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AUTHOR He, Shaolong and Radeke, Carmen and Jacobsen, Jette and Lind, Johan Ulrik and Mu, Huiling
Title Multi-material 3D printing of programmable and stretchable oromucosal patches for delivery of saquinavir [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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Oromucosal patches for drug delivery allow fast onset of action and ability to circumvent hepatic first pass metabolism of drugs. While conventional fabrication methods such as solvent casting or hot melt extrusion are ideal for scalable production of low-cost delivery patches, these methods chiefly allow for simple, homogenous patch designs. As alternative, a multi-material direct-ink-write 3D printing for rapid fabrication of complex oromucosal patches with unique design features was demonstrated in the present study. Specifically, three print-materials: an acidic saquinavir-loaded hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ink, an alkaline effervescent sodium carbonate-loaded ink, and a methyl cellulose backing material were combined in various designs. The CO2 content and pH of the microenvironment were controlled by adjusting the number of alkaline layers in the patch. Additionally, the rigid and brittle patches were converted to compliant and stretchable patches by implementing mesh-like designs. Our results illustrate how 3D printing can be used for rapid design and fabrication of multifunctional or customized oromucosal patches with tailored dosages and changed drug permeation.
AUTHOR Fanous, Marina and Gold, Sarah and Muller, Silvain and Hirsch, Stefan and Ogorka, Joerg and Imanidis, Georgios
Title Simplification of fused deposition modeling 3D-printing paradigm: Feasibility of 1-step direct powder printing for immediate release dosage form production [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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Direct powder three-dimensional (3D)-printing (DPP) of tablets to simplify fused deposition modelling (FDM) was explored. The FDM paradigm involving hot-melt extrusion for making 3D-printable drug-loaded filaments as intermediate products for tablet manufacturing has been gaining attention for the decentralized on-site production of personalized dosage forms. For direct 3D-printing, powder blends were loaded into a cartridge-like head and were successfully printed with honeycomb design following heating of the extrusion cartridge. This 1-step DPP with incorporation of in-built porosity providing higher surface area served as proof of concept for manufacture of rapid release dosage forms. Water soluble hydroxypropylcellulose SSL was chosen as matrix former and caffeine as model drug. The effect of PEG4000 as plasticizer/pore former and Kollidon VA64 as rapidly dissolving polymer on DPP processability and dissolution rate was investigated. Directly 3D-printed tablets with low (30%) infill density showed rapid dissolution independently of the formulation, whereas for high (80%) infill density a combination of PEG4000 and Kollidon VA64 was required to achieve rapid release. The obtained tablets demonstrated good uniformity of percent drug content but had variable weight. Caffeine was present in crystalline state and in the stable polymorph in the tablets. Hence, DPP feasibility for immediate release dosage form manufacture was demonstrated. This technique might create an opportunity to avoid hot-melt extrusion allowing 3D-printing independently of mechanical properties of a filament and potentially prolonging product shelf life by reducing thermal stress.
AUTHOR Gonzalez-Fernandez, T. and Rathan, S. and Hobbs, C. and Pitacco, P. and Freeman, F. E. and Cunniffe, G. M. and Dunne, N. J. and McCarthy, H. O. and Nicolosi, V. and O'Brien, F. J. and Kelly, D. J.
Title Pore-forming bioinks to enable Spatio-temporally defined gene delivery in bioprinted tissues [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Controlled Release
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The regeneration of complex tissues and organs remains a major clinical challenge. With a view towards bioprinting such tissues, we developed a new class of pore-forming bioink to spatially and temporally control the presentation of therapeutic genes within bioprinted tissues. By blending sacrificial and stable hydrogels, we were able to produce bioinks whose porosity increased with time following printing. When combined with amphipathic peptide-based plasmid DNA delivery, these bioinks supported enhanced non-viral gene transfer to stem cells in vitro. By modulating the porosity of these bioinks, it was possible to direct either rapid and transient (pore-forming bioinks), or slower and more sustained (solid bioinks) transfection of host or transplanted cells in vivo. To demonstrate the utility of these bioinks for the bioprinting of spatially complex tissues, they were next used to zonally position stem cells and plasmids encoding for either osteogenic (BMP2) or chondrogenic (combination of TGF-β3, BMP2 and SOX9) genes within networks of 3D printed thermoplastic fibers to produce mechanically reinforced, gene activated constructs. In vivo, these bioprinted tissues supported the development of a vascularised, bony tissue overlaid by a layer of stable cartilage. When combined with multiple-tool biofabrication strategies, these gene activated bioinks can enable the bioprinting of a wide range of spatially complex tissues.
AUTHOR Khaled, Shaban A. and Burley, Jonathan C. and Alexander, Morgan R. and Yang, Jing and Roberts, Clive J.
Title 3D printing of five-in-one dose combination polypill with defined immediate and sustained release profiles [Abstract]
Year 2015
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Controlled Release
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Abstract We have used three dimensional (3D) extrusion printing to manufacture a multi-active solid dosage form or so called polypill. This contains five compartmentalised drugs with two independently controlled and well-defined release profiles. This polypill demonstrates that complex medication regimes can be combined in a single personalised tablet. This could potentially improve adherence for those patients currently taking many separate tablets and also allow ready tailoring of a particular drug combination/drug release for the needs of an individual. The polypill here represents a cardiovascular treatment regime with the incorporation of an immediate release compartment with aspirin and hydrochlorothiazide and three sustained release compartments containing pravastatin, atenolol, and ramipril. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used to assess drug-excipient interaction. The printed polypills were evaluated for drug release using {USP} dissolution testing. We found that the polypill showed the intended immediate and sustained release profiles based upon the active/excipient ratio used.
AUTHOR Freeman, Fiona E. and Pitacco, Pierluca and van Dommelen, Lieke H. A. and Nulty, Jessica and Browe, David C. and Shin, Jung-Youn and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D bioprinting spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors to tightly control tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Science Advances
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Therapeutic growth factor delivery typically requires supraphysiological dosages, which can cause undesirable off-target effects. The aim of this study was to 3D bioprint implants containing spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors optimized for coupled angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Using nanoparticle functionalized bioinks, it was possible to print implants with distinct growth factor patterns and release profiles spanning from days to weeks. The extent of angiogenesis in vivo depended on the spatial presentation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Higher levels of vessel invasion were observed in implants containing a spatial gradient of VEGF compared to those homogenously loaded with the same total amount of protein. Printed implants containing a gradient of VEGF, coupled with spatially defined BMP-2 localization and release kinetics, accelerated large bone defect healing with little heterotopic bone formation. This demonstrates the potential of growth factor printing, a putative point of care therapy, for tightly controlled tissue regeneration.
AUTHOR Khaled, Shaban A. and Burley, Jonathan C. and Alexander, Morgan R. and Yang, Jing and Roberts, Clive J.
Title 3D printing of tablets containing multiple drugs with defined release profiles [Abstract]
Year 2015
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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Abstract We have employed three-dimensional (3D) extrusion-based printing as a medicine manufacturing technique for the production of multi-active tablets with well-defined and separate controlled release profiles for three different drugs. This ‘polypill’ made by a 3D additive manufacture technique demonstrates that complex medication regimes can be combined in a single tablet and that it is viable to formulate and ‘dial up’ this single tablet for the particular needs of an individual. The tablets used to illustrate this concept incorporate an osmotic pump with the drug captopril and sustained release compartments with the drugs nifedipine and glipizide. This combination of medicines could potentially be used to treat diabetics suffering from hypertension. The room temperature extrusion process used to print the formulations used excipients commonly employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were used to assess drug–excipient interaction. The printed formulations were evaluated for drug release using {USP} dissolution testing. We found that the captopril portion showed the intended zero order drug release of an osmotic pump and noted that the nifedipine and glipizide portions showed either first order release or Korsmeyer–Peppas release kinetics dependent upon the active/excipient ratio used.
AUTHOR Kamdem Tamo, Arnaud and Tran, Tuan Anh and Doench, Ingo and Jahangir, Shaghayegh and Lall, Aastha and David, Laurent and Peniche-Covas, Carlos and Walther, Andreas and Osorio-Madrazo, Anayancy
Title 3D Printing of Cellulase-Laden Cellulose Nanofiber/Chitosan Hydrogel Composites: Towards Tissue Engineering Functional Biomaterials with Enzyme-Mediated Biodegradation [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Materials
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The 3D printing of a multifunctional hydrogel biomaterial with bioactivity for tissue engineering, good mechanical properties and a biodegradability mediated by free and encapsulated cellulase was proposed. Bioinks of cellulase-laden and cellulose nanofiber filled chitosan viscous suspensions were used to 3D print enzymatic biodegradable and biocompatible cellulose nanofiber (CNF) reinforced chitosan (CHI) hydrogels. The study of the kinetics of CNF enzymatic degradation was studied in situ in fibroblast cell culture. To preserve enzyme stability as well as to guarantee its sustained release, the cellulase was preliminarily encapsulated in chitosan–caseinate nanoparticles, which were further incorporated in the CNF/CHI viscous suspension before the 3D printing of the ink. The incorporation of the enzyme within the CHI/CNF hydrogel contributed to control the decrease of the CNF mechanical reinforcement in the long term while keeping the cell growth-promoting property of chitosan. The hydrolysis kinetics of cellulose in the 3D printed scaffolds showed a slow but sustained degradation of the CNFs with enzyme, with approximately 65% and 55% relative activities still obtained after 14 days of incubation for the encapsulated and free enzyme, respectively. The 3D printed composite hydrogels showed excellent cytocompatibility supporting fibroblast cell attachment, proliferation and growth. Ultimately, the concomitant cell growth and biodegradation of CNFs within the 3D printed CHI/CNF scaffolds highlights the remarkable potential of CHI/CNF composites in the design of tissue models for the development of 3D constructs with tailored in vitro/in vivo degradability for biomedical applications.
AUTHOR Cadle, Rachel and Rogozea, Dan and Moldovan, Leni and Moldovan, Nicanor I.
Title Design and Implementation of Anatomically Inspired Mesenteric and Intestinal Vascular Patterns for Personalized 3D Bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Applied Sciences
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Recent progress in bioprinting has made possible the creation of complex 3D intestinal constructs, including vascularized villi. However, for their integration into functional units useful for experimentation or implantation, the next challenge is to endow them with a larger-scale, anatomically realistic vasculature. In general, the perfusion of bioprinted constructs has remained difficult, and the current solution is to provide them with mostly linear and simply branched channels. To address this limitation, here we demonstrated an image analysis-based workflow leading through computer-assisted design from anatomic images of rodent mesentery and colon to the actual printing of such patterns with paste and hydrogel bioinks. Moreover, we reverse-engineered the 2D intestinal image-derived designs into cylindrical objects, and 3D-printed them in a support hydrogel. These results open the path towards generation of more realistically vascularized tissue constructs for a variety of personalized medicine applications.
AUTHOR Geevarghese, Rency and Somasekharan, Lakshmi T. and Bhatt, Anugya and Kasoju, Naresh and Nair, Renjith P.
Title Development and evaluation of a multicomponent bioink consisting of alginate, gelatin, diethylaminoethyl cellulose and collagen peptide for 3D bioprinting of tissue construct for drug screening application [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology has been making a progressive advancement in the field of tissue engineering to produce tissue constructs that mimic the shape, framework, and microenvironment of an organ. The technology has not only paved the way to organ development but has been widely studied for its application in drug and cosmetic testing using 3D bioprinted constructs. However, not much has been explored on the utilization of bioprinting technology for the development of tumor models to test anti-cancer drug efficacy. The conventional methodology involves a two dimensional (2D) monolayer model to test cellular drug response which has multiple limitations owing to its inability to mimic the natural tissue environment. The choice of bioink for 3D bioprinting is critical as cell morphology and proliferation depend greatly on the property of bioink. In this study, we developed a multicomponent bioink composed of alginate, diethylaminoethyl cellulose, gelatin, and collagen peptide to generate a 3D bioprinted construct. The bioink has been characterised and validated for its printability, shape fidelity and biocompatibility to be used for generating tumor models. Further, a bioprinted tumor model was developed using lung cancer cell line and the efficacy of 3D printed construct for drug screening application was established.
AUTHOR Ramakrishnan, Rashmi and Kasoju, Naresh and Raju, Riya and Geevarghese, Rency and Gauthaman, Ashna and Bhatt, Anugya
Title Exploring the Potential of Alginate-Gelatin-Diethylaminoethyl Cellulose-Fibrinogen based Bioink for 3D Bioprinting of Skin Tissue Constructs [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications
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Designing printable bioinks for 3D bioprinting capable of supporting cellular viability with post-printing functionality remains challenging. Native ECM offers several physical, chemical, and biological cues that are difficult to restore using only a single component. Herein, we have optimized a multicomponent-based bioink formulation comprising alginate (ALG), gelatin (GEL), diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DCEL) and fibrinogen (FIB), termed as ALG-GEL-DCEL-FIB bioink for potential application in bioprinting and biofabrication of skin tissue equivalents. The designed formulation was extensively studied for its printability, physico-chemical, rheological, and biocompatibility properties. Excellent printability, shape fidelity and cell-laden tissue equivalent printing were established using the RegenHu 3D Discovery Bioprinter. The human primary fibroblast and keratinocyte-laden bioprinted constructs exhibited good cell viability. Long term culture of 4 weeks comprising 5 days of air-liquid-interphase followed by 21 days of submerged culture produced biomimetic tissue histology in the ALG-GEL-DCEL-FIB bioink printed constructs. Specific epidermal-dermal marker expressions proving functionality were evident in immunohistochemical, biochemical and gene expression analysis. The ALG-GEL-DCEL-FIB bioink may be explored further for potential biofabrication and therapeutic applications.
AUTHOR Gretzinger, Sarah and Schmieg, Barbara and Guthausen, Gisela and Hubbuch, Jürgen
Title Virtual Reality as Tool for Bioprinting Quality Inspection: A Proof of Principle [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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As virtual reality (VR) has drastically evolved over the past few years, the field of applications of VR flourished way beyond the gaming industry. While commercial VR solutions might be available, there is a need to develop a workflow for specific applications. Bioprinting represents such an example. Here, complex 3D data is generated and needs to be visualized in the context of quality control. We demonstrate that the transfer to a commercially available VR software is possible by introducing an optimized workflow. In the present work, we developed a workflow for the visualization of the critical quality attribute (cQA) cell distribution in bioprinted (extrusion-based) samples in VR. The cQA cell distribution is directly influenced by the pre-processing step mixing of cell material in the bioink. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used as an analytical tool to generate spatially resolved 2.5 and 3D data of the bioprinted objects. A sample with poor quality in respect of the cQA cell distribution was identified as its inhomogeneous cell distribution could be displayed spatially resolved in VR. The described workflow facilitates the usage of VR as a tool for quality inspection in the field of bioprinting and represents a powerful tool for visualization of complex 3D MRI data.
AUTHOR Cernencu, Alexandra I. and Lungu, Adriana and Dragusin, Diana M. and Stancu, Izabela C. and Dinescu, Sorina and Balahura, Liliana R. and Mereuta, Paul and Costache, Marieta and Iovu, Horia
Title 3D Bioprinting of Biosynthetic Nanocellulose-Filled GelMA Inks Highly Reliable for Soft Tissue-Oriented Constructs [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials
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Bioink-formulations based on gelatin methacrylate combined with oxidized cellulose nanofibrils are employed in the present study. The parallel investigation of the printing performance, morphological, swelling, and biological properties of the newly developed hydrogels was performed, with inks prepared using methacrylamide-modified gelatins of fish or bovine origin. Scaffolds with versatile and well-defined internal structure and high shape fidelity were successfully printed due to the high viscosity and shear-thinning behavior of formulated inks and then photo-crosslinked. The biocompatibility of 3D-scaffolds was surveyed using human adipose stem cells (hASCs) and high viability and proliferation rates were obtained when in contact with the biomaterial. Furthermore, bioprinting tests were performed with hASCs embedded in the developed formulations. The results demonstrated that the designed inks are a versatile toolkit for 3D bioprinting and further show the benefits of using fish-derived gelatin for biofabrication.
AUTHOR Finny, Abraham Samuel and Popoola, Oluwatosin and Andreescu, Silvana
Title 3D-Printable Nanocellulose-Based Functional Materials: Fundamentals and Applications [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Nanomaterials
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Nanomaterials obtained from sustainable and natural sources have seen tremendous growth in recent times due to increasing interest in utilizing readily and widely available resources. Nanocellulose materials extracted from renewable biomasses hold great promise for increasing the sustainability of conventional materials in various applications owing to their biocompatibility, mechanical properties, ease of functionalization, and high abundance. Nanocellulose can be used to reinforce mechanical strength, impart antimicrobial activity, provide lighter, biodegradable, and more robust materials for packaging, and produce photochromic and electrochromic devices. While the fabrication and properties of nanocellulose are generally well established, their implementation in novel products and applications requires surface modification, assembly, and manufacturability to enable rapid tooling and scalable production. Additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing can improve functionality and enhance the ability to customize products while reducing fabrication time and wastage of materials. This review article provides an overview of nanocellulose as a sustainable material, covering the different properties, preparation methods, printability and strategies to functionalize nanocellulose into 3D-printed constructs. The applications of 3D-printed nanocellulose composites in food, environmental, and energy devices are outlined, and an overview of challenges and opportunities is provided.
AUTHOR Jiahui Lai and Xinliang Ye and Jia Liu and Chong Wang and Junzhi Li and Xiang Wang and Mingze Ma and Min Wang
Title 4D printing of highly printable and shape morphing hydrogels composed of alginate and methylcellulose [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials & Design
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4D printing of swellable/shrinkable hydrogels has been viewed as an appealing approach for fabricating dynamic structures for various biomedical applications. However, 4D printing of precise hydrogel structures is still highly challenging due to the relatively poor printability of hydrogels and high surface roughness of printed patterns, when micro extrusion-based 3D printers are used. In this study, a highly printable and shape morphing hydrogel was investigated for 4D printing by blending alginate (Alg) and methylcellulose (MC). The optimized Alg/MC hydrogel exhibited excellent rheological properties, extrudability and shape fidelity of printed structures. The printable Alg/MC hydrogel was 4D printed into a series of patterned 2D architectures which were encoded with anisotropic stiffness and swelling behaviors by strategically controlling the network density gradients vertical to the orientation of the patterned strips. By controlling the strip interspacing and angle, these 2D architectures could transform into various prescribed simple 3D morphologies (e.g., tube-curling and helix) and complex 3D morphologies (e.g., double helix and flowers) after immersion in a calcium chloride solution. This shape morphing Alg/MC hydrogel with excellent printability has high potential for 4D printing of delicate hydrogel patterns, which are increasingly needed in the tissue engineering, biomedical device and soft robotics fields.
AUTHOR Fisch, Philipp and Broguiere, Nicolas and Finkielsztein, Sergio and Linder, Thomas and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Bioprinting of Cartilaginous Auricular Constructs Utilizing an Enzymatically Crosslinkable Bioink [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Functional Materials
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Abstract Bioprinting of functional tissues could overcome tissue shortages and allow a more rapid response for treatments. However, despite recent progress in bioprinting, and its outstanding ability to position cells and biomaterials in a precise 3D manner, its success has been limited, due to insufficient maturation of constructs into functional tissue. Here, a novel calcium-triggered enzymatic crosslinking (CTEC) mechanism for bioinks based on the activation cascade of Factor XIII is presented and utilized for the biofabrication of cartilaginous constructs. Hyaluronan transglutaminase (HA-TG), an enzymatically crosslinkable material, has shown excellent characteristics for chondrogenesis and builds the basis of the CTEC bioink. The bioink supports tissue maturation with neocartilage formation and stiffening of constructs up to 400 kPa. Bioprinted constructs remain stable in vivo for 24 weeks and bioprinted auricular constructs transform into cartilaginous grafts. A major limitation of the current study is the deposition of collagen I, indicating the maturation toward fibrocartilage rather than elastic cartilage. Shifting the maturation process toward elastic cartilage will therefore be essential in order for the developed bioinks to offer a novel tissue engineered treatment for microtia patients. CTEC bioprinting furthermore opens up use of enzymatically crosslinkable biopolymers and their modularity to support a multitude of tissues.
AUTHOR Kamdem Tamo, Arnaud and Doench, Ingo and Walter, Lukas and Montembault, Alexandra and Sudre, Guillaume and David, Laurent and Morales-Helguera, Aliuska and Selig, Mischa and Rolauffs, Bernd and Bernstein, Anke and Hoenders, Daniel and Walther, Andreas and Osorio-Madrazo, Anayancy
Title Development of Bioinspired Functional Chitosan/Cellulose Nanofiber 3D Hydrogel Constructs by 3D Printing for Application in the Engineering of Mechanically Demanding Tissues [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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Soft tissues are commonly fiber-reinforced hydrogel composite structures, distinguishable from hard tissues by their low mineral and high water content. In this work, we proposed the development of 3D printed hydrogel constructs of the biopolymers chitosan (CHI) and cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), both without any chemical modification, which processing did not incorporate any chemical crosslinking. The unique mechanical properties of native cellulose nanofibers offer new strategies for the design of environmentally friendly high mechanical performance composites. In the here proposed 3D printed bioinspired CNF-filled CHI hydrogel biomaterials, the chitosan serves as a biocompatible matrix promoting cell growth with balanced hydrophilic properties, while the CNFs provide mechanical reinforcement to the CHI-based hydrogel. By means of extrusion-based printing (EBB), the design and development of 3D functional hydrogel scaffolds was achieved by using low concentrations of chitosan (2.0–3.0% (w/v)) and cellulose nanofibers (0.2–0.4% (w/v)). CHI/CNF printed hydrogels with good mechanical performance (Young’s modulus 3.0 MPa, stress at break 1.5 MPa, and strain at break 75%), anisotropic microstructure and suitable biological response, were achieved. The CHI/CNF composition and processing parameters were optimized in terms of 3D printability, resolution, and quality of the constructs (microstructure and mechanical properties), resulting in good cell viability. This work allows expanding the library of the so far used biopolymer compositions for 3D printing of mechanically performant hydrogel constructs, purely based in the natural polymers chitosan and cellulose, offering new perspectives in the engineering of mechanically demanding hydrogel tissues like intervertebral disc (IVD), cartilage, meniscus, among others.
AUTHOR Götz, Lisa-Marie and Holeczek, Katharina and Groll, Jürgen and Jüngst, Tomasz and Gbureck, Uwe
Title Extrusion-Based 3D Printing of Calcium Magnesium Phosphate Cement Pastes for Degradable Bone Implants [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials
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This study aimed to develop printable calcium magnesium phosphate pastes that harden by immersion in ammonium phosphate solution post-printing. Besides the main mineral compound, biocompatible ceramic, magnesium oxide and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) were the crucial components. Two pastes with different powder to liquid ratios of 1.35 g/mL and 1.93 g/mL were characterized regarding their rheological properties. Here, ageing over the course of 24 h showed an increase in viscosity and extrusion force, which was attributed to structural changes in HPMC as well as the formation of magnesium hydroxide by hydration of MgO. The pastes enabled printing of porous scaffolds with good dimensional stability and enabled a setting reaction to struvite when immersed in ammonium phosphate solution. Mechanical performance under compression was approx. 8–20 MPa as a monolithic structure and 1.6–3.0 MPa for printed macroporous scaffolds, depending on parameters such as powder to liquid ratio, ageing time, strand thickness and distance.
AUTHOR Yadav, Chandravati and Saini, Arun and Zhang, Wenbo and You, Xiangyu and Chauhan, Indu and Mohanty, Paritosh and Li, Xinping
Title Plant-based nanocellulose: A review of routine and recent preparation methods with current progress in its applications as rheology modifier and 3D bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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“Nanocellulose” have captivated the topical sphere of sturdily escalating market for sustainable materials. The review focuses on the comprehensive understanding of the distinct surface chemistry and functionalities pertaining to the renovation of macro-cellulose at nanodimensional scale to provide an intuition of their processing-structure-function prospective. The abundant availability, cost effectiveness and diverse properties associated with plant-based resources have great economical perspective for developing sustainable cellulose nanomaterials. Hence, emphasis has been given on nanocellulose types obtained from plant-based sources. An overarching goal is to provide the recent advancement in the preparation routes of nanocellulose. Considering the excellent shear thinning/thixotropic/gel-like behavior, the review provids an assemblage of publications specifically dealing with its application as rheology modifier with emphasis on its use as bioink for 3D bioprinting for various biomedical applications. Altogether, this review has been oriented in a way to collocate a collective data starting from the historical perspective of cellulose discovery to modern cellulosic chemistry and its renovation as nanocellulose with recent technological hype for broad spanning applications.
AUTHOR Balaji Mahendiran and Shalini Muthusamy and Sowndarya Sampath and S.N. Jaisankar and Ketul C. Popat and R. Selvakumar and Gopal Shankar Krishnakumar
Title Recent trends in natural polysaccharide based bioinks for multiscale 3D printing in tissue regeneration: A review [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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Biofabrication by three-dimensional (3D) printing has been an attractive technology in harnessing the possibility to print anatomical shaped native tissues with controlled architecture and resolution. 3D printing offers the possibility to reproduce complex microarchitecture of native tissues by printing live cells in a layer by layer deposition to provide a biomimetic structural environment for tissue formation and host tissue integration. Plant based biomaterials derived from green and sustainable sources have represented to emulate native physicochemical and biological cues in order to direct specific cellular response and formation of new tissues through biomolecular recognition patterns. This comprehensive review aims to analyze and identify the most commonly used plant based bioinks for 3D printing applications. An overview on the role of different plant based biomaterial of terrestrial origin (Starch, Nanocellulose and Pectin) and marine origin (Ulvan, Alginate, Fucoidan, Agarose and Carrageenan) used for 3D printing applications are discussed elaborately. Furthermore, this review will also emphasis in the functional aspects of different 3D printers, appropriate printing material, merits and demerits of numerous plant based bioinks in developing 3D printed tissue-like constructs. Additionally, the underlying potential benefits, limitations and future perspectives of plant based bioinks for tissue engineering (TE) applications are also discussed.
AUTHOR Li, Mei-Chun and Wu, Qinglin and Moon, Robert J. and Hubbe, Martin A. and Bortner, Michael J.
Title Rheological Aspects of Cellulose Nanomaterials: Governing Factors and Emerging Applications [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Materials
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Abstract Cellulose nanomaterials (CNMs), mainly including nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), have attained enormous interest due to their sustainability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, nanoscale dimensions, large surface area, facile modification of surface chemistry, as well as unique optical, mechanical, and rheological performance. One of the most fascinating properties of CNMs is their aqueous suspension rheology, i.e., CNMs helping create viscous suspensions with the formation of percolation networks and chemical interactions (e.g., van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding, electrostatic attraction/repulsion, and hydrophobic attraction). Under continuous shearing, CNMs in an aqueous suspension can align along the flow direction, producing shear-thinning behavior. At rest, CNM suspensions regain some of their initial structure immediately, allowing rapid recovery of rheological properties. These unique flow features enable CNMs to serve as rheological modifiers in a wide range of fluid-based applications. Herein, the dependence of the rheology of CNM suspensions on test protocols, CNM inherent properties, suspension environments, and postprocessing is systematically described. A critical overview of the recent progress on fluid applications of CNMs as rheology modifiers in some emerging industrial sectors is presented as well. Future perspectives in the field are outlined to guide further research and development in using CNMs as the next generation rheological modifiers.
AUTHOR Kamdem Tamo, Arnaud and Doench, Ingo and Morales Helguera, Aliuska and Hoenders, Daniel and Walther, Andreas and Madrazo, Anayancy Osorio
Title Biodegradation of Crystalline Cellulose Nanofibers by Means of Enzyme Immobilized-Alginate Beads and Microparticles [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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Recent advances in nanocellulose technology have revealed the potential of crystalline cellulose nanofibers to reinforce materials which are useful for tissue engineering, among other functions. However, the low biodegradability of nanocellulose can possess some problems in biomedical applications. In this work, alginate particles with encapsulated enzyme cellulase extracted from Trichoderma reesei were prepared for the biodegradation of crystalline cellulose nanofibers, which carrier system could be incorporated in tissue engineering biomaterials to degrade the crystalline cellulose nanoreinforcement in situ and on-demand during tissue regeneration. Both alginate beads and microparticles were processed by extrusion-dropping and inkjet-based methods, respectively. Processing parameters like the alginate concentration, concentration of ionic crosslinker Ca2+, hardening time, and ionic strength of the medium were varied. The hydrolytic activity of the free and encapsulated enzyme was evaluated for unmodified (CNFs) and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNFs) in suspension (heterogeneous conditions); in comparison to solubilized cellulose derivatives (homogeneous conditions). The enzymatic activity was evaluated for temperatures between 25–75 °C, pH range from 3.5 to 8.0 and incubation times until 21 d. Encapsulated cellulase in general displayed higher activity compared to the free enzyme over wider temperature and pH ranges and for longer incubation times. A statistical design allowed optimizing the processing parameters for the preparation of enzyme-encapsulated alginate particles presenting the highest enzymatic activity and sphericity. The statistical analysis yielded the optimum particles characteristics and properties by using a formulation of 2% (w/v) alginate, a coagulation bath of 0.2 M CaCl2 and a hardening time of 1 h. In homogeneous conditions the highest catalytic activity was obtained at 55 °C and pH 4.8. These temperature and pH values were considered to study the biodegradation of the crystalline cellulose nanofibers in suspension. The encapsulated cellulase preserved its activity for several weeks over that of the free enzyme, which latter considerably decreased and practically showed deactivation after just 10 d. The alginate microparticles with their high surface area-to-volume ratio effectively allowed the controlled release of the encapsulated enzyme and thereby the sustained hydrolysis of the cellulose nanofibers. The relative activity of cellulase encapsulated in the microparticles leveled-off at around 60% after one day and practically remained at that value for three weeks.
AUTHOR Cernecu, Alexandra and Lungu, Adriana and Stancu, Izabela Cristina and Vasile, Eugeniu and Iovu, Horia
Title Polysaccharide-Based 3D Printing Inks Supplemented with Additives
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings University Politechnica of Bucharest Scientific Bulletin
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AUTHOR Figueiredo, Lara and Le Visage, Catherine and Weiss, Pierre and Yang, Jing
Title Quantifying Oxygen Levels in 3D Bioprinted Cell-Laden Thick Constructs with Perfusable Microchannel Networks [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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Abstract
The survival and function of thick tissue engineered implanted constructs depends on pre-existing, embedded, functional, vascular-like structures that are able to integrate with the host vasculature. Bioprinting was employed to build perfusable vascular-like networks within thick constructs. However, the improvement of oxygen transportation facilitated by these vascular-like networks was directly quantified. Using an optical fiber oxygen sensor, we measured the oxygen content at different positions within 3D bioprinted constructs with and without perfusable microchannel networks. Perfusion was found to play an essential role in maintaining relatively high oxygen content in cell-laden constructs and, consequently, high cell viability. The concentration of oxygen changes following switching on and off the perfusion. Oxygen concentration depletes quickly after pausing perfusion but recovers rapidly after resuming the perfusion. The quantification of oxygen levels within cell-laden hydrogel constructs could provide insight into channel network design and cellular responses.
AUTHOR Li, Huijun and Tan, Yu Jun and Kiran, Raj and Tor, Shu Beng and Zhou, Kun
Title Submerged and non-submerged 3D bioprinting approaches for the fabrication of complex structures with the hydrogel pair GelMA and alginate/methylcellulose [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Additive Manufacturing
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Abstract
The extrusion-based bioprinting of hydrogels such as gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) into structures with complex shape suffers from poor printability due to their low viscosity. The present study deals with hydrogel materials by using the mixture of cell-laden photopolymerizable GelMA as a main printing material and the mixture of alginate and methylcellulose (Alg/MC) as a support material because of its high viscosity and good thixotropic property. One extrusion-based approach is developed by printing the two mixtures into structures in an alternating layer-by-layer manner, with the electrostatic interactions between polycationic GelMA and polyanionic Alg/MC contributing to the integrity of the structures. The final printed structures are exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light to form crosslinks in GelMA through photopolymerization for further structural strengthening. The one-time UV exposure minimizes cell damage in cell-GelMA, demonstrating an advantage over those in previously reported studies that required repeated UV exposures upon the printing of each layer of a structure. The other approach is developed by submerging the extrusion nozzle into a bath of Alg/MC to print cell-laden GelMA structures, which, upon printing completion, are also subject to one-time UV exposure before the removal of the support material Alg/MC. A flower with living cells is printed to demonstrate the capability of the second approach of fabricating structures with geometric complexity. The structures printed using both approaches demonstrate a well-maintained shape fidelity, structural integrity and cell viability of over 93% up to five culturing days. The proposed two printing approaches based on the cell-GelMA and Alg/MC pair will be beneficial for exploring new opportunities in bioprinting.
AUTHOR Cernencu, Alexandra I. and Lungu, Adriana and Stancu, Izabela-Cristina and Serafim, Andrada and Heggset, Ellinor and Syverud, Kristin and Iovu, Horia
Title Bioinspired 3D printable pectin-nanocellulose ink formulations [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Carbohydrate Polymers
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Abstract
The assessment of several ink formulations for 3D printing based on two natural macromolecular compounds is presented. In the current research we have exploited the fast crosslinking potential of pectin and the remarkable shear-thinning properties of carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils, which is known to induce a desired viscoelastic behavior. Prior to 3D printing, the viscoelastic properties of the polysaccharide inks were evaluated by rheological measurements and injectability tests. The reliance of the printing parameters on the ink composition was established through one-dimensional lines printing, the base units of 3D-structures. The performance of the 3D-printed structures after ionic cross-linking was evaluated in terms of mechanical properties and rehydration behavior. MicroCT was also used to evaluate the morphology of the 3D-printed objects regarding the effect of pectin/nanocellulose ratio on the geometrical features of scaffolds. The proportionality between the two polymers proved to be the determining factor for the firmness and strength of the printed objects.
AUTHOR Cofiño, Carla and Perez-Amodio, Soledad and Semino, Carlos E. and Engel, Elisabeth and Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A.
Title Development of a Self-Assembled Peptide/Methylcellulose-Based Bioink for 3D Bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Macromolecular Materials and Engineering
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Abstract The introduction of 3D bioprinting to fabricate living constructs with tailored architecture has provided a new paradigm for biofabrication, with the potential to overcome several drawbacks of conventional scaffold-based tissue regeneration strategies. Hydrogel-based materials are suitable candidates regarding cell biocompatibility but often display poor mechanical properties. Self-assembling peptides are a promising source of biomaterials to be used as 3D scaffolds based on their similarity to extracellular matrices (structurally and mechanically). In this study, an advanced bioink for biofabrication is presented based on the optimization of a RAD16-I-based biomaterial. The strategy followed to build 3D predefined structures by 3D printing is based on an enhancement of bioink viscosity by adding methylcellulose (MC) to a RAD16-I solution. The resultant constructs display high shape fidelity and stability and embedded human mesenchymal stem cells present high viability after 7 days of culture. Moreover, cells are also able to differentiate to the adipogenic lineage, suggesting the suitability of this novel biomaterial for soft tissue engineering applications.
AUTHOR Apelgren, Peter and Karabulut, Erdem and Amoroso, Matteo and Mantas, Athanasios and Martínez Ávila, Héctor and Kölby, Lars and Kondo, Tetsuo and Toriz, Guillermo and Gatenholm, Paul
Title In Vivo Human Cartilage Formation in Three-Dimensional Bioprinted Constructs with a Novel Bacterial Nanocellulose Bioink [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
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Abstract
Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a 3D network of nanofibrils exhibiting excellent biocompatibility. Here, we present the aqueous counter collision (ACC) method of BNC disassembly to create bioink with suitable properties for cartilage-specific 3D-bioprinting. BNC was disentangled by ACC, and fibril characteristics were analyzed. Bioink printing fidelity and shear-thinning properties were evaluated. Cell-laden bioprinted grid constructs (5 × 5 × 1 mm3) containing human nasal chondrocytes (10 M mL-1) were implanted in nude mice and explanted after 30 and 60 days. Both ACC and hydrolysis resulted in significantly reduced fiber lengths, with ACC resulting in longer fibrils and fewer negative charges relative to hydrolysis. Moreover, ACC-BNC bioink showed outstanding printability, postprinting mechanical stability, and structural integrity. In vivo, cell-laden structures were rapidly integrated, maintained structural integrity, and showed chondrocyte proliferation, with 32.8 ± 13.8 cells per mm2 observed after 30 days and 85.6 ± 30.0 cells per mm2 at day 60 (p = 0.002). Furthermore, a full-thickness skin graft was attached and integrated completely on top of the 3D-bioprinted construct. The novel ACC disentanglement technique makes BNC biomaterial highly suitable for 3D-bioprinting and clinical translation, suggesting cell-laden 3D-bioprinted ACC-BNC as a promising solution for cartilage repair. Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a 3D network of nanofibrils exhibiting excellent biocompatibility. Here, we present the aqueous counter collision (ACC) method of BNC disassembly to create bioink with suitable properties for cartilage-specific 3D-bioprinting. BNC was disentangled by ACC, and fibril characteristics were analyzed. Bioink printing fidelity and shear-thinning properties were evaluated. Cell-laden bioprinted grid constructs (5 × 5 × 1 mm3) containing human nasal chondrocytes (10 M mL-1) were implanted in nude mice and explanted after 30 and 60 days. Both ACC and hydrolysis resulted in significantly reduced fiber lengths, with ACC resulting in longer fibrils and fewer negative charges relative to hydrolysis. Moreover, ACC-BNC bioink showed outstanding printability, postprinting mechanical stability, and structural integrity. In vivo, cell-laden structures were rapidly integrated, maintained structural integrity, and showed chondrocyte proliferation, with 32.8 ± 13.8 cells per mm2 observed after 30 days and 85.6 ± 30.0 cells per mm2 at day 60 (p = 0.002). Furthermore, a full-thickness skin graft was attached and integrated completely on top of the 3D-bioprinted construct. The novel ACC disentanglement technique makes BNC biomaterial highly suitable for 3D-bioprinting and clinical translation, suggesting cell-laden 3D-bioprinted ACC-BNC as a promising solution for cartilage repair.
AUTHOR Markstedt, Kajsa and Håkansson, Karl and Toriz, Guillermo and Gatenholm, Paul
Title Materials from trees assembled by 3D printing – Wood tissue beyond nature limits [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Applied Materials Today
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Abstract
Materials from trees have the potential to replace fossil based and other non-sustainable materials in everyday products, thus transforming the society back to a bioeconomy. This paper presents a 3D printing platform which mimics wood biogenesis for the assembly of wood biopolymers into wood-like hierarchical composites. The genome was substituted with G-code, the programming language which controls how the 3D printer assembles material. The rosette was replaced by the printer head for extrusion of cellulose. Instead of microtubules guiding the alignment of cellulose, the printing direction was guided by an x/y stage, thus mimicking the microfibril angle. The printed structures were locked by an enzymatic crosslinking reaction similar to what occurs in the cell wall upon lignification. Hierarchical structures characteristic for wood were designed and printed with control of density, swelling and directional strength. Accelerating the development of the 3D printing technology helps realize the circular bioeconomy where garments, packaging, furniture and entire houses are manufactured by 3D printing wood.
AUTHOR Pedrotty, Dawn M. and Volodymyr, Kuzmenko and Erdem, Karabulut and Sugrue Alan, M. and Christopher, Livia and Vaidya Vaibhav, R. and McLeod Christopher, J. and Asirvatham Samuel, J. and Paul, Gatenholm and Suraj, Kapa
Title Three-Dimensional Printed Biopatches With Conductive Ink Facilitate Cardiac Conduction When Applied to Disrupted Myocardium
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
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AUTHOR Gretzinger, Sarah and Beckert, Nicole and Gleadall, Andrew and Lee-Thedieck, Cornelia and Hubbuch, Jürgen
Title 3D bioprinting – Flow cytometry as analytical strategy for 3D cell structures [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
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Abstract
The importance of 3D printing technologies increased significantly over the recent years. They are considered to have a huge impact in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, since 3D bioprinting enables the production of cell-laden 3D scaffolds. Transition from academic research to pharmaceutical industry or clinical applications, however, is highly dependent on developing a robust and well-known process, while maintaining critical cell characteristics. Hence, a directed and systematic approach to 3D bioprinting process development is required, which also allows for the monitoring of these cell characteristics. This work presents the development of a flow cytometry-based analytical strategy as a tool for 3D bioprinting research. The development was based on a model process using a commercially available alginate-based bioink, the β-cell line INS-1E, and direct dispensing as 3D bioprinting method. We demonstrated that this set-up enabled viability and proliferation analysis. Additionally, use of an automated sampler facilitated high-throughput screenings. Finally, we showed that each process step, e.g. suspension of cells in bioink or 3D printing, cross-linking of the alginate scaffold after printing, has a crucial impact on INS-1E viability. This reflects the importance of process optimization in 3D bioprinting and the usefulness of the flow cytometry-based analytical strategy described here. The presented strategy has a great potential as a cell characterisation tool for 3D bioprinting and may contribute to a more directed process development.
AUTHOR Couck, Sarah and Saint-Remi, Julien Cousin and der Perre, Stijn Van and Baron, Gino V. and Minas, Clara and Ruch, Patrick and Denayer, Joeri F. M.
Title 3D-printed SAPO-34 monoliths for gas separation [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Microporous and Mesoporous Materials
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Abstract
Abstract A 3D printing method (the Direct Ink writing, DIW, method) is applied to produce SAPO-34 zeolite based structured adsorbents with the shape of a honeycomb-like monolith. The use of the 3D printing technique gives this structure a well-defined and easily adaptable geometry. As binder material, methyl cellulose was used. The SAPO-34 monolith was characterized by SEM as well as Ar and Hg porosimetry. The CO2 adsorption affinity, capacity and heat of adsorption were determined by recording high pressure adsorption isotherms at different temperatures, using the gravimetric technique. The separation potential was investigated by means of breakthrough experiments with mixtures of CO2 and N2. The experimental selectivity of CO2/N2 separation was compared to the selectivity as predicted by the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory. A drop in capacity was noticed during the experiments and N2 capacities were close to zero or slightly negative due to the very low adsorption, meaning absolute selectivity values could not be determined. However, due to the low N2 capacity, experimental selectivity is estimated to be excellent as was predicted with IAST. While the 3D printing is found to be a practical, fast and flexible route to generate monolithic adsorbent structures, improvements in formulation are required in terms of sample robustness for handling purposes and heat transfer characteristics of the obtained monoliths during gas separation.
AUTHOR García-Lizarribar, Andrea and Fernández-Garibay, Xiomara and Velasco-Mallorquí, Ferran and G. Castaño, Albert and Samitier, Josep and Ramón-Azcón, Javier
Title Composite Biomaterials as Long-Lasting Scaffolds for 3D Bioprinting of Highly Aligned Muscle Tissue
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Macromolecular Bioscience
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AUTHOR Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
Title Potential and Limitations of Nanocelluloses as Components in Biocomposite Inks for Three-Dimensional Bioprinting and for Biomedical Devices [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Biomacromolecules
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has rapidly emerged as a new technology with a wide range of applications that includes biomedicine. Some common 3D printing methods are based on the suitability of biopolymers to be extruded through a nozzle to construct a 3D structure layer by layer. Nanocelluloses with specific rheological characteristics are suitable components to form inks for 3D printing. This review considers various nanocelluloses that have been proposed for 3D printing with a focus on the potential advantages, limitations, and requirements when used for biomedical devices and when used in contact with the human body.
AUTHOR Kuzmenko, Volodymyr and Karabulut, Erdem and Pernevik, Elin and Enoksson, Peter and Gatenholm, Paul
Title Tailor-made conductive inks from cellulose nanofibrils for 3D printing of neural guidelines [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Carbohydrate Polymers
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Abstract
Neural tissue engineering (TE), an innovative biomedical method of brain study, is very dependent on scaffolds that support cell development into a functional tissue. Recently, 3D patterned scaffolds for neural TE have shown significant positive effects on cells by a more realistic mimicking of actual neural tissue. In this work, we present a conductive nanocellulose-based ink for 3D printing of neural TE scaffolds. It is demonstrated that by using cellulose nanofibrils and carbon nanotubes as ink constituents, it is possible to print guidelines with a diameter below 1 mm and electrical conductivity of 3.8 × 10−1 S cm−1. The cell culture studies reveal that neural cells prefer to attach, proliferate, and differentiate on the 3D printed conductive guidelines. To our knowledge, this is the first research effort devoted to using cost-effective cellulosic 3D printed structures in neural TE, and we suppose that much more will arise in the near future.
AUTHOR Allig, Sebastian and Mayer, Margot and Thielemann, Christiane
Title Workflow for bioprinting of cell-laden bioink
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Lekar a Technika
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AUTHOR Sultan, Sahar and Siqueira, Gilberto and Zimmermann, Tanja and Mathew, Aji P.
Title 3D printing of nano-cellulosic biomaterials for medical applications [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
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Abstract
Abstract Nanoscaled versions of cellulose viz. cellulose nanofibers (CNF) or cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) isolated from natural resources are being used extensively since the past decade in the biomedical field e.g. for tissue engineering, implants, drug delivery systems, cardiovascular devices, and wound healing due to their remarkable mechanical, chemical and biocompatible properties. In the recent years, 3D printing of nanocellulose in combination with polymers is being studied as a viable route to future regenerative therapy. The printability of nanocellulose hydrogels owing to their shear thinning behavior and the possibility to support living cells allows 3D bioprinting using nanocellulose, a recent development which holds tremendous potential.
AUTHOR Nguyen, Duong and Hägg, Daniel and Forsman, Alma and Ekholm, Josefine and Nimkingratana, Puwapong and Brantsing, Camilla and Kalogeropoulos, Theodoros and Zaunz, Samantha and Concaro, Sebastian and Brittberg, Mats and Lindahl, Anders and Gatenholm, Paul and Enejder, Annika and Simonsson, Stina
Title Cartilage Tissue Engineering by the 3D Bioprinting of iPS Cells in a Nanocellulose/Alginate Bioink [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Scientific Reports
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Abstract
Cartilage lesions can progress into secondary osteoarthritis and cause severe clinical problems in numerous patients. As a prospective treatment of such lesions, human-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were shown to be 3D bioprinted into cartilage mimics using a nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) composite bioink when co-printed with irradiated human chondrocytes. Two bioinks were investigated: NFC with alginate (NFC/A) or hyaluronic acid (NFC/HA). Low proliferation and phenotypic changes away from pluripotency were seen in the case of NFC/HA. However, in the case of the 3D-bioprinted NFC/A (60/40, dry weight % ratio) constructs, pluripotency was initially maintained, and after five weeks, hyaline-like cartilaginous tissue with collagen type II expression and lacking tumorigenic Oct4 expression was observed in 3D -bioprinted NFC/A (60/40, dry weight % relation) constructs. Moreover, a marked increase in cell number within the cartilaginous tissue was detected by 2-photon fluorescence microscopy, indicating the importance of high cell densities in the pursuit of achieving good survival after printing. We conclude that NFC/A bioink is suitable for bioprinting iPSCs to support cartilage production in co-cultures with irradiated chondrocytes.
AUTHOR Siqueira, Gilberto and Kokkinis, Dimitri and Libanori, Rafael and Hausmann, Michael K. and Gladman, Amelia Sydney and Neels, Antonia and Tingaut, Philippe and Zimmermann, Tanja and Lewis, Jennifer A. and Studart, André R.
Title Cellulose Nanocrystal Inks for 3D Printing of Textured Cellular Architectures [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Functional Materials
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Abstract
3D printing of renewable building blocks like cellulose nanocrystals offers an attractive pathway for fabricating sustainable structures. Here, viscoelastic inks composed of anisotropic cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) that enable patterning of 3D objects by direct ink writing are designed and formulated. These concentrated inks are composed of CNC particles suspended in either water or a photopolymerizable monomer solution. The shear-induced alignment of these anisotropic building blocks during printing is quantified by atomic force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, and 2D wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements. Akin to the microreinforcing effect in plant cell walls, the alignment of CNC particles during direct writing yields textured composites with enhanced stiffness along the printing direction. The observations serve as an important step forward toward the development of sustainable materials for 3D printing of cellular architectures with tailored mechanical properties.
AUTHOR Henriksson, I. and Gatenholm, P. and Hägg, D. A.
Title Increased lipid accumulation and adipogenic gene expression of adipocytes in 3D bioprinted nanocellulose scaffolds [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Abstract
Compared to standard 2D culture systems, new methods for 3D cell culture of adipocytes could provide more physiologically accurate data and a deeper understanding of metabolic diseases such as diabetes. By resuspending living cells in a bioink of nanocellulose and hyaluronic acid, we were able to print 3D scaffolds with uniform cell distribution. After one week in culture, cell viability was 95%, and after two weeks the cells displayed a more mature phenotype with larger lipid droplets than standard 2D cultured cells. Unlike cells in 2D culture, the 3D bioprinted cells did not detach upon lipid accumulation. After two weeks, the gene expression of the adipogenic marker genes PPAR γ and FABP4 was increased 2.0- and 2.2-fold, respectively, for cells in 3D bioprinted constructs compared with 2D cultured cells. Our 3D bioprinted culture system produces better adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and a more mature cell phenotype than conventional 2D culture systems.
AUTHOR {{'{A}}}vila, H{'{e}}ctor Mart{'{i}}nez and Schwarz, Silke and Rotter, Nicole and Gatenholm, Paul
Title 3D bioprinting of human chondrocyte-laden nanocellulose hydrogels for patient-specific auricular cartilage regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
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Abstract
Abstract Auricular cartilage tissue engineering (TE) aims to provide an effective treatment for patients with acquired or congenital auricular defects. Bioprinting has gained attention in several {TE} strategies for its ability to spatially control the placement of cells, biomaterials and biological molecules. Although considerable advances have been made to bioprint complex 3D tissue analogues, the development of hydrogel bioinks with good printability and bioactive properties must improve in order to advance the translation of 3D bioprinting into the clinic. In this study, the biological functionality of a bioink composed of nanofibrillated cellulose and alginate (NFC-A) is extensively evaluated for auricular cartilage TE. 3D bioprinted auricular constructs laden with human nasal chondrocytes (hNC) are cultured for up to 28 days and the redifferentiation capacity of hNCs in NFC-A is studied on gene expression as well as on protein levels. 3D bioprinting with NFC-A bioink facilitates the biofabrication of cell-laden, patient-specific auricular constructs with an open inner structure, high cell density and homogenous cell distribution. The cell-laden NFC-A constructs exhibit an excellent shape and size stability as well as an increase in cell viability and proliferation during in vitro culture. Furthermore, NFC-A bioink supports the redifferentiation of hNCs and neo-synthesis of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix components. This demonstrated that NFC-A bioink supports redifferentiation of hNCs while offering proper printability in a biologically relevant aqueous 3D environment, making it a promising tool for auricular cartilage {TE} and many other biomedical applications.
AUTHOR M{"u}ller, Michael and {"O}zt{"u}rk, Ece and Arlov, {O}ystein and Gatenholm, Paul and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Alginate Sulfate--Nanocellulose Bioinks for Cartilage Bioprinting Applications [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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Abstract
One of the challenges of bioprinting is to identify bioinks which support cell growth, tissue maturation, and ultimately the formation of functional grafts for use in regenerative medicine. The influence of this new biofabrication technology on biology of living cells, however, is still being evaluated. Recently we have identified a mitogenic hydrogel system based on alginate sulfate which potently supports chondrocyte phenotype, but is not printable due to its rheological properties (no yield point). To convert alginate sulfate to a printable bioink, it was combined with nanocellulose, which has been shown to possess very good printability. The alginate sulfate/nanocellulose ink showed good printing properties and the non-printed bioink material promoted cell spreading, proliferation, and collagen II synthesis by the encapsulated cells. When the bioink was printed, the biological performance of the cells was highly dependent on the nozzle geometry. Cell spreading properties were maintained with the lowest extrusion pressure and shear stress. However, extruding the alginate sulfate/nanocellulose bioink and chondrocytes significantly compromised cell proliferation, particularly when using small diameter nozzles and valves.
AUTHOR Kesti, Matti and Fisch, Philipp and Pensalfini, Marco and Mazza, Edoardo and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Guidelines for standardization of bioprinting: a systematic study of process parameters and their effect on bioprinted structures [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings BioNanoMaterials
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Abstract
Biofabrication techniques including three-dimensional bioprinting could be used one day to fabricate living, patient-specific tissues and organs for use in regenerative medicine. Compared to traditional casting and molding methods, bioprinted structures can be much more complex, containing for example multiple materials and cell types in controlled spatial arrangement, engineered porosity, reinforcement structures and gradients in mechanical properties. With this complexity and increased function, however, comes the necessity to develop guidelines to standardize the bioprinting process, so printed grafts can safely enter the clinics. The bioink material must firstly fulfil requirements for biocompatibility and flow. Secondly, it is important to understand how process parameters affect the final mechanical properties of the printed graft. Using a gellan-alginate physically crosslinked bioink as an example, we show shear thinning and shear recovery properties which allow good printing resolution. Printed tensile specimens were used to systematically assess effect of line spacing, printing direction and crosslinking conditions. This standardized testing allowed direct comparison between this bioink and three commercially-available products. Bioprinting is a promising, yet complex fabrication method whose outcome is sensitive to a range of process parameters. This study provides the foundation for highly needed best practice guidelines for reproducible and safe bioprinted grafts.
AUTHOR Håkansson, Karl M. O. and Henriksson, Ida C. and de la Peña Vázquez, Cristina and Kuzmenko, Volodymyr and Markstedt, Kajsa and Enoksson, Peter and Gatenholm, Paul
Title Solidification of 3D Printed Nanofibril Hydrogels into Functional 3D Cellulose Structures [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Materials Technologies
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Abstract
Cellulose nanofibrils isolated from trees have the potential to be used as raw material for future sustainable products within the areas of packaging, textiles, biomedical devices, and furniture. However, one unsolved problem has been to convert the nanofibril-hydrogel into a dry 3D structure. In this study, 3D printing is used to convert a cellulose nanofibril hydrogel into 3D structures with controlled architectures. Such structures collapse upon drying, but by using different drying processes the collapse can be controlled and the 3D structure can be preserved upon solidification. In addition, a conductive cellulose nanofibril ink is fabricated by adding carbon nanotubes. These findings enable the use of wood derived materials in 3D printing for fabrication of sustainable commodities such as packaging, textiles, biomedical devices, and furniture with conductive parts. Furthermore, with the introduction of biopolymers into 3D printing, the 3D printing technology itself can finally be regarded as sustainable.
AUTHOR Markstedt, Kajsa and Mantas, Athanasios and Tournier, Ivan and Mart{'{i}}nez {{'{A}}}vila, H{'{e}}ctor and H{"{a}}gg, Daniel and Gatenholm, Paul
Title 3D Bioprinting Human Chondrocytes with Nanocellulose-Alginate Bioink for Cartilage Tissue Engineering Applications [Abstract]
Year 2015
Journal/Proceedings Biomacromolecules
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Abstract
The introduction of 3D bioprinting is expected to revolutionize the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The 3D bioprinter is able to dispense materials while moving in X, Y, and Z directions, which enables the engineering of complex structures from the bottom up. In this study, a bioink that combines the outstanding shear thinning properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with the fast cross-linking ability of alginate was formulated for the 3D bioprinting of living soft tissue with cells. Printability was evaluated with concern to printer parameters and shape fidelity. The shear thinning behavior of the tested bioinks enabled printing of both 2D gridlike structures as well as 3D constructs. Furthermore, anatomically shaped cartilage structures, such as a human ear and sheep meniscus, were 3D printed using MRI and CT images as blueprints. Human chondrocytes bioprinted in the noncytotoxic, nanocellulose-based bioink exhibited a cell viability of 73% and 86% after 1 and 7 days of 3D culture, respectively. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that the nanocellulose-based bioink is a suitable hydrogel for 3D bioprinting with living cells. This study demonstrates the potential use of nanocellulose for 3D bioprinting of living tissues and organs. The introduction of 3D bioprinting is expected to revolutionize the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The 3D bioprinter is able to dispense materials while moving in X, Y, and Z directions, which enables the engineering of complex structures from the bottom up. In this study, a bioink that combines the outstanding shear thinning properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with the fast cross-linking ability of alginate was formulated for the 3D bioprinting of living soft tissue with cells. Printability was evaluated with concern to printer parameters and shape fidelity. The shear thinning behavior of the tested bioinks enabled printing of both 2D gridlike structures as well as 3D constructs. Furthermore, anatomically shaped cartilage structures, such as a human ear and sheep meniscus, were 3D printed using MRI and CT images as blueprints. Human chondrocytes bioprinted in the noncytotoxic, nanocellulose-based bioink exhibited a cell viability of 73% and 86% after 1 and 7 days of 3D culture, respectively. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that the nanocellulose-based bioink is a suitable hydrogel for 3D bioprinting with living cells. This study demonstrates the potential use of nanocellulose for 3D bioprinting of living tissues and organs.