentiation of multiple stem/progenitor cells (vascular, mesenchymal, neural), otherwise not possible with conventional bulk hydrogels. As proof-of-concept, EmVP was applied to create complex synthetic biology-inspired intercellular communication models, where adipocyte differentiation is regulated by optogenetic-engineered pancreatic cells. Overall, EmVP offers new avenues for producing regenerative grafts with biological functionality, and for developing engineered living systems and (metabolic) disease models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
AUTHOR Nothdurfter, Daniel and Ploner, Christian and Coraça-Huber, Débora C. and Wilflingseder, Doris and Müller, Thomas and Hermann, Martin and Hagenbuchner, Judith and Ausserlechner, Michael J.
Title 3D bioprinted, vascularized neuroblastoma tumor environment in fluidic chip devices for precision medicine drug testing [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Neuroblastoma is an extracranial solid tumor which develops in early childhood and still has a poor prognosis. One strategy to increase cure rates is the identification of patient-specific drug responses in tissue models that mimic the interaction between patient cancer cells and tumor environment. We therefore developed a perfused and micro-vascularized tumor-environment model that is directly bioprinted into custom-manufactured fluidic chips. A gelatin-methacrylate/fibrin-based matrix containing multiple cell types mimics the tumor-microenvironment that promotes spontaneous micro-vessel formation by embedded endothelial cells. We demonstrate that both, adipocyte- and iPSC-derived mesenchymal stem cells can guide this process. Bioprinted channels are coated with endothelial cells post printing to form a dense vessel - tissue barrier. The tissue model thereby mimics structure and function of human soft tissue with endothelial cell-coated larger vessels for perfusion and micro-vessel networks within the hydrogel-matrix. Patient-derived neuroblastoma spheroids are added to the matrix during the printing process and grown for more than two weeks. We demonstrate that micro-vessels are attracted by and grow into tumor spheroids and that neuroblastoma cells invade the tumor-environment as soon as the spheroids disrupt. In summary, we describe the first bioprinted, micro-vascularized neuroblastoma – tumor-environment model directly printed into fluidic chips and a novel medium-throughput biofabrication platform suitable for studying tumor angiogenesis and metastasis in precision medicine approaches in future.
AUTHOR Terpstra, Margo L. and Li, Jinyu and Mensinga, Anneloes and de Ruijter, Myl{`{e}}ne and van Rijen, Mattie H. P. and Androulidakis, Charalampos and Galiotis, Costas and Papantoniou, Ioannis and Matsusaki, Michiya and Malda, Jos and Levato, Riccardo
Title Bioink with cartilage-derived extracellular matrix microfibers enables spatial control of vascular capillary formation in bioprinted constructs [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Microvasculature is essential for the exchange of gas and nutrient for most tissues in our body. Some tissue structures such as the meniscus presents spatially confined blood vessels adjacent to non-vascularized regions. In biofabrication, mimicking the spatial distribution of such vascular components is paramount, as capillary ingrowth into non-vascularized tissues can lead to tissue matrix alterations and subsequent pathology. Multi-material three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting strategies have the potential to resolve anisotropic tissue features, although building complex constructs comprising stable vascularized and non-vascularized regions remains a major challenge to date. In this study, we developed endothelial cell-laden pro- and anti-angiogenic bioinks, supplemented with bioactive matrix-derived microfibers (MFs) that were created from type I collagen sponges (col-1) and cartilage decellularized extracellular matrix (CdECM), respectively. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)-driven capillary networks started to form 2 d after bioprinting. Supplementing cartilage-derived MFs to endothelial-cell laden bioinks reduced the total length of neo-microvessels by 29%, and the number of microvessel junctions by 37% after 14 d, compared to bioinks with pro-angiogenic col-1 MFs. As a proof of concept, the bioinks were bioprinted into an anatomical meniscus shape with a biomimetic vascularized outer and non-vascularized inner region, using a gellan gum microgel suspension bath. These 3D meniscus-like constructs were cultured up to 14 d, with in the outer zone the HUVEC-, mural cell-, and col-1 MF-laden pro-angiogenic bioink, and in the inner zone a meniscus progenitor cell (MPC)- and CdECM MF-laden anti-angiogenic bioink, revealing successful spatial confinement of the nascent vascular network only in the outer zone. Further, to co-facilitate both microvessel formation and MPC-derived matrix formation, we formulated cell culture medium conditions with a temporal switch. Overall, this study provides a new strategy that could be applied to develop zonal biomimetic meniscal constructs. Moreover, the use of ECM-derived MFs to promote or inhibit capillary networks opens new possibilities for the biofabrication of tissues with anisotropic microvascular distribution. These have potential for many applications including in vitro models of vascular-to-avascular tissue interfaces, cancer progression, and for testing anti-angiogenic therapies.
AUTHOR Habelt, Bettina and Wirth, Christopher and Afanasenkau, Dzmitry and Mihaylova, Lyudmila and Winter, Christine and Arvaneh, Mahnaz and Minev, Ivan R. and Bernhardt, Nadine
Title A Multimodal Neuroprosthetic Interface to Record, Modulate and Classify Electrophysiological Biomarkers Relevant to Neuropsychiatric Disorders [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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Most mental disorders, such as addictive diseases or schizophrenia, are characterized by impaired cognitive function and behavior control originating from disturbances within prefrontal neural networks. Their often chronic reoccurring nature and the lack of efficient therapies necessitate the development of new treatment strategies. Brain-computer interfaces, equipped with multiple sensing and stimulation abilities, offer a new toolbox whose suitability for diagnosis and therapy of mental disorders has not yet been explored. This study, therefore, aimed to develop a biocompatible and multimodal neuroprosthesis to measure and modulate prefrontal neurophysiological features of neuropsychiatric symptoms. We used a 3D-printing technology to rapidly prototype customized bioelectronic implants through robot-controlled deposition of soft silicones and a conductive platinum ink. We implanted the device epidurally above the medial prefrontal cortex of rats and obtained auditory event-related brain potentials in treatment-naïve animals, after alcohol administration and following neuromodulation through implant-driven electrical brain stimulation and cortical delivery of the anti-relapse medication naltrexone. Towards smart neuroprosthetic interfaces, we furthermore developed machine learning algorithms to autonomously classify treatment effects within the neural recordings. The neuroprosthesis successfully captured neural activity patterns reflecting intact stimulus processing and alcohol-induced neural depression. Moreover, implant-driven electrical and pharmacological stimulation enabled successful enhancement of neural activity. A machine learning approach based on stepwise linear discriminant analysis was able to deal with sparsity in the data and distinguished treatments with high accuracy. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of multimodal bioelectronic systems to monitor, modulate and identify healthy and affected brain states with potential use in a personalized and optimized therapy of neuropsychiatric disorders.
AUTHOR Bouwmeester, Manon C. and Bernal, Paulina N. and Oosterhoff, Loes A. and van Wolferen, Monique E. and Lehmann, Vivian and Vermaas, Monique and Buchholz, Maj-Britt and Peiffer, Quentin C. and Malda, Jos and van der Laan, Luc J. W. and Kramer, Nynke I. and Schneeberger, Kerstin and Levato, Riccardo and Spee, Bart
Title Bioprinting of Human Liver-Derived Epithelial Organoids for Toxicity Studies [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Macromolecular Bioscience
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Abstract There is a need for long-lived hepatic in vitro models to better predict drug induced liver injury (DILI). Human liver-derived epithelial organoids are a promising cell source for advanced in vitro models. Here, organoid technology is combined with biofabrication techniques, which holds great potential for the design of in vitro models with complex and customizable architectures. Here, porous constructs with human hepatocyte-like cells derived from organoids are generated using extrusion-based printing technology. Cell viability of bioprinted organoids remains stable for up to ten days (88–107% cell viability compared to the day of printing). The expression of hepatic markers, transporters, and phase I enzymes increased compared to undifferentiated controls, and is comparable to non-printed controls. Exposure to acetaminophen, a well-known hepatotoxic compound, decreases cell viability of bioprinted liver organoids to 21–51% (p < 0.05) compared to the start of exposure, and elevated levels of damage marker miR-122 are observed in the culture medium, indicating the potential use of the bioprinted constructs for toxicity testing. In conclusion, human liver-derived epithelial organoids can be combined with a biofabrication approach, thereby paving the way to create perfusable, complex constructs which can be used as toxicology- and disease-models.
AUTHOR He, Shaolong and Radeke, Carmen and Jacobsen, Jette and Lind, Johan Ulrik and Mu, Huiling
Title Multi-material 3D printing of programmable and stretchable oromucosal patches for delivery of saquinavir [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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Oromucosal patches for drug delivery allow fast onset of action and ability to circumvent hepatic first pass metabolism of drugs. While conventional fabrication methods such as solvent casting or hot melt extrusion are ideal for scalable production of low-cost delivery patches, these methods chiefly allow for simple, homogenous patch designs. As alternative, a multi-material direct-ink-write 3D printing for rapid fabrication of complex oromucosal patches with unique design features was demonstrated in the present study. Specifically, three print-materials: an acidic saquinavir-loaded hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ink, an alkaline effervescent sodium carbonate-loaded ink, and a methyl cellulose backing material were combined in various designs. The CO2 content and pH of the microenvironment were controlled by adjusting the number of alkaline layers in the patch. Additionally, the rigid and brittle patches were converted to compliant and stretchable patches by implementing mesh-like designs. Our results illustrate how 3D printing can be used for rapid design and fabrication of multifunctional or customized oromucosal patches with tailored dosages and changed drug permeation.
AUTHOR Asulin, Masha and Michael, Idan and Shapira, Assaf and Dvir, Tal
Title One-Step 3D Printing of Heart Patches with Built-In Electronics for Performance Regulation [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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Abstract Three dimensional (3D) printing of heart patches usually provides the ability to precisely control cell location in 3D space. Here, one-step 3D printing of cardiac patches with built-in soft and stretchable electronics is reported. The tissue is simultaneously printed using three distinct bioinks for the cells, for the conducting parts of the electronics and for the dielectric components. It is shown that the hybrid system can withstand continuous physical deformations as those taking place in the contracting myocardium. The electronic patch is flexible, stretchable, and soft, and the electrodes within the printed patch are able to monitor the function of the engineered tissue by providing extracellular potentials. Furthermore, the system allowed controlling tissue function by providing electrical stimulation for pacing. It is envisioned that such transplantable patches may regain heart contractility and allow the physician to monitor the implant function as well as to efficiently intervene from afar when needed.
AUTHOR Kajtez, Janko and Buchmann, Sebastian and Vasudevan, Shashank and Birtele, Marcella and Rocchetti, Stefano and Pless, Christian Jonathan and Heiskanen, Arto and Barker, Roger A. and Martínez-Serrano, Alberto and Parmar, Malin and Lind, Johan Ulrik and Emnéus, Jenny
Title 3D-Printed Soft Lithography for Complex Compartmentalized Microfluidic Neural Devices [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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Abstract Compartmentalized microfluidic platforms are an invaluable tool in neuroscience research. However, harnessing the full potential of this technology remains hindered by the lack of a simple fabrication approach for the creation of intricate device architectures with high-aspect ratio features. Here, a hybrid additive manufacturing approach is presented for the fabrication of open-well compartmentalized neural devices that provides larger freedom of device design, removes the need for manual postprocessing, and allows an increase in the biocompatibility of the system. Suitability of the method for multimaterial integration allows to tailor the device architecture for the long-term maintenance of healthy human stem-cell derived neurons and astrocytes, spanning at least 40 days. Leveraging fast-prototyping capabilities at both micro and macroscale, a proof-of-principle human in vitro model of the nigrostriatal pathway is created. By presenting a route for novel materials and unique architectures in microfluidic systems, the method provides new possibilities in biological research beyond neuroscience applications.
AUTHOR Monferrer, Ezequiel and Martín-Vañó, Susana and Carretero, Aitor and García-Lizarribar, Andrea and Burgos-Panadero, Rebeca and Navarro, Samuel and Samitier, Josep and Noguera, Rosa
Title A three-dimensional bioprinted model to evaluate the effect of stiffness on neuroblastoma cell cluster dynamics and behavior [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Scientific Reports
Reftype Monferrer2020
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Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted culture systems allow to accurately control microenvironment components and analyze their effects at cellular and tissue levels. The main objective of this study was to identify, quantify and localize the effects of physical-chemical communication signals between tumor cells and the surrounding biomaterial stiffness over time, defining how aggressiveness increases in SK-N-BE(2) neuroblastoma (NB) cell line. Biomimetic hydrogels with SK-N-BE(2) cells, methacrylated gelatin and increasing concentrations of methacrylated alginate (AlgMA 0%, 1% and 2%) were used. Young’s modulus was used to define the stiffness of bioprinted hydrogels and NB tumors. Stained sections of paraffin-embedded hydrogels were digitally quantified. Human NB and 1% AlgMA hydrogels presented similar Young´s modulus mean, and orthotopic NB mice tumors were equally similar to 0% and 1% AlgMA hydrogels. Porosity increased over time; cell cluster density decreased over time and with stiffness, and cell cluster occupancy generally increased with time and decreased with stiffness. In addition, cell proliferation, mRNA metabolism and antiapoptotic activity advanced over time and with stiffness. Together, this rheological, optical and digital data show the potential of the 3D in vitro cell model described herein to infer how intercellular space stiffness patterns drive the clinical behavior associated with NB patients.
AUTHOR Benmeridja, Lara and De Moor, Lise and De Maere, Elisabeth and Vanlauwe, Florian and Ryx, Michelle and Tytgat, Liesbeth and Vercruysse, Chris and Dubruel, Peter and Van Vlierberghe, Sandra and Blondeel, Phillip and Declercq, Heidi
Title High-throughput fabrication of vascularized adipose microtissues for 3D bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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Abstract For patients with soft tissue defects, repair with autologous in vitro engineered adipose tissue could be a promising alternative to current surgical therapies. A volume-persistent engineered adipose tissue construct under in vivo conditions can only be achieved by early vascularization after transplantation. The combination of 3D bioprinting technology with self-assembling microvascularized units as building blocks can potentially answer the need for a microvascular network. In the present study, co-culture spheroids combining adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were created with an ideal geometry for bioprinting. When applying the favourable seeding technique and condition, compact viable spheroids were obtained, demonstrating high adipogenic differentiation and capillary-like network formation after 7 and 14 days of culture, as shown by live/dead analysis, immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. Moreover, we were able to successfully 3D bioprint the encapsulated spheroids, resulting in compact viable spheroids presenting capillary-like structures, lipid droplets and spheroid outgrowth after 14 days of culture. This is the first study that generates viable high-throughput (pre-)vascularized adipose microtissues as building blocks for bioprinting applications using a novel ASC/HUVEC co-culture spheroid model, which enables both adipogenic differentiation while simultaneously supporting the formation of prevascular-like structures within engineered tissues in vitro.
AUTHOR Afanasenkau, Dzmitry and Kalinina, Daria and Lyakhovetskii, Vsevolod and Tondera, Christoph and Gorsky, Oleg and Moosavi, Seyyed and Pavlova, Natalia and Merkulyeva, Natalia and Kalueff, Allan V. and Minev, Ivan R. and Musienko, Pavel
Title Rapid prototyping of soft bioelectronic implants for use as neuromuscular interfaces [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Nature Biomedical Engineering
Reftype Afanasenkau2020
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Abstract
Neuromuscular interfaces are required to translate bioelectronic technologies for application in clinical medicine. Here, by leveraging the robotically controlled ink-jet deposition of low-viscosity conductive inks, extrusion of insulating silicone pastes and in situ activation of electrode surfaces via cold-air plasma, we show that soft biocompatible materials can be rapidly printed for the on-demand prototyping of customized electrode arrays well adjusted to specific anatomical environments, functions and experimental models. We also show, with the monitoring and activation of neuronal pathways in the brain, spinal cord and neuromuscular system of cats, rats and zebrafish, that the printed bioelectronic interfaces allow for long-term integration and functional stability. This technology might enable personalized bioelectronics for neuroprosthetic applications.
AUTHOR Noor, Nadav and Shapira, Assaf and Edri, Reuven and Gal, Idan and Wertheim, Lior and Dvir, Tal
Title 3D Printing of Personalized Thick and Perfusable Cardiac Patches and Hearts [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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Abstract Generation of thick vascularized tissues that fully match the patient still remains an unmet challenge in cardiac tissue engineering. Here, a simple approach to 3D-print thick, vascularized, and perfusable cardiac patches that completely match the immunological, cellular, biochemical, and anatomical properties of the patient is reported. To this end, a biopsy of an omental tissue is taken from patients. While the cells are reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cells, and differentiated to cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, the extracellular matrix is processed into a personalized hydrogel. Following, the two cell types are separately combined with hydrogels to form bioinks for the parenchymal cardiac tissue and blood vessels. The ability to print functional vascularized patches according to the patient's anatomy is demonstrated. Blood vessel architecture is further improved by mathematical modeling of oxygen transfer. The structure and function of the patches are studied in vitro, and cardiac cell morphology is assessed after transplantation, revealing elongated cardiomyocytes with massive actinin striation. Finally, as a proof of concept, cellularized human hearts with a natural architecture are printed. These results demonstrate the potential of the approach for engineering personalized tissues and organs, or for drug screening in an appropriate anatomical structure and patient-specific biochemical microenvironment.
AUTHOR Kleger, Nicole and Cihova, Martina and Masania, Kunal and Studart, André R. and Löffler, Jörg F.
Title 3d printing of salt as a template for magnesium with structured porosity [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings advanced materials
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Abstract Porosity is an essential feature in a wide range of applications that combine light weight with high surface area and tunable density. Porous materials can be easily prepared with a vast variety of chemistries using the salt-leaching technique. However, this templating approach has so far been limited to the fabrication of structures with random porosity and relatively simple macroscopic shapes. Here, a technique is reported that combines the ease of salt leaching with the complex shaping possibilities given by additive manufacturing (AM). By tuning the composition of surfactant and solvent, the salt-based paste is rheologically engineered and printed via direct ink writing into grid-like structures displaying structured pores that span from the sub-millimeter to the macroscopic scale. As a proof of concept, dried and sintered NaCl templates are infiltrated with magnesium (Mg), which is typically highly challenging to process by conventional AM techniques due to its highly oxidative nature and high vapor pressure. Mg scaffolds with well-controlled, ordered porosity are obtained after salt removal. The tunable mechanical properties and the potential to be predictably bioresorbed by the human body make these Mg scaffolds attractive for biomedical implants and demonstrate the great potential of this additive technique.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Biofabrication of spatially organised tissues by directing the growth of cellular spheroids within 3D printed polymeric microchambers [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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Successful tissue engineering requires the generation of human scale implants that mimic the structure, composition and mechanical properties of native tissues. Here, we report a novel biofabrication strategy that enables the engineering of structurally organised tissues by guiding the growth of cellular spheroids within arrays of 3D printed polymeric microchambers. With the goal of engineering stratified articular cartilage, inkjet bioprinting was used to deposit defined numbers of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes into pre-printed microchambers. These jetted cell suspensions rapidly underwent condensation within the hydrophobic microchambers, leading to the formation of organised arrays of cellular spheroids. The microchambers were also designed to provide boundary conditions to these spheroids, guiding their growth and eventual fusion, leading to the development of stratified cartilage tissue with a depth-dependant collagen fiber architecture that mimicked the structure of native articular cartilage. Furthermore, the composition and biomechanical properties of the bioprinted cartilage was also comparable to the native tissue. Using multi-tool biofabrication, we were also able to engineer anatomically accurate, human scale, osteochondral templates by printing this microchamber system on top of a hypertrophic cartilage region designed to support endochondral bone formation and then maintaining the entire construct in long-term bioreactor culture to enhance tissue development. This bioprinting strategy provides a versatile and scalable approach to engineer structurally organised cartilage tissues for joint resurfacing applications.
AUTHOR Derr, Kristy and Zou, Jinyun and Luo, Keren and Song, Min Jae and Sittampalam, G. Sitta and Zhou, Chao and Michael, Samuel and Ferrer, Marc and Derr, Paige
Title Fully 3D Bioprinted Skin Equivalent Constructs with Validated Morphology and Barrier Function [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods
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Development of high throughput, reproducible, three-dimensional bioprinted skin equivalents that are morphologically and functionally comparable to native skin tissue is advancing research in skin diseases, and providing a physiologically relevant platform for the development of therapeutics, transplants for regenerative medicine, and testing of skin products like cosmetics. Current protocols for the production of engineered skin rafts are limited in their ability to control three dimensional geometry of the structure and contraction leading to variability of skin function between constructs. Here we describe a method for the biofabrication of skin equivalents that are fully bioprinted using an open market bioprinter, made with commercially available primary cells and natural hydrogels. The unique hydrogel formulation allows for the production of a human-like skin equivalent with minimal lateral tissue contraction in a multiwell plate format, thus making them suitable for high throughput bioprinting in a single print with fast print and relatively short incubation times. The morphology and barrier function of the fully three-dimensional bioprinted skin equivalents are validated by immunohistochemistry staining, optical coherence tomography, and permeation assays.
AUTHOR Gonzalez-Fernandez, T. and Rathan, S. and Hobbs, C. and Pitacco, P. and Freeman, F. E. and Cunniffe, G. M. and Dunne, N. J. and McCarthy, H. O. and Nicolosi, V. and O'Brien, F. J. and Kelly, D. J.
Title Pore-forming bioinks to enable Spatio-temporally defined gene delivery in bioprinted tissues [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Controlled Release
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The regeneration of complex tissues and organs remains a major clinical challenge. With a view towards bioprinting such tissues, we developed a new class of pore-forming bioink to spatially and temporally control the presentation of therapeutic genes within bioprinted tissues. By blending sacrificial and stable hydrogels, we were able to produce bioinks whose porosity increased with time following printing. When combined with amphipathic peptide-based plasmid DNA delivery, these bioinks supported enhanced non-viral gene transfer to stem cells in vitro. By modulating the porosity of these bioinks, it was possible to direct either rapid and transient (pore-forming bioinks), or slower and more sustained (solid bioinks) transfection of host or transplanted cells in vivo. To demonstrate the utility of these bioinks for the bioprinting of spatially complex tissues, they were next used to zonally position stem cells and plasmids encoding for either osteogenic (BMP2) or chondrogenic (combination of TGF-β3, BMP2 and SOX9) genes within networks of 3D printed thermoplastic fibers to produce mechanically reinforced, gene activated constructs. In vivo, these bioprinted tissues supported the development of a vascularised, bony tissue overlaid by a layer of stable cartilage. When combined with multiple-tool biofabrication strategies, these gene activated bioinks can enable the bioprinting of a wide range of spatially complex tissues.
AUTHOR Laternser, Sandra and Keller, Hansjoerg and Leupin, Olivier and Rausch, Martin and Graf-Hausner, Ursula and Rimann, Markus
Title A Novel Microplate 3D Bioprinting Platform for the Engineering of Muscle and Tendon Tissues [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings SLAS TECHNOLOGY: Translating Life Sciences Innovation
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Two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures do not reflect the in vivo situation, and thus it is important to develop predictive three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models with enhanced reliability and robustness for drug screening applications. Treatments against muscle-related diseases are becoming more prominent due to the growth of the aging population worldwide. In this study, we describe a novel drug screening platform with automated production of 3D musculoskeletal-tendon-like tissues. With 3D bioprinting, alternating layers of photo-polymerized gelatin-methacryloyl-based bioink and cell suspension tissue models were produced in a dumbbell shape onto novel postholder cell culture inserts in 24-well plates. Monocultures of human primary skeletal muscle cells and rat tenocytes were printed around and between the posts. The cells showed high viability in culture and good tissue differentiation, based on marker gene and protein expressions. Different printing patterns of bioink and cells were explored and calcium signaling with Fluo4-loaded cells while electrically stimulated was shown. Finally, controlled co-printing of tenocytes and myoblasts around and between the posts, respectively, was demonstrated followed by co-culture and co-differentiation. This screening platform combining 3D bioprinting with a novel microplate represents a promising tool to address musculoskeletal diseases.
AUTHOR Khaled, Shaban A. and Alexander, Morgan R. and Irvine, Derek J. and Wildman, Ricky D. and Wallace, Martin J. and Sharpe, Sonja and Yoo, Jae and Roberts, Clive J.
Title Extrusion 3D Printing of Paracetamol Tablets from a Single Formulation with Tunable Release Profiles Through Control of Tablet Geometry [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings AAPS PharmSciTech
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An extrusion-based 3D printer was used to fabricate paracetamol tablets with different geometries (mesh, ring and solid) from a single paste-based formulation formed from standard pharmaceutical ingredients. The tablets demonstrate that tunable drug release profiles can be achieved from this single formulation even with high drug loading (>{thinspace}80{%} w/w). The tablets were evaluated for drug release using a USP dissolution testing type I apparatus. The tablets showed well-defined release profiles (from immediate to sustained release) controlled by their different geometries. The dissolution results showed dependency of drug release on the surface area/volume (SA/V) ratio and the SA of the different tablets. The tablets with larger SA/V ratios and SA had faster drug release. The 3D printed tablets were also evaluated for physical and mechanical properties including tablet dimension, drug content, weight variation and breaking force and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the US Pharmacopoeia. X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to identify the physical form of the active and to assess possible drug-excipient interactions. These data again showed that the tablets meet USP requirement. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of 3D printing to create unique pharmaceutical manufacturing, and potentially clinical, opportunities. The ability to use a single unmodified formulation to achieve defined release profiles could allow, for example, relatively straightforward personalization of medicines for individuals with different metabolism rates for certain drugs and hence could offer significant development and clinical opportunities.
AUTHOR de Ruijter, Mylène and Ribeiro, Alexandre and Dokter, Inge and Castilho, Miguel and Malda, Jos
Title Simultaneous Micropatterning of Fibrous Meshes and Bioinks for the Fabrication of Living Tissue Constructs [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract
Abstract Fabrication of biomimetic tissues holds much promise for the regeneration of cells or organs that are lost or damaged due to injury or disease. To enable the generation of complex, multicellular tissues on demand, the ability to design and incorporate different materials and cell types needs to be improved. Two techniques are combined: extrusion-based bioprinting, which enables printing of cell-encapsulated hydrogels; and melt electrowriting (MEW), which enables fabrication of aligned (sub)-micrometer fibers into a single-step biofabrication process. Composite structures generated by infusion of MEW fiber structures with hydrogels have resulted in mechanically and biologically competent constructs; however, their preparation involves a two-step fabrication procedure that limits freedom of design of microfiber architectures and the use of multiple materials and cell types. How convergence of MEW and extrusion-based bioprinting allows fabrication of mechanically stable constructs with the spatial distributions of different cell types without compromising cell viability and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells is demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this converged printing approach improves freedom of design of the MEW fibers, enabling 3D fiber deposition. This is an important step toward biofabrication of voluminous and complex hierarchical structures that can better resemble the characteristics of functional biological tissues.
AUTHOR Cunniffe, Gráinne and Gonzalez-Fernandez, Tomas and Daly, Andrew and Nelson Sathy, Binulal and Jeon, Oju and Alsberg, Eben and J. Kelly, Daniel
Title Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Polycaprolactone Reinforced Gene Activated Bioinks for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part A
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Regeneration of complex bone defects remains a significant clinical challenge. Multi-tool biofabrication has permitted the combination of various biomaterials to create multifaceted composites with tailorable mechanical properties and spatially controlled biological function. In this study we sought to use bioprinting to engineer nonviral gene activated constructs reinforced by polymeric micro-filaments. A gene activated bioink was developed using RGD-g-irradiated alginate and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) complexed to plasmid DNA (pDNA). This ink was combined with bonemarrow-derived mesenchymal stemcells (MSCs) and then co-printed with a polycaprolactone supporting mesh to provide mechanical stability to the construct. Reporter genes were first used to demonstrate successful cell transfection using this system, with sustained expression of the transgene detected over 14 days postbioprinting. Delivery of a combination of therapeutic genes encoding for bone morphogenic protein and transforming growth factor promoted robust osteogenesis of encapsulated MSCs in vitro, with enhanced levels of matrix deposition and mineralization observed following the incorporation of therapeutic pDNA. Gene activated MSC-laden constructs were then implanted subcutaneously, directly postfabrication, and were found to support superior levels of vascularization andmineralization compared to cell-free controls. These results validate the use of a gene activated bioink to impart biological functionality to three-dimensional bioprinted constructs.
AUTHOR Khaled, Shaban A. and Burley, Jonathan C. and Alexander, Morgan R. and Yang, Jing and Roberts, Clive J.
Title 3D printing of five-in-one dose combination polypill with defined immediate and sustained release profiles [Abstract]
Year 2015
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Controlled Release
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract We have used three dimensional (3D) extrusion printing to manufacture a multi-active solid dosage form or so called polypill. This contains five compartmentalised drugs with two independently controlled and well-defined release profiles. This polypill demonstrates that complex medication regimes can be combined in a single personalised tablet. This could potentially improve adherence for those patients currently taking many separate tablets and also allow ready tailoring of a particular drug combination/drug release for the needs of an individual. The polypill here represents a cardiovascular treatment regime with the incorporation of an immediate release compartment with aspirin and hydrochlorothiazide and three sustained release compartments containing pravastatin, atenolol, and ramipril. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used to assess drug-excipient interaction. The printed polypills were evaluated for drug release using {USP} dissolution testing. We found that the polypill showed the intended immediate and sustained release profiles based upon the active/excipient ratio used.
AUTHOR Park, Hae Sang and Lee, Ji Seung and Kim, Chang-Beom and Lee, Kwang-Ho and Hong, In-Sun and Jung, Harry and Lee, Hanna and Lee, Young Jin and Ajiteru, Olatunji and Sultan, Md Tipu and Lee, Ok Joo and Kim, Soon Hee and Park, Chan Hum
Title Fluidic integrated 3D bioprinting system to sustain cell viability towards larynx fabrication [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Herein, we report the first study to create a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted artificial larynx for whole-laryngeal replacement. Our 3D bio-printed larynx was generated using extrusion-based 3D bioprinter with rabbit's chondrocyte-laden gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA)/glycidyl-methacrylated hyaluronic acid (GMHA) hybrid bioink. We used a polycaprolactone (PCL) outer framework incorporated with pores to achieve the structural strength of printed constructs, as well as to provide a suitable microenvironment to support printed cells. Notably, we established a novel fluidics supply (FS) system that simultaneously supplies basal medium together with a 3D bioprinting process, thereby improving cell survival during the printing process. Our results showed that the FS system enhanced post-printing cell viability, which enabled the generation of a large-scale cell-laden artificial laryngeal framework. Additionally, the incorporation of the PCL outer framework with pores and inner hydrogel provides structural stability and sufficient nutrient/oxygen transport. An animal study confirmed that the transplanted 3D bio-larynx successfully maintained the airway. With further development, our new strategy holds great potential for fabricating human-scale larynxes with in vivo-like biological functions for laryngectomy patients.
AUTHOR Freeman, Fiona E. and Pitacco, Pierluca and van Dommelen, Lieke H. A. and Nulty, Jessica and Browe, David C. and Shin, Jung-Youn and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D bioprinting spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors to tightly control tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Science Advances
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Therapeutic growth factor delivery typically requires supraphysiological dosages, which can cause undesirable off-target effects. The aim of this study was to 3D bioprint implants containing spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors optimized for coupled angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Using nanoparticle functionalized bioinks, it was possible to print implants with distinct growth factor patterns and release profiles spanning from days to weeks. The extent of angiogenesis in vivo depended on the spatial presentation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Higher levels of vessel invasion were observed in implants containing a spatial gradient of VEGF compared to those homogenously loaded with the same total amount of protein. Printed implants containing a gradient of VEGF, coupled with spatially defined BMP-2 localization and release kinetics, accelerated large bone defect healing with little heterotopic bone formation. This demonstrates the potential of growth factor printing, a putative point of care therapy, for tightly controlled tissue regeneration.
AUTHOR Lee, Ji Seung and Park, Hae Sang and Jung, Harry and Lee, Hanna and Hong, Heesun and Lee, Young Jin and Suh, Ye Ji and Lee, Ok Joo and Kim, Soon Hee and Park, Chan Hum
Title 3D-printable photocurable bioink for cartilage regeneration of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Additive Manufacturing
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Cartilage regeneration is challenging because of the poor intrinsic self-repair capacity of avascular tissue. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has gained significant attention in the field of tissue engineering and is a promising technology to overcome current difficulties in cartilage regeneration. Although bioink is an essential component of bioprinting technology, several challenges remain in satisfying different requirements for ideal bioink, including biocompatibility and printability based on specific biological requirements. Gelatin and hyaluronic acid (HA) have been shown to be ideal biomimetic hydrogel sources for cartilage regeneration. However, controlling their structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and degradation rate for cartilage repair remains a challenge. Here, we show a photocurable bioink created by hybridization of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and glycidyl-methacrylated HA (GMHA) for material extrusion 3D bioprinting in cartilage regeneration. GelMA and GMHA were mixed in various ratios, and the mixture of 7% GelMA and 5% GMHA bioink (G7H5) demonstrated the most reliable mechanical properties, rheological properties, and printability. This G7H5 bioink allowed us to build a highly complex larynx structure, including the hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, arytenoid cartilage, and cervical trachea. This bioink also provided an excellent microenvironment for chondrogenesis of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) in vitro and in vivo. In summary, this study presents the ideal formulation of GelMA/GMHA hybrid bioink to generate a well-suited photocurable bioink for cartilage regeneration of TMSCs using a material extrusion bioprinter, and could be applied to cartilage tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Colle, Julien and Blondeel, Phillip and De Bruyne, Axelle and Bochar, Silke and Tytgat, Liesbeth and Vercruysse, Chris and Van Vlierberghe, Sandra and Dubruel, Peter and Declercq, Heidi
Title Bioprinting predifferentiated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell spheroids with methacrylated gelatin ink for adipose tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine
Reftype Colle2020
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
The increasing number of mastectomies results in a greater demand for breast reconstruction characterized by simplicity and a low complication profile. Reconstructive surgeons are investigating tissue engineering (TE) strategies to overcome the current surgical drawbacks. 3D bioprinting is the rising technique for the fabrication of large tissue constructs which provides a potential solution for unmet clinical needs in breast reconstruction building on decades of experience in autologous fat grafting, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ASC) biology and TE. A scaffold was bioprinted using encapsulated ASC spheroids in methacrylated gelatin ink (GelMA). Uniform ASC spheroids with an ideal geometry and diameter for bioprinting were formed, using a high-throughput non-adhesive agarose microwell system. ASC spheroids in adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM) were evaluated through live/dead staining, histology (HE, Oil Red O), TEM and RT-qPCR. Viable spheroids were obtained for up to 14 days post-printing and showed multilocular microvacuoles and successful differentiation toward mature adipocytes shown by gene expression analysis. Moreover, spheroids were able to assemble at random in GelMA, creating a macrotissue. Combining the advantage of microtissues to self-assemble and the controlled organization by bioprinting technologies, these ASC spheroids can be useful as building blocks for the engineering of soft tissue implants.
AUTHOR Zhang, Danwei and Jonhson, Win and Herng, Tun Seng and Ang, Yong Quan and Yang, Lin and Tan, Swee Ching and Peng, Erwin and He, Hui and Ding, Jun
Title A 3D-printing method of fabrication for metals{,} ceramics{,} and multi-materials using a universal self-curable technique for robocasting [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Materials Horizons
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Ceramics and metals are important materials that modern technologies are constructed from. The capability to produce such materials in a complex geometry with good mechanical properties can revolutionize the way we engineer our devices. Current curing techniques pose challenges such as high energy requirements{,} limitations of materials with high refractive index{,} tedious post-processing heat treatment processes{,} uneven drying shrinkages{,} and brittleness of green bodies. In this paper{,} a novel modified self-curable epoxide–amine 3D printing system is proposed to print a wide range of ceramics (metal oxides{,} nitrides{,} and carbides) and metals without the need for an external curing source. Through this technique{,} complex multi-material structures (with metal–ceramic and ceramic–ceramic combinations) can also be realized. Tailoring and matching the sintering temperatures of different materials through sintering additives and dopants{,} combined with a structural design providing maximum adhesion between interfaces{,} allow us to successfully obtain superior quality sintered multi-material structures. High-quality ceramic and metallic materials have been achieved (e.g.{,} zirconia with >98% theoretical density). Also{,} highly conductive metals and magnetic ceramics were printed and shaped uniquely without the need for a sacrificial support. With the addition of low molecular weight plasticizers and a multi-stage heat treatment process{,} crack-free and dense high-quality integrated multi-material structures fabricated by 3D printing can thus be a reality in the near future.
AUTHOR Khaled, Shaban A. and Alexander, Morgan R. and Wildman, Ricky D. and Wallace, Martin J. and Sharpe, Sonja and Yoo, Jae and Roberts, Clive J.
Title 3D extrusion printing of high drug loading immediate release paracetamol tablets [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
The manufacture of immediate release high drug loading paracetamol oral tablets was achieved using an extrusion based 3D printer from a premixed water based paste formulation. The 3D printed tablets demonstrate that a very high drug (paracetamol) loading formulation (80% w/w) can be printed as an acceptable tablet using a method suitable for personalisation and distributed manufacture. Paracetamol is an example of a drug whose physical form can present challenges to traditional powder compression tableting. Printing avoids these issues and facilitates the relatively high drug loading. The 3D printed tablets were evaluated for physical and mechanical properties including weight variation, friability, breaking force, disintegration time, and dimensions and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) was used to identify the physical form of the active. Additionally, XRPD, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to assess possible drug-excipient interactions. The 3D printed tablets were evaluated for drug release using a USP dissolution testing type I apparatus. The tablets showed a profile characteristic of the immediate release profile as intended based upon the active/excipient ratio used with disintegration in less than 60 s and release of most of the drug within 5 min. The results demonstrate the capability of 3D extrusion based printing to produce acceptable high-drug loading tablets from approved materials that comply with current USP standards.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Pitacco, Pierluca and Nulty, Jessica and Cunniffe, Gráinne M. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D printed microchannel networks to direct vascularisation during endochondral bone repair [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Bone tissue engineering strategies that recapitulate the developmental process of endochondral ossification offer a promising route to bone repair. Clinical translation of such endochondral tissue engineering strategies will require overcoming a number of challenges, including the engineering of large and often anatomically complex cartilage grafts, as well as the persistence of core regions of avascular cartilage following their implantation into large bone defects. Here 3D printing technology is utilized to develop a versatile and scalable approach to guide vascularisation during endochondral bone repair. First, a sacrificial pluronic ink was used to 3D print interconnected microchannel networks in a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) laden gelatin-methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel. These constructs (with and without microchannels) were next chondrogenically primed in vitro and then implanted into critically sized femoral bone defects in rats. The solid and microchanneled cartilage templates enhanced bone repair compared to untreated controls, with the solid cartilage templates (without microchannels) supporting the highest levels of total bone formation. However, the inclusion of 3D printed microchannels was found to promote osteoclast/immune cell invasion, hydrogel degradation, and vascularisation following implantation. In addition, the endochondral bone tissue engineering strategy was found to support comparable levels of bone healing to BMP-2 delivery, whilst promoting lower levels of heterotopic bone formation, with the microchanneled templates supporting the lowest levels of heterotopic bone formation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 3D printed hypertrophic cartilage grafts represent a promising approach for the repair of complex bone fractures, particularly for larger defects where vascularisation will be a key challenge.
AUTHOR Khaled, Shaban A. and Burley, Jonathan C. and Alexander, Morgan R. and Yang, Jing and Roberts, Clive J.
Title 3D printing of tablets containing multiple drugs with defined release profiles [Abstract]
Year 2015
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract We have employed three-dimensional (3D) extrusion-based printing as a medicine manufacturing technique for the production of multi-active tablets with well-defined and separate controlled release profiles for three different drugs. This ‘polypill’ made by a 3D additive manufacture technique demonstrates that complex medication regimes can be combined in a single tablet and that it is viable to formulate and ‘dial up’ this single tablet for the particular needs of an individual. The tablets used to illustrate this concept incorporate an osmotic pump with the drug captopril and sustained release compartments with the drugs nifedipine and glipizide. This combination of medicines could potentially be used to treat diabetics suffering from hypertension. The room temperature extrusion process used to print the formulations used excipients commonly employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were used to assess drug–excipient interaction. The printed formulations were evaluated for drug release using {USP} dissolution testing. We found that the captopril portion showed the intended zero order drug release of an osmotic pump and noted that the nifedipine and glipizide portions showed either first order release or Korsmeyer–Peppas release kinetics dependent upon the active/excipient ratio used.
AUTHOR Aliyazdi, Samy and Frisch, Sarah and Hidalgo, Alberto and Frank, Nicolas and Krug, Daniel and Müller, Rolf and Schaefer, Ulrich F. and Vogt, Thomas and Loretz, Brigitta and Lehr, Claus-Michael
Title 3D bioprinting of E. coli MG1655 biofilms on human lung epithelial cells for building complex in vitro infection models [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Biofilm-associated infections are causing over half a million deaths each year, raising the requirement for innovative therapeutic approaches. For developing novel therapeutics against bacterial biofilm infections, complex in vitro models that allow to study drug effects on both pathogens and host cells as well as their interaction under controlled, physiologically relevant conditions appear as highly desirable. Nonetheless, building such models is quite challenging because (1) rapid bacterial growth and release of virulence factors may lead to premature host cell death and (2) maintaining the biofilm status under suitable co-culture requires a highly controlled environment. To approach that problem, we chose 3D bioprinting. However, printing living bacterial biofilms in defined shapes on human cell models, requires bioinks with very specific properties. Hence, this work aims to develop a 3D bioprinting biofilm method to build robust in vitro infection models. Based on rheology, printability and bacterial growth, a bioink containing 3% gelatin and 1% alginate in Luria-Bertani-medium was found optimal for Escherichia coli MG1655 biofilms. Biofilm properties were maintained after printing, as shown visually via microscopy techniques as well as in antibiotic susceptibility assays. Metabolic profile analysis of bioprinted biofilms showed high similarity to native biofilms. After printing on human bronchial epithelial cells (Calu-3), the shape of printed biofilms was maintained even after dissolution of non-crosslinked bioink, while no cytotoxicity was observed over 24 h. Therefore, the approach presented here may provide a platform for building complex in vitro infection models comprising bacterial biofilms and human host cells.
AUTHOR Pless, Christian J. and Nikzad, Shayla and Papiano, Irene and Gnanadass, Samson and Kadumudi, Firoz B. and Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza and Thomsen, Carsten Eckhart and Lind, Johan U.
Title Soft Electronic Block Copolymer Elastomer Composites for Multi-Material Printing of Stretchable Physiological Sensors on Textiles [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Electronic Materials
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Soft and stretchable electronic materials have a number of unique applications, not least within sensors for monitoring human health. Through development of appropriate inks, micro-extrusion 3D printing offers an appealing route for integrating soft electronic materials within wearable garments. Toward this objective, here a series of conductive inks based on soft thermoplastic styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene elastomers combined with silver micro-flakes, carbon black nanoparticles, or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) conducting polymer additives, is developed. Their electrical and mechanical properties are systematically compared and found to be highly dependent on additive amount and type. Thus, while silver composites offer the highest conductivity, their stretchability is far inferior to carbon black composites, which can maintain conductivity beyond 400% strain. The PEDOT composites are the least conductive and stretchable but display unique properties due to their propensity for ionic conductivity. To integrate these inks, as well as insulating counterparts, into functional designs, a multi-material micro-extrusion 3D printing routine for direct deposition onto stretchable, elastic fabrics is established. As demonstration, prototypes are produced for sensing common health markers including strain, physiological temperatures, and electrocardiograms. Collectively, this work demonstrates multi-material 3D printing of soft styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene elastomer composites as a versatile method for fabricating soft bio-sensors.
AUTHOR Huang, Boyang and Wang, Yaxin and Vyas, Cian and Bartolo, Paulo
Title Crystal Growth of 3D Poly(ε-caprolactone) Based Bone Scaffolds and Its Effects on the Physical Properties and Cellular Interactions [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Extrusion additive manufacturing is widely used to fabricate polymer-based 3D bone scaffolds. However, the insight views of crystal growths, scaffold features and eventually cell-scaffold interactions are still unknown. In this work, melt and solvent extrusion additive manufacturing techniques are used to produce scaffolds considering highly analogous printing conditions. Results show that the scaffolds produced by these two techniques present distinct physiochemical properties, with melt-printed scaffolds showing stronger mechanical properties and solvent-printed scaffolds showing rougher surface, higher degradation rate, and faster stress relaxation. These differences are attributed to the two different crystal growth kinetics, temperature-induced crystallization (TIC) and strain-induced crystallization (SIC), forming large/integrated spherulite-like and a small/fragmented lamella-like crystal regions respectively. The stiffer substrate of melt-printed scaffolds contributes to higher ratio of nuclear Yes-associated protein (YAP) allocation, favoring cell proliferation and differentiation. Faster relaxation and degradation of solvent-printed scaffolds result in dynamic surface, contributing to an early-stage faster osteogenesis differentiation.
AUTHOR Kessel, Benjamin and Lee, Mihyun and Bonato, Angela and Tinguely, Yann and Tosoratti, Enrico and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title 3D Bioprinting of Macroporous Materials Based on Entangled Hydrogel Microstrands [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Hydrogels are excellent mimetics of mammalian extracellular matrices and have found widespread use in tissue engineering. Nanoporosity of monolithic bulk hydrogels, however, limits mass transport of key biomolecules. Microgels used in 3D bioprinting achieve both custom shape and vastly improved permissivity to an array of cell functions, however spherical-microbead-based bioinks are challenging to upscale, are inherently isotropic, and require secondary crosslinking. Here, bioinks based on high-aspect-ratio hydrogel microstrands are introduced to overcome these limitations. Pre-crosslinked, bulk hydrogels are deconstructed into microstrands by sizing through a grid with apertures of 40–100 µm. The microstrands are moldable and form a porous, entangled structure, stable in aqueous medium without further crosslinking. Entangled microstrands have rheological properties characteristic of excellent bioinks for extrusion bioprinting. Furthermore, individual microstrands align during extrusion and facilitate the alignment of myotubes. Cells can be placed either inside or outside the hydrogel phase with >90% viability. Chondrocytes co-printed with the microstrands deposit abundant extracellular matrix, resulting in a modulus increase from 2.7 to 780.2 kPa after 6 weeks of culture. This powerful approach to deconstruct bulk hydrogels into advanced bioinks is both scalable and versatile, representing an important toolbox for 3D bioprinting of architected hydrogels.
AUTHOR Zhang, Danwei and Peng, Erwin and Borayek, Ramadan and Ding, Jun
Title Controllable Ceramic Green-Body Configuration for Complex Ceramic Architectures with Fine Features [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Functional Materials
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Fabrication of dense ceramic articles with intricate fine features and geometrically complex morphology by using a relatively simple and the cost-effective process still remains a challenge. Ceramics, either in its green- or sintered-form, are known for being hard yet brittle which limits further shape reconfiguration. In this work, a combinatorial process of ceramic robocasting and photopolymerization is demonstrated to produce either flexible and/or stretchable ceramic green-body (Flex-Body or Stretch-Body) that can undergo a postprinting reconfiguration process. Secondary shaping may proceed through: i) self-assembly-assisted shaping and ii) mold-assisted shaping process, which allows a well-controlled ceramic structure morphology. With a proposed well-controlled thermal heating process, the ceramic Sintered-Body can achieve >99.0% theoretical density with good mechanical rigidity. Complex and dense ceramic articles with fine features down to 65 μm can be fabricated. When combined with a multi-nozzle deposition process, i) self-shaping ceramic structures can be realized through anisotropic shrinkage induced by suspensions' composition variation and ii) technical and functional multiceramic structures can be fabricated. The simplicity of the proposed technique and its inexpensive processing cost make it an attractive approach for fabricating geometrically complex ceramic articles with unique macrostructures, which complements the existing state of-the-art ceramic additive manufacturing techniques.
AUTHOR Schaffner, Manuel and Faber, Jakob A. and Pianegonda, Lucas and Rühs, Patrick A. and Coulter, Fergal and Studart, André R.
Title 3D printing of robotic soft actuators with programmable bioinspired architectures [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Nature Communications
Reftype Schaffner2018
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Soft actuation allows robots to interact safely with humans, other machines, and their surroundings. Full exploitation of the potential of soft actuators has, however, been hindered by the lack of simple manufacturing routes to generate multimaterial parts with intricate shapes and architectures. Here, we report a 3D printing platform for the seamless digital fabrication of pneumatic silicone actuators exhibiting programmable bioinspired architectures and motions. The actuators comprise an elastomeric body whose surface is decorated with reinforcing stripes at a well-defined lead angle. Similar to the fibrous architectures found in muscular hydrostats, the lead angle can be altered to achieve elongation, contraction, or twisting motions. Using a quantitative model based on lamination theory, we establish design principles for the digital fabrication of silicone-based soft actuators whose functional response is programmed within the material's properties and architecture. Exploring such programmability enables 3D printing of a broad range of soft morphing structures.
AUTHOR Schaffner, Manuel and R{"u}hs, Patrick A. and Coulter, Fergal and Kilcher, Samuel and Studart, Andr{'e} R.
Title 3D printing of bacteria into functional complex materials [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Science Advances
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Despite recent advances to control the spatial composition and dynamic functionalities of bacteria embedded in materials, bacterial localization into complex three-dimensional (3D) geometries remains a major challenge. We demonstrate a 3D printing approach to create bacteria-derived functional materials by combining the natural diverse metabolism of bacteria with the shape design freedom of additive manufacturing. To achieve this, we embedded bacteria in a biocompatible and functionalized 3D printing ink and printed two types of {textquotedblleft}living materials{textquotedblright} capable of degrading pollutants and of producing medically relevant bacterial cellulose. With this versatile bacteria-printing platform, complex materials displaying spatially specific compositions, geometry, and properties not accessed by standard technologies can be assembled from bottom up for new biotechnological and biomedical applications.
AUTHOR García-Lizarribar, Andrea and Villasante, Aranzazu and Lopez-Martin, Jose Antonio and Flandez, Marta and Soler-Vázquez, M. Carmen and Serra, Dolors and Herrero, Laura and Sagrera, Ana and Efeyan, Alejo and Samitier, Josep
Title 3D bioprinted functional skeletal muscle models have potential applications for studies of muscle wasting in cancer cachexia [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials Advances
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Acquired muscle diseases such as cancer cachexia are responsible for the poor prognosis of many patients suffering from cancer. In vitro models are needed to study the underlying mechanisms of those pathologies. Extrusion bioprinting is an emerging tool to emulate the aligned architecture of fibers while implementing additive manufacturing techniques in tissue engineering. However, designing bioinks that reconcile the rheological needs of bioprinting and the biological requirements of muscle tissue is a challenging matter. Here we formulate a biomaterial with dual crosslinking to modulate the physical properties of bioprinted models. We design 3D bioprinted muscle models that resemble the mechanical properties of native tissue and show improved proliferation and high maturation of differentiated myotubes suggesting that the GelMA-AlgMA-Fibrin biomaterial possesses myogenic properties. The electrical stimulation of the 3D model confirmed the contractile capability of the tissue and enhanced the formation of sarcomeres. Regarding the functionality of the models, they served as platforms to recapitulate skeletal muscle diseases such as muscle wasting produced by cancer cachexia. The genetic expression of 3D models demonstrated a better resemblance to the muscular biopsies of cachectic mouse models. Altogether, this biomaterial is aimed to fabricate manipulable skeletal muscle in vitro models in a non-costly, fast and feasible manner.
AUTHOR Liu, Chun and Dai, Ting and Wu, Xiaoyu and Ma, Jiayi and Liu, Jun and Wu, Siyu and Yang, Lei and Zhao, Hongbin
Title 3D bioprinting of cell-laden nano-attapulgite/gelatin methacrylate composite hydrogel scaffolds for bone tissue repair [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Materials Science & Technology
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Bone tissue engineering (BTE) has proven to be a promising strategy for bone defect repair. Due to its excellent biological properties, gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels have been used as bioinks for 3D bioprinting in some BTE studies to produce scaffolds for bone regeneration. However, applications for load-bearing defects are limited by poor mechanical properties and a lack of bioactivity. In this study, 3D printing technology was used to create nano-attapulgite (nano-ATP)/GelMA composite hydrogels loaded into mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and mouse umbilical vein endothelial cells (MUVECs). The bioprintability, physicochemical properties, and mechanical properties were all thoroughly evaluated. Our findings showed that nano-ATP groups outperform the control group in terms of printability, indicating that nano-ATP is beneficial for printability. Additionally, after incorporation with nano-ATP, the mechanical strength of the composite hydrogels was significantly improved, resulting in adequate mechanical properties for bone regeneration. The presence of nano-ATP in the scaffolds has also been studied for cell-material interactions. The findings show that cells within the scaffold not only have high viability but also a clear proclivity to promote osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Besides, the MUVECs-loaded composite hydrogels demonstrated increased angiogenic activity. A cranial defect model was also developed to evaluate the bone repair capability of scaffolds loaded with rat BMSCs. According to histological analysis, cell-laden nano-ATP composite hydrogels can effectively improve bone regeneration and promote angiogenesis. This study demonstrated the potential of nano-ATP for bone tissue engineering, which should also increase the clinical practicality of nano-ATP.
AUTHOR Krstić, Nenad and Jüttner, Jens and Giegerich, Lars and Mayer, Margot and Knuth, Monika and Müller, Achim and Thielemann, Christiane
Title 3D printed biosensor for continuous glucose measurement in cell cultures [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Annals of 3D Printed Medicine
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
A novel 3D-printed glucose sensor is presented for cell culture application. Glucose sensing was performed using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assay principle based on ConA and dextran. Both molecules are encapsulated in alginate microspheres and embedded in the UV-curable, stable hydrogel polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The rheology of the formulation was adapted to obtain good properties for an extrusion-based printing process. The printed sensor structures were tested for their ability to detect glucose in vitro. A proportional increase in fluorescence intensity was observed in a concentration range of 0 - 2 g/L glucose. Tests with HEK cell cultures also showed good cell compatibility and excellent adhesion properties on plasma-treated Petri dishes. The printed sensors were able to detect the glucose decay associated with the metabolic activities of the fast-growing HEK cells in the cell culture medium over ten days. The proof-of-principle study shows that metabolic processes in cell cultures can be monitored with the new printed sensor using a standard fluorescence wide-field microscope.
AUTHOR Li, Jianfeng and Reimers, Armin and Dang, Ka My and Brunk, Michael G. K. and Drewes, Jonas and Hirsch, Ulrike M. and Willems, Christian and Schmelzer, Christian E. H. and Groth, Thomas and Nia, Ali Shaygan and Feng, Xinliang and Adelung, Rainer and Sacher, Wesley D. and Schütt, Fabian and Poon, Joyce K. S.
Title 3D printed neural tissues with in situ optical dopamine sensors [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Biosensors and Bioelectronics
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Engineered neural tissues serve as models for studying neurological conditions and drug screening. Besides observing the cellular physiological properties, in situ monitoring of neurochemical concentrations with cellular spatial resolution in such neural tissues can provide additional valuable insights in models of disease and drug efficacy. In this work, we demonstrate the first three-dimensional (3D) tissue cultures with embedded optical dopamine (DA) sensors. We developed an alginate/Pluronic F127 based bio-ink for human dopaminergic brain tissue printing with tetrapodal-shaped-ZnO microparticles (t-ZnO) additive as the DA sensor. DA quenches the autofluorescence of t-ZnO in physiological environments, and the reduction of the fluorescence intensity serves as an indicator of the DA concentration. The neurons that were 3D printed with the t-ZnO showed good viability, and extensive 3D neural networks were formed within one week after printing. The t-ZnO could sense DA in the 3D printed neural network with a detection limit of 0.137 μM. The results are a first step toward integrating tissue engineering with intensiometric biosensing for advanced artificial tissue/organ monitoring.
AUTHOR Wang, Bin and Barceló, Xavier and Von Euw, Stanislas and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D printing of mechanically functional meniscal tissue equivalents using high concentration extracellular matrix inks [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Materials Today Bio
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Abstract
Decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) has emerged as a promising biomaterial in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to its ability to provide specific biochemical and biophysical cues supportive of the regeneration of diverse tissue types. Such biomaterials have also been used to produce tissue-specific inks and bioinks for 3D printing applications. However, a major limitation associated with the use of such dECM materials is their poor mechanical properties, which limits their use in load-bearing applications such as meniscus regeneration. In this study, native porcine menisci were solubilized and decellularized using different methods to produce highly concentrated dECM inks of differing biochemical content and printability. All dECM inks displayed shear thinning and thixotropic properties, with increased viscosity and improved printability observed at higher pH levels, enabling the 3D printing of anatomically defined meniscal implants. With additional crosslinking of the dECM inks following thermal gelation at pH 11, it was possible to fabricate highly elastic meniscal tissue equivalents with compressive mechanical properties similar to the native tissue. These improved mechanical properties at higher pH correlated with the development of a denser network of smaller diameter collagen fibers. These constructs also displayed repeatable loading and unloading curves when subjected to long-term cyclic compression tests. Moreover, the printing of dECM inks at the appropriate pH promoted a preferential alignment of the collagen fibers. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the potential of 3D printing of highly concentrated meniscus dECM inks to produce mechanically functional and biocompatible implants for meniscal tissue regeneration. This approach could be applied to a wide variety of different biological tissues, enabling the 3D printing of tissue mimics with diverse applications from tissue engineering to surgical planning.
AUTHOR Dairaghi, Jacob and Benito Alston, Claudia and Cadle, Rachel and Rogozea, Dan and Solorio, Luis and Barco, Clark T. and Moldovan, Nicanor I.
Title A dual osteoconductive-osteoprotective implantable device for vertical alveolar ridge augmentation [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Frontiers in Dental Medicine
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Abstract
Repair of large oral bone defects such as vertical alveolar ridge augmentation could benefit from the rapidly developing additive manufacturing technology used to create personalized osteoconductive devices made from porous tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HA)-based bioceramics. These devices can be also used as hydrogel carriers to improve their osteogenic potential. However, the TCP/HA constructs are prone to brittle fracture, therefore their use in clinical situations is difficult. As a solution, we propose the protection of this osteoconductive multi-material (herein called “core”) with a shape-matched “cover” made from biocompatible poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL), which is a ductile, and thus more resistant polymeric material. In this report, we present a workflow starting from patient-specific medical scan in Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format files, up to the design and 3D printing of a hydrogel-loaded porous TCP/HA core and of its corresponding PCL cover. This cover could also facilitate the anchoring of the device to the patient's defect site via fixing screws. The large, linearly aligned pores in the TCP/HA bioceramic core, their sizes, and their filling with an alginate hydrogel were analyzed by micro-CT. Moreover, we created a finite element analysis (FEA) model of this dual-function device, which permits the simulation of its mechanical behavior in various anticipated clinical situations, as well as optimization before surgery. In conclusion, we designed and 3D-printed a novel, structurally complex multi-material osteoconductive-osteoprotective device with anticipated mechanical properties suitable for large-defect oral bone regeneration.
AUTHOR Rikkers, Margot and Nguyen, H. Chien and Golafshan, Nasim and de Ruijter, Mylène and Levato, Riccardo and Vonk, Lucienne A. and van Egmond, Nienke and Castilho, Miguel and Custers, Roel J. H. and Malda, Jos
Title A Gap-Filling, Regenerative Implant for Open-Wedge Osteotomy [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Cartilage & Joint Preservation
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Abstract
Purpose In patients suffering from unilateral osteoarthritis in the knee, an osteotomy can provide symptomatic relief and postpone the need for replacement of the joint. Nevertheless, open-wedge osteotomies (OWO) around the knee joint face several challenges like postoperative pain and bone non-union. In this study, the aim was to design, fabricate, and evaluate a gap-filling implant for OWO using an osteoinductive and degradable biomaterial. Methods Design of porous wedge-shaped implants was based on computed tomography (CT) scans of cadaveric legs. Implants were 3D printed using a magnesium strontium phosphate-polycaprolactone (MgPSr-PCL) biomaterial ink. Standardized scaffolds with different inter-fibre spacing (IFS) were mechanically characterized and osteoinductive properties of the biomaterial were assessed in vitro. Finally, human-sized implants with different heights (5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm) were designed and fabricated for ex vivo implantation during three OWO procedures in human cadaveric legs. Results Implants printed with an interior of IFS-1.0 resulted in scaffolds that maintained top and bottom porosity, while the interior of the implant exhibited significant mechanical stability. Bone marrow concentrate and culture expanded mesenchymal stromal cells attached to the MgPSr-PCL material and proliferated over 21 days in culture. The production of osteogenic markers alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium, and osteocalcin was promoted in all culture conditions, independent of osteogenic induction medium. Finally, three OWO procedures were planned and fabricated wedges were implanted ex vivo during the procedures. A small fraction of one side of the wedges was resected to assure fit into the proximal biplanar osteotomy gap. Pre-planned wedge heights were maintained after implantation as measured by micro-CT. Conclusion To conclude, personalized implants for implantation in open-wedge osteotomies were successfully designed and manufactured. The implant material supported osteogenesis of MSCs and BMC in vitro and full-size implants were successfully implemented into the surgical procedure, without compromising pre-planned wedge height.
AUTHOR Anupama Sekar, J. and Velayudhan, Shiny and Anil Kumar, P. R.
Title Biocompatibility evaluation of antioxidant cocktail loaded gelatin methacrylamide as bioink for extrusion-based 3D bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Biomedical Materials
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) liver bioprinting is a promising technique for creating 3D liver models that can be used for in vitro drug testing, hepatotoxicity studies, and transplantation. The functional performance of 3D bioprinted liver constructs are limited by the lack of cell–cell interactions, which calls for the creation of bioprinted tissue constructs with high cell densities. This study reports the fabrication of 3D bioprinted liver constructs using a novel photocrosslinkable gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA)-based bioink formulation. However, the formation of excess free radicals during photoinitiation poses a challenge, particularly during photocrosslinking of large constructs with high cell densities. Hence, we designed a bioink formulation comprising the base polymer GelMA loaded with an antioxidant cocktail containing vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid (AA)) and vitamin E (α-tocopherol (α-Toc)). We confirmed that the combination of antioxidants loaded in GelMA enhanced the ability to scavenge intracellular reactive oxygen species formed during photocrosslinking. The GelMA formulation was evaluated for biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrated that the bioink had adequate rheological characteristics and was biocompatible. Furthermore, when compared to bioprinted constructs with lower cell density, high-density primary rat hepatocyte constructs demonstrated improved cell-cell interactions and liver-specific functions like albumin and urea secretion, which increased 5-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively.
AUTHOR Cianciosi, Alessandro and Simon, Jonas and Bartolf-Kopp, Michael and Grausgruber, Heinrich and Dargaville, Tim R. and Forget, Aurélien and Groll, Jürgen and Jungst, Tomasz and Beaumont, Marco
Title Direct ink writing of multifunctional nanocellulose and allyl-modified gelatin biomaterial inks for the fabrication of mechanically and functionally graded constructs [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Carbohydrate Polymers
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Abstract
Recreating the intricate mechanical and functional gradients found in natural tissues through additive manufacturing poses significant challenges, including the need for precise control over time and space and the availability of versatile biomaterial inks. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed a new biomaterial ink for direct ink writing, allowing the creation of 3D structures with tailorable functional and mechanical gradients. Our ink formulation combined multifunctional cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), allyl-functionalized gelatin (0.8–2.0 wt%), and polyethylene glycol dithiol (3.0–7.5 wt%). The CNF served as a rheology modifier, whereas a concentration of 1.8 w/v % in the inks was chosen for optimal printability and shape fidelity. In addition, CNFs were functionalized with azido groups, enabling the spatial distribution of functional moieties within a 3D structure. These functional groups were further modified using a spontaneous click chemistry reaction. Through additive manufacturing and a readily available static mixer, we successfully demonstrated the fabrication of mechanical gradients – ranging from 3 to 6 kPa in indentation strength – and functional gradients. Additionally, we introduced dual gradients by combining gradient printing with an anisotropic photocrosslinking step. The developed biomaterial ink opens up possibilities for printing intricate multigradient structures, resembling the complex hierarchical organization seen in living tissues.
AUTHOR Cojocaru, Elena and Ghitman, Jana and Pircalabioru, Gratiela Gradisteanu and Zaharia, Anamaria and Iovu, Horia and Sarbu, Andrei
Title Electrospun/3D-Printed Bicomponent Scaffold Co-Loaded with a Prodrug and a Drug with Antibacterial and Immunomodulatory Properties [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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Abstract
This work reports the construction of a bicomponent scaffold co-loaded with both a prodrug and a drug (BiFp@Ht) as an efficient platform for wound dressing, by combining the electrospinning and 3D-printing technologies. The outer component consisted of a chitosan/polyethylene oxide-electrospun membrane loaded with the indomethacin–polyethylene glycol–indomethacin prodrug (Fp) and served as a support for printing the inner component, a gelatin methacryloyl/sodium alginate hydrogel loaded with tetracycline hydrochloride (Ht). The different architectural characteristics of the electrospun and 3D-printed layers were very well highlighted in a morphological analysis performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In vitro release profile studies demonstrated that both Fp and Ht layers were capable to release the loaded therapeutics in a controlled and sustained manner. According to a quantitative in vitro biological assessment, the bicomponent BiFp@Ht scaffold showed a good biocompatibility and no cytotoxic effect on HeLa cell cultures, while the highest proliferation level was noted in the case of HeLa cells seeded onto an Fp nanofibrous membrane. Furthermore, the BiFp@Ht scaffold presented an excellent antimicrobial activity against the E. coli and S. aureus bacterial strains, along with promising anti-inflammatory and proangiogenic activities, proving its potential to be used for wound dressing.
AUTHOR Tan, Yadong and Fan, Shijie and Wu, Xiaoyu and Liu, Menggege and Dai, Ting and Liu, Chun and Ni, Su and Wang, Jiafeng and Yuan, Xiuchen and Zhao, Hongbin and Weng, Yiping
Title Fabrication of a three-dimensional printed gelatin/sodium alginate/nano-attapulgite composite polymer scaffold loaded with leonurine hydrochloride and its effects on osteogenesis and vascularization [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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Abstract
Bone tissue engineering scaffolds have made significant progress in treating bone defects in recent decades. However, the lack of a vascular network within the scaffold limits bone formation after implantation in vivo. Recent research suggests that leonurine hydrochloride (LH) can promote healing in full-thickness cutaneous wounds by increasing vessel formation and collagen deposition. Gelatin and Sodium Alginate are both polymers. ATP is a magnesium silicate chain mineral. In this study, a Gelatin/Sodium Alginate/Nano-Attapulgite composite hydrogel was used as the base material first, and the Gelatin/Sodium Alginate/Nano-Attapulgite composite polymer scaffold loaded with LH was then created using 3D printing technology. Finally, LH was grafted onto the base material by an amide reaction to construct a scaffold loaded with LH to achieve long-term LH release. When compared to pure polymer scaffolds, in vitro results showed that LH-loaded scaffolds promoted the differentiation of BMSCs into osteoblasts, as evidenced by increased expression of osteogenic key genes. The results of in vivo tissue staining revealed that the drug-loaded scaffold promoted both angiogenesis and bone formation. Collectively, these findings suggest that LH-loaded Gelatin/Sodium Alginate/Nano-Attapulgite composite hydrogel scaffolds are a potential therapeutic strategy and can assist bone regeneration.
AUTHOR Gruhn, Thomas and Monsalve, Camilo Ortiz and Müller, Claudia and Heid, Susanne and Boccaccini, Aldo R. and Salehi, Sahar
Title Fabrication of Hydrogel-Based Composite Fibers and Computer Simulation of the Filler Dynamics in the Composite Flow [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Bioengineering
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Abstract
Fibrous structures with anisotropic fillers as composites have found increasing interest in the field of biofabrication since they can mimic the extracellular matrix of anisotropic tissues such as skeletal muscle or nerve tissue. In the present work, the inclusion of anisotropic fillers in hydrogel-based filaments with an interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) was evaluated and the dynamics of such fillers in the composite flow were analyzed using computational simulations. In the experimental part, microfabricated rods (200 and 400 μm length, 50 μm width) were used as anisotropic fillers in extrusion of composite filaments using two techniques of wet spinning and 3D printing. Hydrogels such as oxidized alginate (ADA) and methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) were used as matrices. In the computational simulation, a combination of computational fluid dynamics and coarse-grained molecular dynamics was used to study the dynamics of rod-like fillers in the flow field of a syringe. It showed that, during the extrusion process, microrods are far from being well aligned. Instead, many of them tumble on their way through the needle leading to a random orientation in the fiber which was confirmed experimentally.
AUTHOR Pereira, Inês and Lopez-Martinez, Maria J. and Villasante, Aranzazu and Introna, Clelia and Tornero, Daniel and Canals, Josep M. and Samitier, Josep
Title Hyaluronic acid-based bioink improves the differentiation and network formation of neural progenitor cells [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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Abstract
Introduction: Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a promising technique for the development of neuronal in vitro models because it controls the deposition of materials and cells. Finding a biomaterial that supports neural differentiation in vitro while ensuring compatibility with the technique of 3D bioprinting of a self-standing construct is a challenge.Methods: In this study, gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA), methacrylated alginate (AlgMA), and hyaluronic acid (HA) were examined by exploiting their biocompatibility and tunable mechanical properties to resemble the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to create a suitable material for printing neural progenitor cells (NPCs), supporting their long-term differentiation. NPCs were printed and differentiated for up to 15 days, and cell viability and neuronal differentiation markers were assessed throughout the culture.Results and Discussion: This composite biomaterial presented the desired physical properties to mimic the ECM of the brain with high water intake, low stiffness, and slow degradation while allowing the printing of defined structures. The viability rates were maintained at approximately 80% at all time points. However, the levels of β-III tubulin marker increased over time, demonstrating the compatibility of this biomaterial with neuronal cell culture and differentiation. Furthermore, these cells showed increased maturation with corresponding functional properties, which was also demonstrated by the formation of a neuronal network that was observed by recording spontaneous activity via Ca2+ imaging.
AUTHOR Marin, Maria Minodora and Gifu, Ioana Catalina and Pircalabioru, Gratiela Gradisteanu and Albu Kaya, Madalina and Constantinescu, Rodica Roxana and Alexa, Rebeca Leu and Trica, Bogdan and Alexandrescu, Elvira and Nistor, Cristina Lavinia and Petcu, Cristian and Ianchis, Raluca
Title Microbial Polysaccharide-Based Formulation with Silica Nanoparticles; A New Hydrogel Nanocomposite for 3D Printing [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Gels
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Abstract
Natural polysaccharides are highly attractive biopolymers recommended for medical applications due to their low cytotoxicity and hydrophilicity. Polysaccharides and their derivatives are also suitable for additive manufacturing, a process in which various customized geometries of 3D structures/scaffolds can be achieved. Polysaccharide-based hydrogel materials are widely used in 3D hydrogel printing of tissue substitutes. In this context, our goal was to obtain printable hydrogel nanocomposites by adding silica nanoparticles to a microbial polysaccharide’s polymer network. Several amounts of silica nanoparticles were added to the biopolymer, and their effects on the morpho-structural characteristics of the resulting nanocomposite hydrogel inks and subsequent 3D printed constructs were studied. FTIR, TGA, and microscopy analysis were used to investigate the resulting crosslinked structures. Assessment of the swelling characteristics and mechanical stability of the nanocomposite materials in a wet state was also conducted. The salecan-based hydrogels displayed excellent biocompatibility and could be employed for biomedical purposes, according to the results of the MTT, LDH, and Live/Dead tests. The innovative, crosslinked, nanocomposite materials are recommended for use in regenerative medicine.
AUTHOR Ianchis, Raluca and Marin, Maria Minodora and Alexa, Rebeca Leu and Gifu, Ioana Catalina and Alexandrescu, Elvira and Pircalabioru, Gratiela Gradisteanu and Vlasceanu, George Mihail and Teodorescu, George Mihail and Serafim, Andrada and Preda, Silviu and Nistor, Cristina Lavinia and Petcu, Cristian
Title Nanoclay-reinforced alginate/salecan composite inks for 3D printing applications
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings IJB
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AUTHOR Ianchis, Raluca and Alexa, Rebeca Leu and Gifu, Ioana Catalina and Marin, Maria Minodora and Alexandrescu, Elvira and Constantinescu, Roxana and Serafim, Andrada and Nistor, Cristina Lavinia and Petcu, Cristian
Title Novel Green Crosslinked Salecan Hydrogels and Preliminary Investigation of Their Use in 3D Printing [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Pharmaceutics
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Abstract
Salecan, a kind of polysaccharide, is produced by the Agrobacterium ZX09 salt tolerant strain. In this study, green crosslinked citric acid-salecan hydrogels are explored as novel materials with a high potential for use in regenerative medicine. The impact of salecan and citric acid on the final crosslinked hydrogels was intensively studied and estimated in terms of the whole physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activity. FTIR spectra demonstrated the successful green crosslinking of salecan through its esterification with citric acid where the formation of strong covalent bonds collaboratively helped to stabilize the entire hydrogel systems in a wet state. Hydrogels presented a microporous morphology, good swelling capacity, pH responsiveness, great mechanical stability under stress conditions and good antibacterial activity, all related to the concentration of the biopolymers used in the synthesis step. Additionally, salecan hydrogels were preliminary investigated as printing inks. Thanks to their excellent rheological behavior, we optimized the citrate-salecan hydrogel inks and printing parameters to render 3D constructs with great printing fidelity and integrity. The novel synthesized salecan green crosslinked hydrogels enriches the family of salecan-derived hydrogels. Moreover, this work not only expands the application of salecan hydrogels in various fields, but also provides a new potential option of designing salecan-based 3D printed scaffolds for customized regenerative medicine.
AUTHOR Chen, Shangsi and Wang, Yue and Lai, Jiahui and Tan, Shenglong and Wang, Min
Title Structure and Properties of Gelatin Methacryloyl (GelMA) Synthesized in Different Reaction Systems [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Biomacromolecules
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Abstract
Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels have been extensively used for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications due to their good biocompatibility, biodegradability, and controllable photocurable efficiency. Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) is the most widely used reaction system for GelMA synthesis. However, carbonate-bicarbonate buffer solution (CBS) has been tried recently for synthesizing GelMA due to its high reaction efficiency. However, there is a lack of systematic investigation into possible differences in the structure and properties of GelMA synthesized in PBS and CBS, respectively. Therefore, in the current study, GelMA molecules with two degrees of methacryloylation (∼20 and ∼80%) were synthesized under PBS and CBS reaction systems, respectively, in comparable conditions. The results showed that because of the functionalization of methacrylate groups in gelatin chains, which could interfere with the intrachain and interchain interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, the GelMA molecules synthesized in PBS had distinct physical structures and exhibited different properties in comparison with those produced in CBS. GelMA hydrogels synthesized in PBS exhibited higher gel-sol transition temperatures and better photocurable efficiencies, mechanical strength, and biological properties. In contrast, GelMA hydrogels produced in CBS showed advantages in swelling performance and microstructures, such as pore sizes and porosities. In addition, GelMA synthesized in PBS and possessing a high degree of methacryloylation (the “GelMA-PH” polymer) showed great potential for three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. This focused study has gained helpful new insights into GelMA and can provide guidance on the application of GelMA in 3D printing and tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Züger, Fabian and Berner, Natascha and Gullo, Maurizio R.
Title Towards a Novel Cost-Effective and Versatile Bioink for 3D-Bioprinting in Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Biomimetics
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Abstract
3D-bioprinting for tissue regeneration relies on, among other things, hydrogels with favorable rheological properties. These include shear thinning for cell-friendly extrusion, post-printing structural stability as well as physiologically relevant elastic moduli needed for optimal cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and tissue maturation. This work introduces a cost-efficient gelatin-methylcellulose based hydrogel whose rheological properties can be independently optimized for optimal printability and tissue engineering. Hydrogel viscosities were designed to present three different temperature regimes: low viscosity for eased cell suspension and printing with minimal shear stress, form fidelity directly after printing and long term structural stability during incubation. Enzymatically crosslinked hydrogel scaffolds with stiffnesses ranging from 5 to 50 kPa were produced, enabling the hydrogel to biomimic cell environments for different types of tissues. The bioink showed high intrinsic cytocompatibility and tissues fabricated by embedding and bioprinting NIH 3T3 fibroblasts showed satisfactory viability. This novel hydrogel uses robust and inexpensive technology, which can be adjusted for implementation in tissue regeneration, e.g., in myocardial or neural tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Radeke, Carmen and Pons, Raphaël and Mihajlovic, Marko and Knudsen, Jonas R. and Butdayev, Sarkhan and Kempen, Paul J. and Segeritz, Charis-Patricia and Andresen, Thomas L. and Pehmøller, Christian K. and Jensen, Thomas E. and Lind, Johan U.
Title Transparent and Cell-Guiding Cellulose Nanofiber 3D Printing Bioinks [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
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Abstract
For three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting to fulfill its promise and enable the automated fabrication of complex tissue-mimicking constructs, there is a need for developing bioinks that are not only printable and biocompatible but also have integrated cell-instructive properties. Toward this goal, we here present a scalable technique for generating nanofiber 3D printing inks with unique tissue-guiding capabilities. Our core methodology relies on tailoring the size and dispersibility of cellulose fibrils through a solvent-controlled partial carboxymethylation. This way, we generate partially negatively charged cellulose nanofibers with diameters of ∼250 nm and lengths spanning tens to hundreds of microns. In this range, the fibers structurally match the size and dimensions of natural collagen fibers making them sufficiently large to orient cells. Yet, they are simultaneously sufficiently thin to be optically transparent. By adjusting fiber concentration, 3D printing inks with excellent shear-thinning properties can be established. In addition, as the fibers are readily dispersible, composite inks with both carbohydrates and extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived proteins can easily be generated. We apply such composite inks for 3D printing cell-laden and cross-linkable structures, as well as tissue-guiding gel substrates. Interestingly, we find that the spatial organization of engineered tissues can be defined by the shear-induced alignment of fibers during the printing procedure. Specifically, we show how myotubes derived from human and murine skeletal myoblasts can be programmed into linear and complex nonlinear architectures on soft printed substrates with intermediate fiber contents. Our nanofibrillated cellulose inks can thus serve as a simple and scalable tool for engineering anisotropic human muscle tissues that mimic native structure and function.
AUTHOR Zhang, Yubei and Raza, Ali and Xue, Ya-Qi and Yang, Ganggang and Hayat, Uzma and Yu, Jingwen and Liu, Chang and Wang, Hua-Jie and Wang, Jin-Ye
Title Water-responsive 4D printing based on self-assembly of hydrophobic protein “Zein” for the control of degradation rate and drug release [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Bioactive Materials
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Abstract
Four-dimensional (4D) printing is a promising technology that provides solutions for compelling needs in various fields. Most of the reported 4D printed systems are based on the temporal shape transformation of printed subjects. Induction of temporal heterogenicity in functions in addition to shape may extend the scope of 4D printing. Herein, we report a 4D printing approach using plant protein (zein) gel inspired by the amyloid fibrils formation mechanism. The printing of zein gel in a specialized layered-Carbopol supporting bath with different water concentrations in an ethanol-water mixture modulates hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding that causes temporal changes in functions. The part of the construct printed in a supporting bath with higher water content exhibits higher drug loading, faster drug release and degradation than those printed in the supporting bath with lower water content. Tri-segment conduit and butterfly-shaped construct with two asymmetrical wings are printed using this system to evaluate biomedical function as nerve conduit and drug delivery system. 4D printed conduits are also effective as a drug-eluting urethral stent in the porcine model. Overall, this study extends the concept of 4D printing beyond shape transformation and presents an approach of fabricating specialized baths for 4D printing that can also be extended to other materials to obtain 4D printed medical devices with translational potential.
AUTHOR Xue, Ya-Qi and Zhang, Yu-Cheng and Zhang, Yu-Bei and Wang, Jin-Ye
Title Zein-based 3D tubular constructs with tunable porosity for 3D cell culture and drug delivery [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Biomedical Engineering Advances
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Abstract
Manufacturing tubular constructs with tunable porosity can mimic the vascular structure, not only for supplying nutrients and removing metabolites to support long-term 3D cell culture but also for delivering bioactive components and drugs to tissues. There are few reports on the second purpose through 3D printing. In this study, bio-inspired tubular constructs with permeability were achieved using zein-based ink, forming structures with tunable porosity via the 3D printing technique. The parameters, e.g., zein content, with/without the addition of porogen, and drying conditions, were optimized to control the porous structure and porosity of the printed tubes. The inner wall of the resultant tube supported the adhesion of endothelial cells. A perfusion system was designed, and the penetrability of zein-based tubular constructs was demonstrated by the dialysis test. Moreover, perfusion of cell culture media and the anti-cancer drug in cell-laden hydrogels with tubular structure resulted in 3-day of 3D cell culture with a higher survival rate, and the drug was delivered to local cells around the tubular constructs, respectively. This is a new report on the preparation of 3D-printed tubular constructs using zein as the biomaterial inks with tunable porosity and porous structure, providing a general system for 3D cell culture, 3D drugs screening/pharmacokinetics in vitro, and tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Pitacco, Pierluca and Sadowska, Joanna M. and O'Brien, Fergal J. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D bioprinting of cartilaginous templates for large bone defect healing [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Abstract
Damaged or diseased bone can be treated using autografts or a range of different bone grafting biomaterials, however limitations with such approaches has motivated increased interest in developmentally inspired bone tissue engineering (BTE) strategies that seek to recapitulate the process of endochondral ossification (EO) as a means of regenerating critically sized defects. The clinical translation of such strategies will require the engineering of scaled-up, geometrically defined hypertrophic cartilage grafts that can be rapidly vascularised and remodelled into bone in mechanically challenging defect environments. The goal of this study was to 3D bioprint mechanically reinforced cartilaginous templates and to assess their capacity to regenerate critically sized femoral bone defects. Human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) were incorporated into fibrin based bioinks and bioprinted into polycaprolactone (PCL) frameworks to produce mechanically reinforced constructs. Chondrogenic priming of such hMSC laden constructs was required to support robust vascularisation and graft mineralisation in vivo following their subcutaneous implantation into nude mice. With a view towards maximising their potential to support endochondral bone regeneration, we next explored different in vitro culture regimes to produce chondrogenic and early hypertrophic engineered grafts. Following their implantation into femoral bone defects within transiently immunosuppressed rats, such bioprinted constructs were rapidly remodelled into bone in vivo, with early hypertrophic constructs supporting higher levels of vascularisation and bone formation compared to the chondrogenic constructs. Such early hypertrophic bioprinted constructs also supported higher levels of vascularisation and spatially distinct patterns of new formation compared to BMP-2 loaded collagen scaffolds (here used as a positiv