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AUTHOR Nothdurfter, Daniel and Ploner, Christian and Coraça-Huber, Débora C. and Wilflingseder, Doris and Müller, Thomas and Hermann, Martin and Hagenbuchner, Judith and Ausserlechner, Michael J.
Title 3D bioprinted, vascularized neuroblastoma tumor environment in fluidic chip devices for precision medicine drug testing [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Neuroblastoma is an extracranial solid tumor which develops in early childhood and still has a poor prognosis. One strategy to increase cure rates is the identification of patient-specific drug responses in tissue models that mimic the interaction between patient cancer cells and tumor environment. We therefore developed a perfused and micro-vascularized tumor-environment model that is directly bioprinted into custom-manufactured fluidic chips. A gelatin-methacrylate/fibrin-based matrix containing multiple cell types mimics the tumor-microenvironment that promotes spontaneous micro-vessel formation by embedded endothelial cells. We demonstrate that both, adipocyte- and iPSC-derived mesenchymal stem cells can guide this process. Bioprinted channels are coated with endothelial cells post printing to form a dense vessel - tissue barrier. The tissue model thereby mimics structure and function of human soft tissue with endothelial cell-coated larger vessels for perfusion and micro-vessel networks within the hydrogel-matrix. Patient-derived neuroblastoma spheroids are added to the matrix during the printing process and grown for more than two weeks. We demonstrate that micro-vessels are attracted by and grow into tumor spheroids and that neuroblastoma cells invade the tumor-environment as soon as the spheroids disrupt. In summary, we describe the first bioprinted, micro-vascularized neuroblastoma – tumor-environment model directly printed into fluidic chips and a novel medium-throughput biofabrication platform suitable for studying tumor angiogenesis and metastasis in precision medicine approaches in future.
AUTHOR Terpstra, Margo L. and Li, Jinyu and Mensinga, Anneloes and de Ruijter, Myl{`{e}}ne and van Rijen, Mattie H. P. and Androulidakis, Charalampos and Galiotis, Costas and Papantoniou, Ioannis and Matsusaki, Michiya and Malda, Jos and Levato, Riccardo
Title Bioink with cartilage-derived extracellular matrix microfibers enables spatial control of vascular capillary formation in bioprinted constructs [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Microvasculature is essential for the exchange of gas and nutrient for most tissues in our body. Some tissue structures such as the meniscus presents spatially confined blood vessels adjacent to non-vascularized regions. In biofabrication, mimicking the spatial distribution of such vascular components is paramount, as capillary ingrowth into non-vascularized tissues can lead to tissue matrix alterations and subsequent pathology. Multi-material three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting strategies have the potential to resolve anisotropic tissue features, although building complex constructs comprising stable vascularized and non-vascularized regions remains a major challenge to date. In this study, we developed endothelial cell-laden pro- and anti-angiogenic bioinks, supplemented with bioactive matrix-derived microfibers (MFs) that were created from type I collagen sponges (col-1) and cartilage decellularized extracellular matrix (CdECM), respectively. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)-driven capillary networks started to form 2 d after bioprinting. Supplementing cartilage-derived MFs to endothelial-cell laden bioinks reduced the total length of neo-microvessels by 29%, and the number of microvessel junctions by 37% after 14 d, compared to bioinks with pro-angiogenic col-1 MFs. As a proof of concept, the bioinks were bioprinted into an anatomical meniscus shape with a biomimetic vascularized outer and non-vascularized inner region, using a gellan gum microgel suspension bath. These 3D meniscus-like constructs were cultured up to 14 d, with in the outer zone the HUVEC-, mural cell-, and col-1 MF-laden pro-angiogenic bioink, and in the inner zone a meniscus progenitor cell (MPC)- and CdECM MF-laden anti-angiogenic bioink, revealing successful spatial confinement of the nascent vascular network only in the outer zone. Further, to co-facilitate both microvessel formation and MPC-derived matrix formation, we formulated cell culture medium conditions with a temporal switch. Overall, this study provides a new strategy that could be applied to develop zonal biomimetic meniscal constructs. Moreover, the use of ECM-derived MFs to promote or inhibit capillary networks opens new possibilities for the biofabrication of tissues with anisotropic microvascular distribution. These have potential for many applications including in vitro models of vascular-to-avascular tissue interfaces, cancer progression, and for testing anti-angiogenic therapies.
AUTHOR D'Agostino, Stefania and Rimann, Markus and Gamba, Piergiorgio and Perilongo, Giorgio and Pozzobon, Michela and Raghunath, Michael
Title Macromolecular crowding tuned extracellular matrix deposition in a bioprinted human rhabdomyosarcoma model [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
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The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in tumor recurrence and metastasis has been gaining attention. Indeed, not only cellular, but also structural proteins influence migratory and invasive capacity of tumor cells, including growth and resistance to drugs. Therefore, new in vitro tumor models that entail improved ECM formation and deposition are needed. Here, we are developed three-dimensional (3D) models of pediatric soft tissue sarcoma (Rhabdomyosarcoma [RMS]) with the two major subgroups, the embryonal (ERMS) and the alveolar (ARMS) form. We applied macromolecular crowding (MMC) technology to monolayer cultures, spheroids, and 3D bioprinted constructs. In all culture models, exposure to MMC significantly increased ECM deposition. Interestingly, bioprinted constructs showed a collagen and fibronectin matrix architecture that was comparable to that of tumor xenografts. Furthermore, the bioprinted model not only showed tumor cell growth inside the structure but also displayed cell clusters leaving the edges of the bioprinted construct, probably emulating a metastatic mechanism. ARMS and ERMS cells reacted differently in the bioprinted structure. Indeed, the characteristic metastatic behavior was much more pronounced in the more aggressive ARMS subtype. This promising approach opens new avenues for studying RMS microenvironment and creating a platform for cancer drug testing including the native tumor ECM.
AUTHOR Bouwmeester, Manon C. and Bernal, Paulina N. and Oosterhoff, Loes A. and van Wolferen, Monique E. and Lehmann, Vivian and Vermaas, Monique and Buchholz, Maj-Britt and Peiffer, Quentin C. and Malda, Jos and van der Laan, Luc J. W. and Kramer, Nynke I. and Schneeberger, Kerstin and Levato, Riccardo and Spee, Bart
Title Bioprinting of Human Liver-Derived Epithelial Organoids for Toxicity Studies [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Macromolecular Bioscience
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Abstract There is a need for long-lived hepatic in vitro models to better predict drug induced liver injury (DILI). Human liver-derived epithelial organoids are a promising cell source for advanced in vitro models. Here, organoid technology is combined with biofabrication techniques, which holds great potential for the design of in vitro models with complex and customizable architectures. Here, porous constructs with human hepatocyte-like cells derived from organoids are generated using extrusion-based printing technology. Cell viability of bioprinted organoids remains stable for up to ten days (88–107% cell viability compared to the day of printing). The expression of hepatic markers, transporters, and phase I enzymes increased compared to undifferentiated controls, and is comparable to non-printed controls. Exposure to acetaminophen, a well-known hepatotoxic compound, decreases cell viability of bioprinted liver organoids to 21–51% (p < 0.05) compared to the start of exposure, and elevated levels of damage marker miR-122 are observed in the culture medium, indicating the potential use of the bioprinted constructs for toxicity testing. In conclusion, human liver-derived epithelial organoids can be combined with a biofabrication approach, thereby paving the way to create perfusable, complex constructs which can be used as toxicology- and disease-models.
AUTHOR Ng, Wei Long and Ayi, Teck Choon and Liu, Yi-Chun and Sing, Swee Leong and Yeong, Wai Yee and Tan, Boon-Huan
Title Fabrication and Characterization of 3D Bioprinted Triple-layered Human Alveolar Lung Models [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International journal of bioprinting
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The global prevalence of respiratory diseases caused by infectious pathogens has resulted in an increased demand for realistic in-vitro alveolar lung models to serve as suitable disease models. This demand has resulted in the fabrication of numerous two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) in-vitro alveolar lung models. The ability to fabricate these 3D in-vitro alveolar lung models in an automated manner with high repeatability and reliability is important for potential scalable production. In this study, we reported the fabrication of human triple-layered alveolar lung models comprising of human lung epithelial cells, human endothelial cells, and human lung fibroblasts using the drop-on-demand (DOD) 3D bioprinting technique. The polyvinylpyrrolidone-based bio-inks and the use of a 300 mm nozzle diameter improved the repeatability of the bioprinting process by achieving consistent cell output over time using different human alveolar lung cells. The 3D bioprinted human triple-layered alveolar lung models were able to maintain cell viability with relative similar proliferation profile over time as compared to non-printed cells. This DOD 3D bioprinting platform offers an attractive tool for highly repeatable and scalable fabrication of 3D in-vitro human alveolar lung models.
AUTHOR Alave Reyes-Furrer, Angela and De Andrade, Sonia and Bachmann, Dominic and Jeker, Heidi and Steinmann, Martin and Accart, Nathalie and Dunbar, Andrew and Rausch, Martin and Bono, Epifania and Rimann, Markus and Keller, Hansjoerg
Title Matrigel 3D bioprinting of contractile human skeletal muscle models recapitulating exercise and pharmacological responses [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Communications Biology
Reftype Alave Reyes-Furrer2021
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A key to enhance the low translatability of preclinical drug discovery are in vitro human three-dimensional (3D) microphysiological systems (MPS). Here, we show a new method for automated engineering of 3D human skeletal muscle models in microplates and functional compound screening to address the lack of muscle wasting disease medication. To this end, we adapted our recently described 24-well plate 3D bioprinting platform with a printhead cooling system to allow microvalve-based drop-on-demand printing of cell-laden Matrigel containing primary human muscle precursor cells. Mini skeletal muscle models develop within a week exhibiting contractile, striated myofibers aligned between two attachment posts. As an in vitro exercise model, repeated high impact stimulation of contractions for 3 h by a custom-made electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) system for 24-well plates induced interleukin-6 myokine expression and Akt hypertrophy pathway activation. Furthermore, the known muscle stimulators caffeine and Tirasemtiv acutely increase EPS-induced contractile force of the models. This validated new human muscle MPS will benefit development of drugs against muscle wasting diseases. Moreover, our Matrigel 3D bioprinting platform will allow engineering of non-self-organizing complex human 3D MPS.
AUTHOR He, Shaolong and Radeke, Carmen and Jacobsen, Jette and Lind, Johan Ulrik and Mu, Huiling
Title Multi-material 3D printing of programmable and stretchable oromucosal patches for delivery of saquinavir [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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Oromucosal patches for drug delivery allow fast onset of action and ability to circumvent hepatic first pass metabolism of drugs. While conventional fabrication methods such as solvent casting or hot melt extrusion are ideal for scalable production of low-cost delivery patches, these methods chiefly allow for simple, homogenous patch designs. As alternative, a multi-material direct-ink-write 3D printing for rapid fabrication of complex oromucosal patches with unique design features was demonstrated in the present study. Specifically, three print-materials: an acidic saquinavir-loaded hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ink, an alkaline effervescent sodium carbonate-loaded ink, and a methyl cellulose backing material were combined in various designs. The CO2 content and pH of the microenvironment were controlled by adjusting the number of alkaline layers in the patch. Additionally, the rigid and brittle patches were converted to compliant and stretchable patches by implementing mesh-like designs. Our results illustrate how 3D printing can be used for rapid design and fabrication of multifunctional or customized oromucosal patches with tailored dosages and changed drug permeation.
AUTHOR Browning, James R. and Derr, Paige and Derr, Kristy and Doudican, Nicole and Michael, Sam and Lish, Samantha R. and Taylor, Nicholas A. and Krueger, James G. and Ferrer, Marc and Carucci, John A. and Gareau, Daniel S.
Title A 3D biofabricated cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma tissue model with multi-channel confocal microscopy imaging biomarkers to quantify antitumor effects of chemotherapeutics in tissue [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Oncotarget; Vol 11, No 27
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// James R. Browning 1 , Paige Derr 2 , Kristy Derr 2 , Nicole Doudican 3 , Sam Michael 2 , Samantha R. Lish 1 , Nicholas A. Taylor 3 , James G. Krueger 1 , Marc Ferrer 2 , John A. Carucci 3 and Daniel S. Gareau 1 1 Laboratory for Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA 2 National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, USA 3 The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA Correspondence to: Daniel S. Gareau, email: dgareau@rockefeller.edu Keywords: squamous cell carcinoma; screening; 3D printing; in vitro model; confocal microscopy Received: January 05, 2020     Accepted: April 03, 2020     Published: July 07, 2020 ABSTRACT Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) causes approximately 10,000 deaths annually in the U. S. Current therapies are largely ineffective against metastatic and locally advanced cSCC. There is a need to identify novel, effective, and less toxic small molecule cSCC therapeutics. We developed a 3-dimensional bioprinted skin (3DBPS) model of cSCC tumors together with a microscopy assay to test chemotherapeutic effects in tissue. The full thickness SCC tissue model was validated using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical histological staining, confocal microscopy, and cDNA microarray analysis. A nondestructive, 3D fluorescence confocal imaging assay with tdTomato-labeled A431 SCC and ZsGreen-labeled keratinocytes was developed to test efficacy and general toxicity of chemotherapeutics. Fluorescence-derived imaging biomarkers indicated that 50% of cancer cells were killed in the tissue after 1?M 5-Fluorouracil 48-hour treatment, compared to a baseline of 12% for untreated controls. The imaging biomarkers also showed that normal keratinocytes were less affected by treatment (11% killed) than the untreated tissue, which had no significant killing effect. Data showed that 5-Fluorouracil selectively killed cSCC cells more than keratinocytes. Our 3DBPS assay platform provides cellular-level measurement of cell viability and can be adapted to achieve nondestructive high-throughput screening (HTS) in bio-fabricated tissues.
AUTHOR Monferrer, Ezequiel and Martín-Vañó, Susana and Carretero, Aitor and García-Lizarribar, Andrea and Burgos-Panadero, Rebeca and Navarro, Samuel and Samitier, Josep and Noguera, Rosa
Title A three-dimensional bioprinted model to evaluate the effect of stiffness on neuroblastoma cell cluster dynamics and behavior [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Scientific Reports
Reftype Monferrer2020
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Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted culture systems allow to accurately control microenvironment components and analyze their effects at cellular and tissue levels. The main objective of this study was to identify, quantify and localize the effects of physical-chemical communication signals between tumor cells and the surrounding biomaterial stiffness over time, defining how aggressiveness increases in SK-N-BE(2) neuroblastoma (NB) cell line. Biomimetic hydrogels with SK-N-BE(2) cells, methacrylated gelatin and increasing concentrations of methacrylated alginate (AlgMA 0%, 1% and 2%) were used. Young’s modulus was used to define the stiffness of bioprinted hydrogels and NB tumors. Stained sections of paraffin-embedded hydrogels were digitally quantified. Human NB and 1% AlgMA hydrogels presented similar Young´s modulus mean, and orthotopic NB mice tumors were equally similar to 0% and 1% AlgMA hydrogels. Porosity increased over time; cell cluster density decreased over time and with stiffness, and cell cluster occupancy generally increased with time and decreased with stiffness. In addition, cell proliferation, mRNA metabolism and antiapoptotic activity advanced over time and with stiffness. Together, this rheological, optical and digital data show the potential of the 3D in vitro cell model described herein to infer how intercellular space stiffness patterns drive the clinical behavior associated with NB patients.
AUTHOR Benmeridja, Lara and De Moor, Lise and De Maere, Elisabeth and Vanlauwe, Florian and Ryx, Michelle and Tytgat, Liesbeth and Vercruysse, Chris and Dubruel, Peter and Van Vlierberghe, Sandra and Blondeel, Phillip and Declercq, Heidi
Title High-throughput fabrication of vascularized adipose microtissues for 3D bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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Abstract For patients with soft tissue defects, repair with autologous in vitro engineered adipose tissue could be a promising alternative to current surgical therapies. A volume-persistent engineered adipose tissue construct under in vivo conditions can only be achieved by early vascularization after transplantation. The combination of 3D bioprinting technology with self-assembling microvascularized units as building blocks can potentially answer the need for a microvascular network. In the present study, co-culture spheroids combining adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were created with an ideal geometry for bioprinting. When applying the favourable seeding technique and condition, compact viable spheroids were obtained, demonstrating high adipogenic differentiation and capillary-like network formation after 7 and 14 days of culture, as shown by live/dead analysis, immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. Moreover, we were able to successfully 3D bioprint the encapsulated spheroids, resulting in compact viable spheroids presenting capillary-like structures, lipid droplets and spheroid outgrowth after 14 days of culture. This is the first study that generates viable high-throughput (pre-)vascularized adipose microtissues as building blocks for bioprinting applications using a novel ASC/HUVEC co-culture spheroid model, which enables both adipogenic differentiation while simultaneously supporting the formation of prevascular-like structures within engineered tissues in vitro.
AUTHOR Dubey, Nileshkumar and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Daghrery, Arwa and Aytac, Zeynep and Malda, Jos and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Highly Tunable Bioactive Fiber-Reinforced Hydrogel for Guided Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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One of the most damaging pathologies that affects the health of both soft and hard tissues around the tooth is periodontitis. Clinically, periodontal tissue destruction has been managed by an integrated approach involving elimination of injured tissues followed by regenerative strategies with bone substitutes and/or barrier membranes. Regrettably, a barrier membrane with predictable mechanical integrity and multifunctional therapeutic features has yet to be established. Herein, we report a fiber-reinforced hydrogel with unprecedented tunability in terms of mechanical competence and therapeutic features by integration of highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) fibrous mesh(es) with well-controlled 3D architecture into bioactive amorphous magnesium phosphate-laden gelatin methacryloyl hydrogels. The presence of amorphous magnesium phosphate and PCL mesh in the hydrogel can control the mechanical properties and improve the osteogenic ability, opening a tremendous opportunity in guided bone regeneration (GBR). Results demonstrate that the presence of PCL meshes fabricated via melt electrowriting can delay hydrogel degradation preventing soft tissue invasion and providing the mechanical barrier to allow time for slower migrating progenitor cells to participate in bone regeneration due to their ability to differentiate into bone-forming cells. Altogether, our approach offers a platform technology for the development of the next-generation of GBR membranes with tunable mechanical and therapeutic properties to amplify bone regeneration in compromised sites.
AUTHOR Peiffer, Quentin C. and de Ruijter, Mylène and van Duijn, Joost and Crottet, Denis and Dominic, Ernst and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel
Title Melt electrowriting onto anatomically relevant biodegradable substrates: Resurfacing a diarthrodial joint [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials & Design
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Three-dimensional printed hydrogel constructs with well-organized melt electrowritten (MEW) fibre-reinforcing scaffolds have been demonstrated as a promising regenerative approach to treat small cartilage defects. Here, we investige how to translate the fabrication of small fibre-reinforced structures on flat surfaces to anatomically relevant structures. In particular, the accurate deposition of MEW-fibres onto curved surfaces of conductive and non-conductive regenerative biomaterials is studied. This study reveals that clinically relevant materials with low conductivities are compatible with resurfacing with organized MEW fibres. Importantly, accurate patterning on non-flat surfaces was successfully shown, provided that a constant electrical field strength and an electrical force normal to the substrate material is maintained. Furthermore, the application of resurfacing the geometry of the medial human femoral condyle is confirmed by the fabrication of a personalised osteochondral implant. The implant composed of an articular cartilage-resident chondroprogenitor cells (ACPCs)-laden hydrogel reinforced with a well-organized MEW scaffold retained its personalised shape, improved its compressive properties and supported neocartilage formation after 28 days in vitro culture. Overall, this study establishes the groundwork for translating MEW from planar and non-resorbable material substrates to anatomically relevant geometries and regenerative materials that the regenerative medicine field aims to create.
AUTHOR Fanous, Marina and Gold, Sarah and Muller, Silvain and Hirsch, Stefan and Ogorka, Joerg and Imanidis, Georgios
Title Simplification of fused deposition modeling 3D-printing paradigm: Feasibility of 1-step direct powder printing for immediate release dosage form production [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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Direct powder three-dimensional (3D)-printing (DPP) of tablets to simplify fused deposition modelling (FDM) was explored. The FDM paradigm involving hot-melt extrusion for making 3D-printable drug-loaded filaments as intermediate products for tablet manufacturing has been gaining attention for the decentralized on-site production of personalized dosage forms. For direct 3D-printing, powder blends were loaded into a cartridge-like head and were successfully printed with honeycomb design following heating of the extrusion cartridge. This 1-step DPP with incorporation of in-built porosity providing higher surface area served as proof of concept for manufacture of rapid release dosage forms. Water soluble hydroxypropylcellulose SSL was chosen as matrix former and caffeine as model drug. The effect of PEG4000 as plasticizer/pore former and Kollidon VA64 as rapidly dissolving polymer on DPP processability and dissolution rate was investigated. Directly 3D-printed tablets with low (30%) infill density showed rapid dissolution independently of the formulation, whereas for high (80%) infill density a combination of PEG4000 and Kollidon VA64 was required to achieve rapid release. The obtained tablets demonstrated good uniformity of percent drug content but had variable weight. Caffeine was present in crystalline state and in the stable polymorph in the tablets. Hence, DPP feasibility for immediate release dosage form manufacture was demonstrated. This technique might create an opportunity to avoid hot-melt extrusion allowing 3D-printing independently of mechanical properties of a filament and potentially prolonging product shelf life by reducing thermal stress.
AUTHOR Wei, Zhengxi and Liu, Xue and Ooka, Masato and Zhang, Li and Song, Min Jae and Huang, Ruili and Kleinstreuer, Nicole C. and Simeonov, Anton and Xia, Menghang and Ferrer, Marc
Title Two-Dimensional Cellular and Three-Dimensional Bio-Printed Skin Models to Screen Topical-Use Compounds for Irritation Potential [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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Assessing skin irritation potential is critical for the safety evaluation of topical drugs and other consumer products such as cosmetics. The use of advanced cellular models, as an alternative to replace animal testing in the safety evaluation for both consumer products and ingredients, is already mandated by law in the European Union (EU) and other countries. However, there has not yet been a large-scale comparison of the effects of topical-use compounds in different cellular skin models. This study assesses the irritation potential of topical-use compounds in different cellular models of the skin that are compatible with high throughput screening (HTS) platforms. A set of 451 topical-use compounds were first tested for cytotoxic effects using two-dimensional (2D) monolayer models of primary neonatal keratinocytes and immortalized human keratinocytes. Forty-six toxic compounds identified from the initial screen with the monolayer culture systems were further tested for skin irritation potential on reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) and full thickness skin (FTS) three-dimensional (3D) tissue model constructs. Skin irritation potential of the compounds was assessed by measuring tissue viability, trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), and secretion of cytokines interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α) and interleukin 18 (IL-18). Among known irritants, high concentrations of methyl violet and methylrosaniline decreased viability, lowered TEER, and increased IL-1α secretion in both RhE and FTS models, consistent with irritant properties. However, at low concentrations, these two compounds increased IL-18 secretion without affecting levels of secreted IL-1α, and did not reduce tissue viability and TEER, in either RhE or FTS models. This result suggests that at low concentrations, methyl violet and methylrosaniline have an allergic potential without causing irritation. Using both HTS-compatible 2D cellular and 3D tissue skin models, together with irritation relevant activity endpoints, we obtained data to help assess the irritation effects of topical-use compounds and identify potential dermal hazards.
AUTHOR Noor, Nadav and Shapira, Assaf and Edri, Reuven and Gal, Idan and Wertheim, Lior and Dvir, Tal
Title 3D Printing of Personalized Thick and Perfusable Cardiac Patches and Hearts [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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Abstract Generation of thick vascularized tissues that fully match the patient still remains an unmet challenge in cardiac tissue engineering. Here, a simple approach to 3D-print thick, vascularized, and perfusable cardiac patches that completely match the immunological, cellular, biochemical, and anatomical properties of the patient is reported. To this end, a biopsy of an omental tissue is taken from patients. While the cells are reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cells, and differentiated to cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, the extracellular matrix is processed into a personalized hydrogel. Following, the two cell types are separately combined with hydrogels to form bioinks for the parenchymal cardiac tissue and blood vessels. The ability to print functional vascularized patches according to the patient's anatomy is demonstrated. Blood vessel architecture is further improved by mathematical modeling of oxygen transfer. The structure and function of the patches are studied in vitro, and cardiac cell morphology is assessed after transplantation, revealing elongated cardiomyocytes with massive actinin striation. Finally, as a proof of concept, cellularized human hearts with a natural architecture are printed. These results demonstrate the potential of the approach for engineering personalized tissues and organs, or for drug screening in an appropriate anatomical structure and patient-specific biochemical microenvironment.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Biofabrication of spatially organised tissues by directing the growth of cellular spheroids within 3D printed polymeric microchambers [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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Successful tissue engineering requires the generation of human scale implants that mimic the structure, composition and mechanical properties of native tissues. Here, we report a novel biofabrication strategy that enables the engineering of structurally organised tissues by guiding the growth of cellular spheroids within arrays of 3D printed polymeric microchambers. With the goal of engineering stratified articular cartilage, inkjet bioprinting was used to deposit defined numbers of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes into pre-printed microchambers. These jetted cell suspensions rapidly underwent condensation within the hydrophobic microchambers, leading to the formation of organised arrays of cellular spheroids. The microchambers were also designed to provide boundary conditions to these spheroids, guiding their growth and eventual fusion, leading to the development of stratified cartilage tissue with a depth-dependant collagen fiber architecture that mimicked the structure of native articular cartilage. Furthermore, the composition and biomechanical properties of the bioprinted cartilage was also comparable to the native tissue. Using multi-tool biofabrication, we were also able to engineer anatomically accurate, human scale, osteochondral templates by printing this microchamber system on top of a hypertrophic cartilage region designed to support endochondral bone formation and then maintaining the entire construct in long-term bioreactor culture to enhance tissue development. This bioprinting strategy provides a versatile and scalable approach to engineer structurally organised cartilage tissues for joint resurfacing applications.
AUTHOR Derr, Kristy and Zou, Jinyun and Luo, Keren and Song, Min Jae and Sittampalam, G. Sitta and Zhou, Chao and Michael, Samuel and Ferrer, Marc and Derr, Paige
Title Fully 3D Bioprinted Skin Equivalent Constructs with Validated Morphology and Barrier Function [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods
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Development of high throughput, reproducible, three-dimensional bioprinted skin equivalents that are morphologically and functionally comparable to native skin tissue is advancing research in skin diseases, and providing a physiologically relevant platform for the development of therapeutics, transplants for regenerative medicine, and testing of skin products like cosmetics. Current protocols for the production of engineered skin rafts are limited in their ability to control three dimensional geometry of the structure and contraction leading to variability of skin function between constructs. Here we describe a method for the biofabrication of skin equivalents that are fully bioprinted using an open market bioprinter, made with commercially available primary cells and natural hydrogels. The unique hydrogel formulation allows for the production of a human-like skin equivalent with minimal lateral tissue contraction in a multiwell plate format, thus making them suitable for high throughput bioprinting in a single print with fast print and relatively short incubation times. The morphology and barrier function of the fully three-dimensional bioprinted skin equivalents are validated by immunohistochemistry staining, optical coherence tomography, and permeation assays.
AUTHOR Gonzalez-Fernandez, T. and Rathan, S. and Hobbs, C. and Pitacco, P. and Freeman, F. E. and Cunniffe, G. M. and Dunne, N. J. and McCarthy, H. O. and Nicolosi, V. and O'Brien, F. J. and Kelly, D. J.
Title Pore-forming bioinks to enable Spatio-temporally defined gene delivery in bioprinted tissues [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Controlled Release
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The regeneration of complex tissues and organs remains a major clinical challenge. With a view towards bioprinting such tissues, we developed a new class of pore-forming bioink to spatially and temporally control the presentation of therapeutic genes within bioprinted tissues. By blending sacrificial and stable hydrogels, we were able to produce bioinks whose porosity increased with time following printing. When combined with amphipathic peptide-based plasmid DNA delivery, these bioinks supported enhanced non-viral gene transfer to stem cells in vitro. By modulating the porosity of these bioinks, it was possible to direct either rapid and transient (pore-forming bioinks), or slower and more sustained (solid bioinks) transfection of host or transplanted cells in vivo. To demonstrate the utility of these bioinks for the bioprinting of spatially complex tissues, they were next used to zonally position stem cells and plasmids encoding for either osteogenic (BMP2) or chondrogenic (combination of TGF-β3, BMP2 and SOX9) genes within networks of 3D printed thermoplastic fibers to produce mechanically reinforced, gene activated constructs. In vivo, these bioprinted tissues supported the development of a vascularised, bony tissue overlaid by a layer of stable cartilage. When combined with multiple-tool biofabrication strategies, these gene activated bioinks can enable the bioprinting of a wide range of spatially complex tissues.
AUTHOR Laternser, Sandra and Keller, Hansjoerg and Leupin, Olivier and Rausch, Martin and Graf-Hausner, Ursula and Rimann, Markus
Title A Novel Microplate 3D Bioprinting Platform for the Engineering of Muscle and Tendon Tissues [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings SLAS TECHNOLOGY: Translating Life Sciences Innovation
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Abstract
Two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures do not reflect the in vivo situation, and thus it is important to develop predictive three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models with enhanced reliability and robustness for drug screening applications. Treatments against muscle-related diseases are becoming more prominent due to the growth of the aging population worldwide. In this study, we describe a novel drug screening platform with automated production of 3D musculoskeletal-tendon-like tissues. With 3D bioprinting, alternating layers of photo-polymerized gelatin-methacryloyl-based bioink and cell suspension tissue models were produced in a dumbbell shape onto novel postholder cell culture inserts in 24-well plates. Monocultures of human primary skeletal muscle cells and rat tenocytes were printed around and between the posts. The cells showed high viability in culture and good tissue differentiation, based on marker gene and protein expressions. Different printing patterns of bioink and cells were explored and calcium signaling with Fluo4-loaded cells while electrically stimulated was shown. Finally, controlled co-printing of tenocytes and myoblasts around and between the posts, respectively, was demonstrated followed by co-culture and co-differentiation. This screening platform combining 3D bioprinting with a novel microplate represents a promising tool to address musculoskeletal diseases.
AUTHOR de Ruijter, Mylène and Ribeiro, Alexandre and Dokter, Inge and Castilho, Miguel and Malda, Jos
Title Simultaneous Micropatterning of Fibrous Meshes and Bioinks for the Fabrication of Living Tissue Constructs [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Fabrication of biomimetic tissues holds much promise for the regeneration of cells or organs that are lost or damaged due to injury or disease. To enable the generation of complex, multicellular tissues on demand, the ability to design and incorporate different materials and cell types needs to be improved. Two techniques are combined: extrusion-based bioprinting, which enables printing of cell-encapsulated hydrogels; and melt electrowriting (MEW), which enables fabrication of aligned (sub)-micrometer fibers into a single-step biofabrication process. Composite structures generated by infusion of MEW fiber structures with hydrogels have resulted in mechanically and biologically competent constructs; however, their preparation involves a two-step fabrication procedure that limits freedom of design of microfiber architectures and the use of multiple materials and cell types. How convergence of MEW and extrusion-based bioprinting allows fabrication of mechanically stable constructs with the spatial distributions of different cell types without compromising cell viability and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells is demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this converged printing approach improves freedom of design of the MEW fibers, enabling 3D fiber deposition. This is an important step toward biofabrication of voluminous and complex hierarchical structures that can better resemble the characteristics of functional biological tissues.
AUTHOR Cunniffe, Gráinne and Gonzalez-Fernandez, Tomas and Daly, Andrew and Nelson Sathy, Binulal and Jeon, Oju and Alsberg, Eben and J. Kelly, Daniel
Title Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Polycaprolactone Reinforced Gene Activated Bioinks for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part A
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Regeneration of complex bone defects remains a significant clinical challenge. Multi-tool biofabrication has permitted the combination of various biomaterials to create multifaceted composites with tailorable mechanical properties and spatially controlled biological function. In this study we sought to use bioprinting to engineer nonviral gene activated constructs reinforced by polymeric micro-filaments. A gene activated bioink was developed using RGD-g-irradiated alginate and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) complexed to plasmid DNA (pDNA). This ink was combined with bonemarrow-derived mesenchymal stemcells (MSCs) and then co-printed with a polycaprolactone supporting mesh to provide mechanical stability to the construct. Reporter genes were first used to demonstrate successful cell transfection using this system, with sustained expression of the transgene detected over 14 days postbioprinting. Delivery of a combination of therapeutic genes encoding for bone morphogenic protein and transforming growth factor promoted robust osteogenesis of encapsulated MSCs in vitro, with enhanced levels of matrix deposition and mineralization observed following the incorporation of therapeutic pDNA. Gene activated MSC-laden constructs were then implanted subcutaneously, directly postfabrication, and were found to support superior levels of vascularization andmineralization compared to cell-free controls. These results validate the use of a gene activated bioink to impart biological functionality to three-dimensional bioprinted constructs.
AUTHOR Khaled, Shaban A. and Burley, Jonathan C. and Alexander, Morgan R. and Yang, Jing and Roberts, Clive J.
Title 3D printing of five-in-one dose combination polypill with defined immediate and sustained release profiles [Abstract]
Year 2015
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Controlled Release
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract We have used three dimensional (3D) extrusion printing to manufacture a multi-active solid dosage form or so called polypill. This contains five compartmentalised drugs with two independently controlled and well-defined release profiles. This polypill demonstrates that complex medication regimes can be combined in a single personalised tablet. This could potentially improve adherence for those patients currently taking many separate tablets and also allow ready tailoring of a particular drug combination/drug release for the needs of an individual. The polypill here represents a cardiovascular treatment regime with the incorporation of an immediate release compartment with aspirin and hydrochlorothiazide and three sustained release compartments containing pravastatin, atenolol, and ramipril. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used to assess drug-excipient interaction. The printed polypills were evaluated for drug release using {USP} dissolution testing. We found that the polypill showed the intended immediate and sustained release profiles based upon the active/excipient ratio used.
AUTHOR Roopesh, Ramesh Pai and Muthusamy, Senthilkumar and Velayudhan, Shiny and Sabareeswaran, Arumugham and Anil Kumar, Pallickaveedu RajanAsari
Title High-throughput production of liver parenchymal microtissues and enrichment of organ-specific functions in gelatin methacrylamide microenvironment [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Liver parenchymal microtissues (LPMTs) are three-dimensional (3D) aggregates of hepatocytes that recapitulate in vivo-like cellular assembly. They are considered as a valuable model to study drug metabolism, disease biology, and serve as ideal building blocks for liver tissue engineering. However, their integration into the mainstream drug screening process has been hindered due to the lack of simple, rapid techniques to produce a large number of uniform microtissues and preserve their structural–functional integrity over the long term. Here, we present a high-throughput methodology to produce LPMTs in a novel, economic, and reusable Hanging-drop Culture Chamber (HdCC). A drop-on-demand bioprinting approach was optimized to generate droplets of HepG2 cell suspension on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The substrates carrying droplets were placed inside a novel HdCC and incubated to obtain 1600 LPMTs having a size of 200–300 μm. Tissue size, cell viability, cellular arrangement and polarity, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake by LPMTs were analyzed. The microtissues were viable and exhibited an active response to insulin stimulation. Cells within the microtissue reorganized to form hepatic plate-like structures and expressed apical (Multidrug Resistance Protein 2 [MRP2]) and epithelial (Zonula Occludens 1 [ZO1]) markers. Further to maintain the structural integrity and enhance the functional capabilities, LPMTs were sandwiched within gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA) hydrogel and the liver-specific functions were monitored for 2 weeks. The results showed that the 3D structure of LPMTs in GelMA sandwich was maintained while the albumin secretion, urea synthesis, and cytochrome P450 activity were enhanced compared with LPMTs in suspension. In conclusion, this study presents a novel culture chamber for mass production of microtissues and a method for enhancing organ-specific functions of LPMTs in vitro.
AUTHOR Dusserre, Nathalie and Stachowicz, Marie-Laure and Medina, Chantal and Henri, Baptiste and Fricain, Jean-Christophe and Paris, François and Oliveira, Hugo
Title Microvalve bioprinting as a biofabrication tool to decipher tumor and endothelial cell crosstalk: Application to a simplified glioblastoma model [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Bioprinting technologies are powerful new bioengineering tools that can spatially reproduce multiple microenvironmental cues in a highly controlled, tunable, and precise manner. In this study, microvalve bioprinting technology was successfully used to print in close proximity endothelial and tumor cells at higher concentrations than previously thought possible, while preserving their viability. We propose that the resulting multicellular models, bioprinted in a controlled extracellular matrix microenvironment, are well-suited to study endothelial and cancer cell crosstalk within a cancer niche. As proof of concept, microvalve bioprinting was applied to the bioengineering of a simplified glioblastoma model in which biological processes involved in tumor expansion, such as tumor cell invasion patterns, cell proliferation, and senescence could be easily visualized and quantified. In this model, U251 glioblastoma cells and primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exhibited good printability and high viability after printing. U251 cells formed physiologically relevant clusters and invasion margins, while HUVECs generated vascular-like networks when primary fibroblasts were added to the model. An oxidative stress mimicking the one encountered within a tumor microenvironment during radiotherapy or genotoxic chemotherapy was shown to both diminish endothelial cells proliferation and to increase their senescence. Results also suggested that stressed glioblastoma cells may alter normal endothelial cell proliferation but not impact their senescence. This data demonstrates the potential of microvalve bioprinting to fabricate in vitro models that can help decipher endothelial and tumor cell crosstalk, within controlled and modulable microenvironments, and can then be used to address critical questions in the context of cancer recurrence.
AUTHOR Freeman, Fiona E. and Pitacco, Pierluca and van Dommelen, Lieke H. A. and Nulty, Jessica and Browe, David C. and Shin, Jung-Youn and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D bioprinting spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors to tightly control tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Science Advances
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Therapeutic growth factor delivery typically requires supraphysiological dosages, which can cause undesirable off-target effects. The aim of this study was to 3D bioprint implants containing spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors optimized for coupled angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Using nanoparticle functionalized bioinks, it was possible to print implants with distinct growth factor patterns and release profiles spanning from days to weeks. The extent of angiogenesis in vivo depended on the spatial presentation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Higher levels of vessel invasion were observed in implants containing a spatial gradient of VEGF compared to those homogenously loaded with the same total amount of protein. Printed implants containing a gradient of VEGF, coupled with spatially defined BMP-2 localization and release kinetics, accelerated large bone defect healing with little heterotopic bone formation. This demonstrates the potential of growth factor printing, a putative point of care therapy, for tightly controlled tissue regeneration.
AUTHOR Lee, Ji Seung and Park, Hae Sang and Jung, Harry and Lee, Hanna and Hong, Heesun and Lee, Young Jin and Suh, Ye Ji and Lee, Ok Joo and Kim, Soon Hee and Park, Chan Hum
Title 3D-printable photocurable bioink for cartilage regeneration of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Additive Manufacturing
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Cartilage regeneration is challenging because of the poor intrinsic self-repair capacity of avascular tissue. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has gained significant attention in the field of tissue engineering and is a promising technology to overcome current difficulties in cartilage regeneration. Although bioink is an essential component of bioprinting technology, several challenges remain in satisfying different requirements for ideal bioink, including biocompatibility and printability based on specific biological requirements. Gelatin and hyaluronic acid (HA) have been shown to be ideal biomimetic hydrogel sources for cartilage regeneration. However, controlling their structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and degradation rate for cartilage repair remains a challenge. Here, we show a photocurable bioink created by hybridization of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and glycidyl-methacrylated HA (GMHA) for material extrusion 3D bioprinting in cartilage regeneration. GelMA and GMHA were mixed in various ratios, and the mixture of 7% GelMA and 5% GMHA bioink (G7H5) demonstrated the most reliable mechanical properties, rheological properties, and printability. This G7H5 bioink allowed us to build a highly complex larynx structure, including the hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, arytenoid cartilage, and cervical trachea. This bioink also provided an excellent microenvironment for chondrogenesis of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) in vitro and in vivo. In summary, this study presents the ideal formulation of GelMA/GMHA hybrid bioink to generate a well-suited photocurable bioink for cartilage regeneration of TMSCs using a material extrusion bioprinter, and could be applied to cartilage tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Liu, Xue and Michael, Samuel and Bharti, Kapil and Ferrer, Marc and Song, Min Jae
Title A biofabricated vascularized skin model of atopic dermatitis for preclinical studies [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) biofabrication techniques enable the production of multicellular tissue models as assay platforms for drug screening. The increased cellular and physiological complexity in these 3D tissue models should recapitulate the relevant biological environment found in the body. Here we describe the use of 3D bioprinting techniques to fabricate skin equivalent tissues of varying physiological complexity, including human epidermis, non-vascularized and vascularized full-thickness skin tissue equivalents, in a multi-well platform to enable drug screening. Human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and pericytes, and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived endothelial cells were used in the biofabrication process to produce the varying complexity. The skin equivalents exhibit the correct structural markers of dermis and epidermis stratification, with physiological functions of the skin barrier. The robustness, versatility and reproducibility of the biofabrication techniques are further highlighted by the generation of atopic dermatitis (AD)-disease like tissues. These AD models demonstrate several clinical hallmarks of the disease, including: (i) spongiosis and hyperplasia; (ii) early and terminal expression of differentiation proteins; and (iii) increases in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We show the pre-clinical relevance of the biofabricated AD tissue models to correct disease phenotype by testing the effects of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, and three Janus Kinase inhibitors from clinical trials for AD. This study demonstrates the development of a versatile and reproducible bioprinting approach to create human skin equivalents with a range of cellular complexity for disease modelling. In addition, we establish several assay readouts that are quantifiable, robust, AD relevant, and can be scaled up for compound screening. The results show that the cellular complexity of the tissues develops a more physiologically relevant AD disease model. Thus, the skin models in this study offer an in vitro approach for the rapid understanding of pathological mechanisms, and testing for efficacy of action and toxic effects of drugs.
AUTHOR Colle, Julien and Blondeel, Phillip and De Bruyne, Axelle and Bochar, Silke and Tytgat, Liesbeth and Vercruysse, Chris and Van Vlierberghe, Sandra and Dubruel, Peter and Declercq, Heidi
Title Bioprinting predifferentiated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell spheroids with methacrylated gelatin ink for adipose tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine
Reftype Colle2020
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
The increasing number of mastectomies results in a greater demand for breast reconstruction characterized by simplicity and a low complication profile. Reconstructive surgeons are investigating tissue engineering (TE) strategies to overcome the current surgical drawbacks. 3D bioprinting is the rising technique for the fabrication of large tissue constructs which provides a potential solution for unmet clinical needs in breast reconstruction building on decades of experience in autologous fat grafting, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ASC) biology and TE. A scaffold was bioprinted using encapsulated ASC spheroids in methacrylated gelatin ink (GelMA). Uniform ASC spheroids with an ideal geometry and diameter for bioprinting were formed, using a high-throughput non-adhesive agarose microwell system. ASC spheroids in adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM) were evaluated through live/dead staining, histology (HE, Oil Red O), TEM and RT-qPCR. Viable spheroids were obtained for up to 14 days post-printing and showed multilocular microvacuoles and successful differentiation toward mature adipocytes shown by gene expression analysis. Moreover, spheroids were able to assemble at random in GelMA, creating a macrotissue. Combining the advantage of microtissues to self-assemble and the controlled organization by bioprinting technologies, these ASC spheroids can be useful as building blocks for the engineering of soft tissue implants.
AUTHOR Zhang, Danwei and Jonhson, Win and Herng, Tun Seng and Ang, Yong Quan and Yang, Lin and Tan, Swee Ching and Peng, Erwin and He, Hui and Ding, Jun
Title A 3D-printing method of fabrication for metals{,} ceramics{,} and multi-materials using a universal self-curable technique for robocasting [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Materials Horizons
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Ceramics and metals are important materials that modern technologies are constructed from. The capability to produce such materials in a complex geometry with good mechanical properties can revolutionize the way we engineer our devices. Current curing techniques pose challenges such as high energy requirements{,} limitations of materials with high refractive index{,} tedious post-processing heat treatment processes{,} uneven drying shrinkages{,} and brittleness of green bodies. In this paper{,} a novel modified self-curable epoxide–amine 3D printing system is proposed to print a wide range of ceramics (metal oxides{,} nitrides{,} and carbides) and metals without the need for an external curing source. Through this technique{,} complex multi-material structures (with metal–ceramic and ceramic–ceramic combinations) can also be realized. Tailoring and matching the sintering temperatures of different materials through sintering additives and dopants{,} combined with a structural design providing maximum adhesion between interfaces{,} allow us to successfully obtain superior quality sintered multi-material structures. High-quality ceramic and metallic materials have been achieved (e.g.{,} zirconia with >98% theoretical density). Also{,} highly conductive metals and magnetic ceramics were printed and shaped uniquely without the need for a sacrificial support. With the addition of low molecular weight plasticizers and a multi-stage heat treatment process{,} crack-free and dense high-quality integrated multi-material structures fabricated by 3D printing can thus be a reality in the near future.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Pitacco, Pierluca and Nulty, Jessica and Cunniffe, Gráinne M. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D printed microchannel networks to direct vascularisation during endochondral bone repair [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Bone tissue engineering strategies that recapitulate the developmental process of endochondral ossification offer a promising route to bone repair. Clinical translation of such endochondral tissue engineering strategies will require overcoming a number of challenges, including the engineering of large and often anatomically complex cartilage grafts, as well as the persistence of core regions of avascular cartilage following their implantation into large bone defects. Here 3D printing technology is utilized to develop a versatile and scalable approach to guide vascularisation during endochondral bone repair. First, a sacrificial pluronic ink was used to 3D print interconnected microchannel networks in a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) laden gelatin-methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel. These constructs (with and without microchannels) were next chondrogenically primed in vitro and then implanted into critically sized femoral bone defects in rats. The solid and microchanneled cartilage templates enhanced bone repair compared to untreated controls, with the solid cartilage templates (without microchannels) supporting the highest levels of total bone formation. However, the inclusion of 3D printed microchannels was found to promote osteoclast/immune cell invasion, hydrogel degradation, and vascularisation following implantation. In addition, the endochondral bone tissue engineering strategy was found to support comparable levels of bone healing to BMP-2 delivery, whilst promoting lower levels of heterotopic bone formation, with the microchanneled templates supporting the lowest levels of heterotopic bone formation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 3D printed hypertrophic cartilage grafts represent a promising approach for the repair of complex bone fractures, particularly for larger defects where vascularisation will be a key challenge.
AUTHOR Ng, Wei Long and Qi, Jovina Tan Zhi and Yeong, Wai Yee and Naing, May Win
Title Proof-of-concept: 3D bioprinting of pigmented human skin constructs [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) pigmented human skin constructs have been fabricated using a 3D bioprinting approach. The 3D pigmented human skin constructs are obtained from using three different types of skin cells (keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts from three different skin donors) and they exhibit similar constitutive pigmentation (pale pigmentation) as the skin donors. A two-step drop-on-demand bioprinting strategy facilitates the deposition of cell droplets to emulate the epidermal melanin units (pre-defined patterning of keratinocytes and melanocytes at the desired positions) and manipulation of the microenvironment to fabricate 3D biomimetic hierarchical porous structures found in native skin tissue. The 3D bioprinted pigmented skin constructs are compared to the pigmented skin constructs fabricated by conventional a manual-casting approach; in-depth characterization of both the 3D pigmented skin constructs has indicated that the 3D bioprinted skin constructs have a higher degree of resemblance to native skin tissue in term of the presence of well-developed stratified epidermal layers and the presence of a continuous layer of basement membrane proteins as compared to the manually-cast samples. The 3D bioprinting approach facilitates the development of 3D in vitro pigmented human skin constructs for potential toxicology testing and fundamental cell biology research.
AUTHOR Khaled, Shaban A. and Burley, Jonathan C. and Alexander, Morgan R. and Yang, Jing and Roberts, Clive J.
Title 3D printing of tablets containing multiple drugs with defined release profiles [Abstract]
Year 2015
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract We have employed three-dimensional (3D) extrusion-based printing as a medicine manufacturing technique for the production of multi-active tablets with well-defined and separate controlled release profiles for three different drugs. This ‘polypill’ made by a 3D additive manufacture technique demonstrates that complex medication regimes can be combined in a single tablet and that it is viable to formulate and ‘dial up’ this single tablet for the particular needs of an individual. The tablets used to illustrate this concept incorporate an osmotic pump with the drug captopril and sustained release compartments with the drugs nifedipine and glipizide. This combination of medicines could potentially be used to treat diabetics suffering from hypertension. The room temperature extrusion process used to print the formulations used excipients commonly employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were used to assess drug–excipient interaction. The printed formulations were evaluated for drug release using {USP} dissolution testing. We found that the captopril portion showed the intended zero order drug release of an osmotic pump and noted that the nifedipine and glipizide portions showed either first order release or Korsmeyer–Peppas release kinetics dependent upon the active/excipient ratio used.
AUTHOR Kajtez, Janko and Wesseler, Milan Finn and Birtele, Marcella and Khorasgani, Farinaz Riyahi and Rylander Ottosson, Daniella and Heiskanen, Arto and Kamperman, Tom and Leijten, Jeroen and Martínez-Serrano, Alberto and Larsen, Niels B. and Angelini, Thomas E. and Parmar, Malin and Lind, Johan U. and Emnéus, Jenny
Title Embedded 3D Printing in Self-Healing Annealable Composites for Precise Patterning of Functionally Mature Human Neural Constructs [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Human in vitro models of neural tissue with tunable microenvironment and defined spatial arrangement are needed to facilitate studies of brain development and disease. Towards this end, embedded printing inside granular gels holds great promise as it allows precise patterning of extremely soft tissue constructs. However, granular printing support formulations are restricted to only a handful of materials. Therefore, there has been a need for novel materials that take advantage of versatile biomimicry of bulk hydrogels while providing high-fidelity support for embedded printing akin to granular gels. To address this need, Authors present a modular platform for bioengineering of neuronal networks via direct embedded 3D printing of human stem cells inside Self-Healing Annealable Particle-Extracellular matrix (SHAPE) composites. SHAPE composites consist of soft microgels immersed in viscous extracellular-matrix solution to enable precise and programmable patterning of human stem cells and consequent generation mature subtype-specific neurons that extend projections into the volume of the annealed support. The developed approach further allows multi-ink deposition, live spatial and temporal monitoring of oxygen levels, as well as creation of vascular-like channels. Due to its modularity and versatility, SHAPE biomanufacturing toolbox has potential to be used in applications beyond functional modeling of mechanically sensitive neural constructs.
AUTHOR Kessel, Benjamin and Lee, Mihyun and Bonato, Angela and Tinguely, Yann and Tosoratti, Enrico and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title 3D Bioprinting of Macroporous Materials Based on Entangled Hydrogel Microstrands [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Hydrogels are excellent mimetics of mammalian extracellular matrices and have found widespread use in tissue engineering. Nanoporosity of monolithic bulk hydrogels, however, limits mass transport of key biomolecules. Microgels used in 3D bioprinting achieve both custom shape and vastly improved permissivity to an array of cell functions, however spherical-microbead-based bioinks are challenging to upscale, are inherently isotropic, and require secondary crosslinking. Here, bioinks based on high-aspect-ratio hydrogel microstrands are introduced to overcome these limitations. Pre-crosslinked, bulk hydrogels are deconstructed into microstrands by sizing through a grid with apertures of 40–100 µm. The microstrands are moldable and form a porous, entangled structure, stable in aqueous medium without further crosslinking. Entangled microstrands have rheological properties characteristic of excellent bioinks for extrusion bioprinting. Furthermore, individual microstrands align during extrusion and facilitate the alignment of myotubes. Cells can be placed either inside or outside the hydrogel phase with >90% viability. Chondrocytes co-printed with the microstrands deposit abundant extracellular matrix, resulting in a modulus increase from 2.7 to 780.2 kPa after 6 weeks of culture. This powerful approach to deconstruct bulk hydrogels into advanced bioinks is both scalable and versatile, representing an important toolbox for 3D bioprinting of architected hydrogels.
AUTHOR Zhang, Danwei and Peng, Erwin and Borayek, Ramadan and Ding, Jun
Title Controllable Ceramic Green-Body Configuration for Complex Ceramic Architectures with Fine Features [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Functional Materials
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Fabrication of dense ceramic articles with intricate fine features and geometrically complex morphology by using a relatively simple and the cost-effective process still remains a challenge. Ceramics, either in its green- or sintered-form, are known for being hard yet brittle which limits further shape reconfiguration. In this work, a combinatorial process of ceramic robocasting and photopolymerization is demonstrated to produce either flexible and/or stretchable ceramic green-body (Flex-Body or Stretch-Body) that can undergo a postprinting reconfiguration process. Secondary shaping may proceed through: i) self-assembly-assisted shaping and ii) mold-assisted shaping process, which allows a well-controlled ceramic structure morphology. With a proposed well-controlled thermal heating process, the ceramic Sintered-Body can achieve >99.0% theoretical density with good mechanical rigidity. Complex and dense ceramic articles with fine features down to 65 μm can be fabricated. When combined with a multi-nozzle deposition process, i) self-shaping ceramic structures can be realized through anisotropic shrinkage induced by suspensions' composition variation and ii) technical and functional multiceramic structures can be fabricated. The simplicity of the proposed technique and its inexpensive processing cost make it an attractive approach for fabricating geometrically complex ceramic articles with unique macrostructures, which complements the existing state of-the-art ceramic additive manufacturing techniques.
AUTHOR Schaffner, Manuel and R{"u}hs, Patrick A. and Coulter, Fergal and Kilcher, Samuel and Studart, Andr{'e} R.
Title 3D printing of bacteria into functional complex materials [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Science Advances
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Despite recent advances to control the spatial composition and dynamic functionalities of bacteria embedded in materials, bacterial localization into complex three-dimensional (3D) geometries remains a major challenge. We demonstrate a 3D printing approach to create bacteria-derived functional materials by combining the natural diverse metabolism of bacteria with the shape design freedom of additive manufacturing. To achieve this, we embedded bacteria in a biocompatible and functionalized 3D printing ink and printed two types of {textquotedblleft}living materials{textquotedblright} capable of degrading pollutants and of producing medically relevant bacterial cellulose. With this versatile bacteria-printing platform, complex materials displaying spatially specific compositions, geometry, and properties not accessed by standard technologies can be assembled from bottom up for new biotechnological and biomedical applications.
AUTHOR Schroeder, Thomas B. H. and Guha, Anirvan and Lamoureux, Aaron and VanRenterghem, Gloria and Sept, David and Shtein, Max and Yang, Jerry and Mayer, Michael
Title An electric-eel-inspired soft power source from stacked hydrogels [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Nature
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Progress towards the integration of technology into livingo ganisms requires electrical power sources that are biocompatible, mechanically flexible, and able to harness the chemical energy available inside biological systems. Conventional batteries were not designed with these criteria in mind. The electric organ of the knifefish Electrophorus electricus (commonly known as the electric eel) is, however, an example of an electrical power source that operates within biological constraints while featuring power characteristics that include peak potential differences of 600 volts and currents of 1 ampere1,2. Here we introduce an electric eel-inspired power concept that uses gradients of ions between miniature polyacrylamide hydrogel compartments bounded by a repeating sequence of cation- and anion-selective hydrogel membranes. The system uses a scalable stacking or folding geometry that generates 110 volts at open circuit or 27 milliwatts per square metre per gel cell upon simultaneous, self-registered mechanical contact activation of thousands of gel compartments in series while circumventing power dissipation before contact. Unlike typical batteries, these systems are soft, flexible, transparent, and potentially biocompatible. These characteristics suggest that artificial electric organs could be used to power next-generation implant materials such as pacemakers, implantable sensors, or prosthetic devices in hybrids of living and non-living systems3–6.�
AUTHOR Liu, Chun and Dai, Ting and Wu, Xiaoyu and Ma, Jiayi and Liu, Jun and Wu, Siyu and Yang, Lei and Zhao, Hongbin
Title 3D bioprinting of cell-laden nano-attapulgite/gelatin methacrylate composite hydrogel scaffolds for bone tissue repair [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Materials Science & Technology
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Bone tissue engineering (BTE) has proven to be a promising strategy for bone defect repair. Due to its excellent biological properties, gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels have been used as bioinks for 3D bioprinting in some BTE studies to produce scaffolds for bone regeneration. However, applications for load-bearing defects are limited by poor mechanical properties and a lack of bioactivity. In this study, 3D printing technology was used to create nano-attapulgite (nano-ATP)/GelMA composite hydrogels loaded into mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and mouse umbilical vein endothelial cells (MUVECs). The bioprintability, physicochemical properties, and mechanical properties were all thoroughly evaluated. Our findings showed that nano-ATP groups outperform the control group in terms of printability, indicating that nano-ATP is beneficial for printability. Additionally, after incorporation with nano-ATP, the mechanical strength of the composite hydrogels was significantly improved, resulting in adequate mechanical properties for bone regeneration. The presence of nano-ATP in the scaffolds has also been studied for cell-material interactions. The findings show that cells within the scaffold not only have high viability but also a clear proclivity to promote osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Besides, the MUVECs-loaded composite hydrogels demonstrated increased angiogenic activity. A cranial defect model was also developed to evaluate the bone repair capability of scaffolds loaded with rat BMSCs. According to histological analysis, cell-laden nano-ATP composite hydrogels can effectively improve bone regeneration and promote angiogenesis. This study demonstrated the potential of nano-ATP for bone tissue engineering, which should also increase the clinical practicality of nano-ATP.
AUTHOR Pitacco, Pierluca and Sadowska, Joanna M. and O'Brien, Fergal J. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D bioprinting of cartilaginous templates for large bone defect healing [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Damaged or diseased bone can be treated using autografts or a range of different bone grafting biomaterials, however limitations with such approaches has motivated increased interest in developmentally inspired bone tissue engineering (BTE) strategies that seek to recapitulate the process of endochondral ossification (EO) as a means of regenerating critically sized defects. The clinical translation of such strategies will require the engineering of scaled-up, geometrically defined hypertrophic cartilage grafts that can be rapidly vascularised and remodelled into bone in mechanically challenging defect environments. The goal of this study was to 3D bioprint mechanically reinforced cartilaginous templates and to assess their capacity to regenerate critically sized femoral bone defects. Human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) were incorporated into fibrin based bioinks and bioprinted into polycaprolactone (PCL) frameworks to produce mechanically reinforced constructs. Chondrogenic priming of such hMSC laden constructs was required to support robust vascularisation and graft mineralisation in vivo following their subcutaneous implantation into nude mice. With a view towards maximising their potential to support endochondral bone regeneration, we next explored different in vitro culture regimes to produce chondrogenic and early hypertrophic engineered grafts. Following their implantation into femoral bone defects within transiently immunosuppressed rats, such bioprinted constructs were rapidly remodelled into bone in vivo, with early hypertrophic constructs supporting higher levels of vascularisation and bone formation compared to the chondrogenic constructs. Such early hypertrophic bioprinted constructs also supported higher levels of vascularisation and spatially distinct patterns of new formation compared to BMP-2 loaded collagen scaffolds (here used as a positive control). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that fibrin based bioinks support chondrogenesis of hMSCs in vitro, which enables the bioprinting of mechanically reinforced hypertrophic cartilaginous templates capable of supporting large bone defect regeneration. These results support the use of 3D bioprinting as a strategy to scale-up the engineering of developmentally inspired templates for BTE. Statement of significance Despite the promise of developmentally inspired tissue engineering strategies for bone regeneration, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to enable clinical translation. This work reports the development and assessment (in vitro and in vivo) of a 3D bioprinting strategy to engineer mechanically-reinforced cartilaginous templates for large bone defect regeneration using human MSCs. Using distinct in vitro priming protocols, it was possible to generate cartilage grafts with altered phenotypes. More hypertrophic grafts, engineered in vitro using TGF-β3 and BMP-2, supported higher levels of blood vessel infiltration and accelerated bone regeneration in vivo. This study also identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages of such endochondral bone TE strategies over the direct delivery of BMP-2 from collagen-based scaffolds.
AUTHOR Leu Alexa, Rebeca and Cucuruz, Andreia and Ghițulică, Cristina-Daniela and Voicu, Georgeta and Stamat (Balahura), Liliana-Roxana and Dinescu, Sorina and Vlasceanu, George Mihail and Stavarache, Cristina and Ianchis, Raluca and Iovu, Horia and Costache, Marieta
Title 3D Printable Composite Biomaterials Based on GelMA and Hydroxyapatite Powders Doped with Cerium Ions for Bone Tissue Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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Abstract
The main objective was to produce 3D printable hydrogels based on GelMA and hydroxyapatite doped with cerium ions with potential application in bone regeneration. The first part of the study regards the substitution of Ca2+ ions from hydroxyapatite structure with cerium ions (Ca10-xCex(PO4)6(OH)2, xCe = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5). The second part followed the selection of the optimal concentration of HAp doped, which will ensure GelMA-based scaffolds with good biocompatibility, viability and cell proliferation. The third part aimed to select the optimal concentrations of GelMA for the 3D printing process (20%, 30% and 35%). In vitro biological assessment presented the highest level of cell viability and proliferation potency of GelMA-HC5 composites, along with a low cytotoxic potential, highlighting the beneficial effects of cerium on cell growth, also supported by Live/Dead results. According to the 3D printing experiments, the 30% GelMA enriched with HC5 was able to generate 3D scaffolds with high structural integrity and homogeneity, showing the highest suitability for the 3D printing process. The osteogenic differentiation experiments confirmed the ability of 30% GelMA-3% HC5 scaffold to support and efficiently maintain the osteogenesis process. Based on the results, 30% GelMA-3% HC5 3D printed scaffolds could be considered as biomaterials with suitable characteristics for application in bone tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Katcharava, Zviadi and Marinow, Anja and Bhandary, Rajesh and Binder, Wolfgang H.
Title 3D Printable Composite Polymer Electrolytes: Influence of SiO2 Nanoparticles on 3D-Printability [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Nanomaterials
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Abstract
We here demonstrate the preparation of composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) for Li-ion batteries, applicable for 3D printing process via fused deposition modeling. The prepared composites consist of modified poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and SiO2-based nanofillers. PEG was successfully end group modified yielding telechelic PEG containing either ureidopyrimidone (UPy) or barbiturate moieties, capable to form supramolecular networks via hydrogen bonds, thus introducing self-healing to the electrolyte system. Silica nanoparticles (NPs) were used as a filler for further adjustment of mechanical properties of the electrolyte to enable 3D-printability. The surface functionalization of the NPs with either ionic liquid (IL) or hydrophobic alkyl chains is expected to lead to an improved dispersion of the NPs within the polymer matrix. Composites with different content of NPs (5%, 10%, 15%) and LiTFSI salt (EO/Li+ = 5, 10, 20) were analyzed via rheology for a better understanding of 3D printability, and via Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy (BDS) for checking their ionic conductivity. The composite electrolyte PEG 1500 UPy2/LiTFSI (EO:Li 5:1) mixed with 15% NP-IL was successfully 3D printed, revealing its suitability for application as printable composite electrolytes.
AUTHOR Leu Alexa, Rebeca and Cucuruz, Andreia and Ghițulică, Cristina-Daniela and Voicu, Georgeta and Stamat (Balahura), Liliana-Roxana and Dinescu, Sorina and Vlasceanu, George Mihail and Iovu, Horia and Serafim, Andrada and Ianchis, Raluca and Ciocan, Lucian-Toma and Costache, Marieta
Title 3D Printed Composite Scaffolds of GelMA and Hydroxyapatite Nanopowders Doped with Mg/Zn Ions to Evaluate the Expression of Genes and Proteins of Osteogenic Markers [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Nanomaterials
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Abstract
As bone diseases and defects are constantly increasing, the improvement of bone regeneration techniques is constantly evolving. The main purpose of this scientific study was to obtain and investigate biomaterials that can be used in tissue engineering. In this respect, nanocomposite inks of GelMA modified with hydroxyapatite (HA) substituted with Mg and Zn were developed. Using a 3D bioprinting technique, scaffolds with varying shapes and dimensions were obtained. The following analyses were used in order to study the nanocomposite materials and scaffolds obtained by the 3D printing technique: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT). The swelling and dissolvability of each scaffold were also studied. Biological studies, osteopontin (OPN), and osterix (OSX) gene expression evaluations were confirmed at the protein levels, using immunofluorescence coupled with confocal microscopy. These findings suggest the positive effect of magnesium and zinc on the osteogenic differentiation process. OSX fluorescent staining also confirmed the capacity of GelMA-HM5 and GelMA-HZ5 to support osteogenesis, especially of the magnesium enriched scaffold.
AUTHOR Kuthe, Sudhanshu and Schlothauer, Arthur and Bodkhe, Sampada and Hulme, Christopher and Ermanni, Paolo
Title 3D printed mechanically representative aortic model made of gelatin fiber reinforced silicone composite [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Materials Letters
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Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) is a useful technology to produce artificial aortic models for the training of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) surgery. With AM, the models can be tailored towards the individualized aortic anatomy of patients. Most of these reported models so far are manufactured using single rubber-like materials. However, such materials do not replicate the mechanical properties of natural aortic tissue, especially the stress–strain response in higher strain (>0.1) regions. This could be problematic for surgeons training for surgeries using a model which does not exhibit properties of the real aorta. To overcome this limitation, we developed a 3D-printed, mechanically representative aortic model comprising gelatin fibers and silicone. The model is promising as a realistic analog of aortic sinus for mock TAVR surgery. Computerized tomography data was analyzed beforehand using medical imaging to identify the anatomy of a specific patient’s aortic sinus and the surrounding blood vessels. A novel silicone matrix composite reinforced with gelatin fibers designed in this work was tested and compared with the stress–strain response of aortic tissue. Such a model comprising both patient-specific geometries as well as realistic material properties of aortic tissue can be helpful for the development of next-generation medical phantoms.
AUTHOR Kamdem Tamo, Arnaud and Tran, Tuan Anh and Doench, Ingo and Jahangir, Shaghayegh and Lall, Aastha and David, Laurent and Peniche-Covas, Carlos and Walther, Andreas and Osorio-Madrazo, Anayancy
Title 3D Printing of Cellulase-Laden Cellulose Nanofiber/Chitosan Hydrogel Composites: Towards Tissue Engineering Functional Biomaterials with Enzyme-Mediated Biodegradation [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Materials
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Abstract
The 3D printing of a multifunctional hydrogel biomaterial with bioactivity for tissue engineering, good mechanical properties and a biodegradability mediated by free and encapsulated cellulase was proposed. Bioinks of cellulase-laden and cellulose nanofiber filled chitosan viscous suspensions were used to 3D print enzymatic biodegradable and biocompatible cellulose nanofiber (CNF) reinforced chitosan (CHI) hydrogels. The study of the kinetics of CNF enzymatic degradation was studied in situ in fibroblast cell culture. To preserve enzyme stability as well as to guarantee its sustained release, the cellulase was preliminarily encapsulated in chitosan–caseinate nanoparticles, which were further incorporated in the CNF/CHI viscous suspension before the 3D printing of the ink. The incorporation of the enzyme within the CHI/CNF hydrogel contributed to control the decrease of the CNF mechanical reinforcement in the long term while keeping the cell growth-promoting property of chitosan. The hydrolysis kinetics of cellulose in the 3D printed scaffolds showed a slow but sustained degradation of the CNFs with enzyme, with approximately 65% and 55% relative activities still obtained after 14 days of incubation for the encapsulated and free enzyme, respectively. The 3D printed composite hydrogels showed excellent cytocompatibility supporting fibroblast cell attachment, proliferation and growth. Ultimately, the concomitant cell growth and biodegradation of CNFs within the 3D printed CHI/CNF scaffolds highlights the remarkable potential of CHI/CNF composites in the design of tissue models for the development of 3D constructs with tailored in vitro/in vivo degradability for biomedical applications.
AUTHOR Kitana, Waseem and Apsite, Indra and Hazur, Jonas and Boccaccini, Aldo R. and Ionov, Leonid
Title 4D Biofabrication of T-Shaped Vascular Bifurcation [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Materials Technologies
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Abstract 4D Biofabrication – a pioneering biofabrication technique – involves the automated fabrication of 3D constructs that are dynamic and show shape-transformation capability. Although current 4D biofabrication methods are highly promising for the fabrication of vascular elements such as tubes, the fabrication of tubular junctions is still highly challenging. Here, for the first time, a 4D biofabrication-based concept for the fabrication of a T-shaped vascular bifurcation using 3D printed shape-changing layers based on a mathematical model is reported. The formation of tubular structures with various diameters is achieved by precisely controlling the parameters (e.g. crosslinking time). Consequently, the 3D printed films show self-transformation into a T-junction upon immersion in water with a diameter of a few millimeters. Perfusion of the tubular T-junction with an aqueous medium simulating blood flow through vessels shows minimal leakages with a maximum flow velocity of 0.11 m s–1. Furthermore, human umbilical vein endothelial cells seeded on the inner surface of the plain T-junction show outstanding growth properties and excellent cell viability. The achieved diameters are comparable to the native blood vessels, which is still a challenge in 3D biofabrication. This approach paves the way for the fabrication of fully automatic self-actuated vascular bifurcations as vascular grafts.
AUTHOR Dorjsuren, Dorjbal and Eastman, Richard T. and Song, Min Jae and Yasgar, Adam and Chen, Yuchi and Bharti, Kapil and Zakharov, Alexey V. and Jadhav, Ajit and Ferrer, Marc and Shi, Pei-Yong and Simeonov, Anton
Title A platform of assays for the discovery of anti-Zika small-molecules with activity in a 3D-bioprinted outer-blood-retina model [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings PLOS ONE
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Abstract
The global health emergency posed by the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV), an arthropod-borne flavivirus causing severe neonatal neurological conditions, has subsided, but there continues to be transmission of ZIKV in endemic regions. As such, there is still a medical need for discovering and developing therapeutical interventions against ZIKV. To identify small-molecule compounds that inhibit ZIKV disease and transmission, we screened multiple small-molecule collections, mostly derived from natural products, for their ability to inhibit wild-type ZIKV. As a primary high-throughput screen, we used a viral cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay conducted in Vero cells that was optimized and miniaturized to a 1536-well format. Suitably active compounds identified from the primary screen were tested in a panel of orthogonal assays using recombinant Zika viruses, including a ZIKV Renilla luciferase reporter assay and a ZIKV mCherry reporter system. Compounds that were active in the wild-type ZIKV inhibition and ZIKV reporter assays were further evaluated for their inhibitory effects against other flaviviruses. Lastly, we demonstrated that wild-type ZIKV is able to infect a 3D-bioprinted outer-blood-retina barrier tissue model and disrupt its barrier function, as measured by electrical resistance. One of the identified compounds (3-Acetyl-13-deoxyphomenone, NCGC00380955) was able to prevent the pathological effects of the viral infection on this clinically relevant ZIKV infection model.
AUTHOR Cakal, Selgin D. and Radeke, Carmen and Alcala, Juan F. and Ellman, Ditte G. and Butdayev, Sarkhan and Andersen, Ditte C. and Calloe, Kirstine and Lind, Johan U.
Title A simple and scalable 3D printing methodology for generating aligned and extended human and murine skeletal muscle tissues [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biomedical Materials
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Abstract
Preclinical biomedical and pharmaceutical research on disease causes, drug targets, and side effects increasingly relies on in vitro models of human tissue. 3D printing offers unique opportunities for generating models of superior physiological accuracy, as well as for automating their fabrication. Towards these goals, we here describe a simple and scalable methodology for generating physiologically relevant models of skeletal muscle. Our approach relies on dual-material micro-extrusion of two types of gelatin hydrogel into patterned soft substrates with locally alternating stiffness. We identify minimally complex patterns capable of guiding the large-scale self-assembly of aligned, extended, and contractile human and murine skeletal myotubes. Interestingly, we find high-resolution patterning is not required, as even patterns with feature sizes of several hundred micrometers is sufficient. Consequently, the procedure is rapid and compatible with any low-cost extrusion-based 3D printer. The generated myotubes easily span several millimeters, and various myotube patterns can be generated in a predictable and reproducible manner. The compliant nature and adjustable thickness of the hydrogel substrates, serves to enable extended culture of contractile myotubes. The method is further readily compatible with standard cell-culturing platforms as well as commercially available electrodes for electrically induced exercise and monitoring of the myotubes.
AUTHOR Murab, Sumit and Gupta, Aastha and Włodarczyk-Biegun, Małgorzata Katarzyna and Kumar, Anuj and van Rijn, Patrick and Whitlock, Patrick and Han, Sung Soo and Agrawal, Garima
Title Alginate based hydrogel inks for 3D bioprinting of engineered orthopedic tissues [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Carbohydrate Polymers
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Abstract
3D printed hydrogels have emerged as a novel tissue engineering and regeneration platform due to their ability to provide a suitable environment for cell growth. To obtain a well-defined scaffold with good post-printing shape fidelity, a proper hydrogel ink formulation plays a crucial role. In this regard, alginate has received booming interest owing to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, easy functionalization, and fast gelling behavior. Hence, this review highlights the significance of alginate-based hydrogel inks for fabricating 3D printed scaffolds for bone and cartilage regeneration. Herein, we discuss the fundamentals of direct extrusion 3D bioprinting method and provide a comprehensive overview of various alginate-based hydrogel ink formulations that have been used so far. We also summarize the requirements of hydrogel inks and 3D printed scaffolds to achieve similarity to the native tissue environment. Finally, we discuss the challenges, and research directions relevant for future clinical translation.
AUTHOR Wang, Haonan and Yu, Huaqing and Zhou, Xia and Zhang, Jilong and Zhou, Hongrui and Hao, Haitong and Ding, Lina and Li, Huiying and Gu, Yanru and Ma, Junchi and Qiu, Jianfeng and Ma, Depeng
Title An Overview of Extracellular Matrix-Based Bioinks for 3D Bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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As a microenvironment where cells reside, the extracellular matrix (ECM) has a complex network structure and appropriate mechanical properties to provide structural and biochemical support for the surrounding cells. In tissue engineering, the ECM and its derivatives can mitigate foreign body responses by presenting ECM molecules at the interface between materials and tissues. With the widespread application of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, the use of the ECM and its derivative bioinks for 3D bioprinting to replicate biomimetic and complex tissue structures has become an innovative and successful strategy in medical fields. In this review, we summarize the significance and recent progress of ECM-based biomaterials in 3D bioprinting. Then, we discuss the most relevant applications of ECM-based biomaterials in 3D bioprinting, such as tissue regeneration and cancer research. Furthermore, we present the status of ECM-based biomaterials in current research and discuss future development prospects.
AUTHOR Pontiggia, Luca and Hengel, Ingmar A.J. Van and Klar, Agnes and Rütsche, Dominic and Nanni, Monica and Scheidegger, Andreas and Figi, Sandro and Reichmann, Ernst and Moehrlen, Ueli and Biedermann, Thomas
Title Bioprinting and plastic compression of large pigmented and vascularized human dermo-epidermal skin substitutes by means of a new robotic platform [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Tissue Engineering
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Abstract
Extensive availability of engineered autologous dermo-epidermal skin substitutes (DESS) with functional and structural properties of normal human skin represents a goal for the treatment of large skin defects such as severe burns. Recently, a clinical phase I trial with this type of DESS was successfully completed, which included patients own keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Yet, two important features of natural skin were missing: pigmentation and vascularization. The first has important physiological and psychological implications for the patient, the second impacts survival and quality of the graft. Additionally, accurate reproduction of large amounts of patient’s skin in an automated way is essential for upscaling DESS production. Therefore, in the present study, we implemented a new robotic unit (called SkinFactory) for 3D bioprinting of pigmented and pre-vascularized DESS using normal human skin derived fibroblasts, blood- and lymphatic endothelial cells, keratinocytes, and melanocytes. We show the feasibility of our approach by demonstrating the viability of all the cells after printing in vitro, the integrity of the reconstituted capillary network in vivo after transplantation to immunodeficient rats and the anastomosis to the vascular plexus of the host. Our work has to be considered as a proof of concept in view of the implementation of an extended platform, which fully automatize the process of skin substitution: this would be a considerable improvement of the treatment of burn victims and patients with severe skin lesions based on patients own skin derived cells.
AUTHOR Blanco-Fernandez, Barbara and Rey-Vinolas, Sergi and Bağcı, Gülsün and Rubi-Sans, Gerard and Otero, Jorge and Navajas, Daniel and Perez-Amodio, Soledad and Engel, Elisabeth
Title Bioprinting Decellularized Breast Tissue for the Development of Three-Dimensional Breast Cancer Models [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
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Abstract
The tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a vital role in tumor progression and drug resistance. Previous studies have shown that breast tissue-derived matrices could be an important biomaterial to recreate the complexity of the tumor ECM. We have developed a method for decellularizing and delipidating a porcine breast tissue (TDM) compatible with hydrogel formation. The addition of gelatin methacrylamide and alginate allows this TDM to be bioprinted by itself with good printability, shape fidelity, and cytocompatibility. Furthermore, this bioink has been tuned to more closely recreate the breast tumor by incorporating collagen type I (Col1). Breast cancer cells (BCCs) proliferate in both TDM bioinks forming cell clusters and spheroids. The addition of Col1 improves the printability of the bioink as well as increases BCC proliferation and reduces doxorubicin sensitivity due to a downregulation of HSP90. TDM bioinks also allow a precise three-dimensional printing of scaffolds containing BCCs and stromal cells and could be used to fabricate artificial tumors. Taken together, we have proven that these novel bioinks are good candidates for biofabricating breast cancer models.
AUTHOR Govindharaj, Mano and Al Hashemi, Noura Sayed and Soman, Soja Saghar and Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj
Title Bioprinting of bioactive tissue scaffolds from ecologically-destructive fouling tunicates [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Cleaner Production
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Abstract
Urochordates are the closest invertebrate relative to humans and commonly referred to as tunicates, a name ascribed to their leathery outer “tunic”. The tunic is the outer covering of the organism which functions as the exoskeleton and is rich in carbohydrates and proteins. Invasive or fouling tunicates pose a great threat to the indigenous marine ecosystem and governments spend several hundred thousand dollars for tunicate management, considering the huge adverse economic impact it has on the shipping and fishing industries. In this work, the environmentally destructive colonizing tunicate species of Polyclinum constellatum was successfully identified in the coast of Abu Dhabi and methods of sustainably using it as wound-dressing materials, decellularized extra-cellular matrix (dECM) scaffolds for tissue engineering applications and bioinks for bioprinting of tissue constructs for regenerative medicine are proposed. The intricate three-dimensional nanofibrous cellulosic networks in the tunic remain intact even after the multi-step process of decellularization and lyophilization. The lyophilized dECM tunics possess excellent biocompatibility and remarkable tensile modulus of 3.85 ± 0.93 MPa compared to ∼0.1–1 MPa of other hydrogel systems. This work demonstrates the use of lyophilized tunics as wound-dressing materials, having outperformed the commercial dressing materials with a capacity of absorbing 20 times its weight in the dry state. This work also demonstrates the biocompatibility of dECM scaffold and dECM-derived bioink (3D bioprinting with Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs)). Both dECM scaffolds and bioprinted dECM-based tissue constructs show enhanced metabolic activity and cell proliferation over time. Sustainable utilization of dECM-based biomaterials from ecologically-destructive fouling tunicates proposed in this work helps preserve the marine ecosystem, shipping and fishing industries worldwide, and mitigate the huge cost spent for tunicate management.
AUTHOR Saghar Soman, Soja and Govindraj, Mano and Al Hashimi, Noura and Zhou, Jiarui and Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj
Title Bioprinting of Human Neural Tissues Using a Sustainable Marine Tunicate-Derived Bioink for Translational Medicine Applications [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Bioprinting; Vol 8, No 4 (2022)DO - 10.18063/ijb.v8i4.604
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Abstract
Bioprinting of nervous tissue is a major challenge in the bioprinting field due to its soft consistency and complex architecture. The first step in efficient neural bioprinting is the design and optimization of printable bioinks which favor the growth and differentiation of neural tissues by providing the mechanophysiological properties of the native tissue microenvironment. However, till date, limited studies have been conducted to make tissue specific bioinks. Here, we report a novel bioink formulation specifically designed for bioprinting and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) to peripheral neurons, using a marine tunicate-derived hydrogel and Matrigel. The formulation resulted in seamless bioprinting of NSCs with minimal processing time from bioink preparation to in vitro culture. The tissues exhibited excellent post-printing viability and cell proliferation along with a precise peripheral nerve morphology on in vitro differentiation. The cultured tissues showed significant cell recovery after subjecting to a freeze-thaw cycle of −80 to 37°C, indicating the suitability of the method for developing tissues compatible for long-term storage and transportation for clinical use. The study provides a robust method to use a sustainable bioink for three-dimensional bioprinting of neural tissues for translational medicine applications.
AUTHOR Fl{'{e}}geau, Killian and Puiggali-Jou, Anna and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Cartilage tissue engineering by extrusion bioprinting utilizing porous hyaluronic acid microgel bioinks [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Abstract
3D bioprinting offers an excellent opportunity to provide tissue-engineered cartilage to microtia patients. However, hydrogel-based bioinks are hindered by their dense and cell-restrictive environment, impairing tissue development and ultimately leading to mechanical failure of large scaffolds in vivo. Granular hydrogels, made of annealed microgels, offer a superior alternative to conventional bioinks, with their improved porosity and modularity. We have evaluated the ability of enzymatically crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) microgel bioinks to form mature cartilage in vivo. Microgel bioinks were formed by mechanically sizing bulk HA-tyramine hydrogels through meshes with aperture diameters of 40, 100 or 500 µm. Annealing of the microgels was achieved by crosslinking residual tyramines. Secondary crosslinked scaffolds were stable in solution and showed tunable porosity from 9% to 21%. Bioinks showed excellent rheological properties and were used to print different objects. Printing precision was found to be directly correlated to microgel size. As a proof of concept, freeform reversible embedding of suspended hydrogels printing with gelation triggered directly in the bath was performed to demonstrate the versatility of the method. The granular hydrogels support the homogeneous development of mature cartilage-like tissues in vitro with mechanical stiffening up to 200 kPa after 63 d. After 6 weeks of in vivo implantation, small-diameter microgels formed stable constructs with low immunogenicity and continuous tissue maturation. Conversely, increasing the microgel size resulted in increased inflammatory response, with limited stability in vivo. This study reports the development of new microgel bioinks for cartilage tissue biofabrication and offers insights into the foreign body reaction towards porous scaffolds implantation.
AUTHOR Cao, Chuanliang and Huang, Pengren and Prasopthum, Aruna and Parsons, Andrew J. and Ai, Fanrong and Yang, Jing
Title Characterisation of bone regeneration in 3D printed ductile PCL/PEG/hydroxyapatite scaffolds with high ceramic microparticle concentrations [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biomater. Sci.
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Abstract
3D printed bioactive glass or bioceramic particle reinforced composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering currently suffer from low particle concentration (100% breaking strain) by adding poly(ethylene glycol) which is biocompatible and FDA approved. The scaffolds require no post-printing washing to remove hazardous components. More exposure of HA microparticles on strut surfaces is enabled by incorporating higher HA concentrations. Compared to scaffolds with 72 wt% HA{,} scaffolds with higher HA content (90 wt%) enhance matrix formation but not new bone volume after 12 weeks implantation in rat calvarial defects. Histological analyses demonstrate that bone regeneration within the 3D printed scaffolds is via intramembranous ossification and starts in the central region of pores. Fibrous tissue that resembles non-union tissue within bone fractures is formed within pores that do not have new bone. The amount of blood vessels is similar between scaffolds with mainly fibrous tissue and those with more bone tissue{,} suggesting vascularization is not a deciding factor for determining the type of tissues regenerated within the pores of 3D printed scaffolds. Multinucleated immune cells are commonly present in all scaffolds surrounding the struts{,} suggesting a role of managing inflammation in bone regeneration within 3D printed scaffolds.
AUTHOR Taghizadeh, Mohsen and Taghizadeh, Ali and Yazdi, Mohsen Khodadadi and Zarrintaj, Payam and Stadler, Florian J. and Ramsey, Joshua D. and Habibzadeh, Sajjad and Hosseini Rad, Somayeh and Naderi, Ghasem and Saeb, Mohammad Reza and Mozafari, Masoud and Schubert, Ulrich S.
Title Chitosan-based inks for 3D printing and bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Green Chem.
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Abstract
The advent of 3D-printing/additive manufacturing in biomedical engineering field has introduced great potential for the preparation of 3D structures that can mimic native tissues. This technology has accelerated the progress in numerous areas of regenerative medicine{,} especially led to a big wave of biomimetic functional scaffold developments for tissue engineering demands. In recent years{,} the introduction of smart bio-inks has created growing efforts to facilitate the preparation of complex and homogeneous living-cell-containing 3D constructs. In the past decade{,} a considerable body of literature has been created on identifying an ideal bioinspired-ink with excellent printability{,} cell viability{,} bioactivity{,} and mechanical properties. This state-of-the-art review article briefly outlines 3D-printing/bioprinting techniques applied for chitosan-based bio-inks{,} their resources{,} crosslinking methods{,} characteristics{,} reasons for their superiority over other bio-inks{,} and challenges of commercialization; this is followed by a comprehensive description of the full potential and the key indicators of success in terms of 3D bio-printing of such bio-inks as platforms for tissue regeneration{,} advanced biosensors{,} drug delivery{,} and wastewater treatment. Next{,} the restrictions and challenges of chitosan bio-inks are highlighted. In this work{,} we also discussed about developing a coherent research strategy based on combination of microfluidics-based lab-on-a-chip (organ-on-a-chip) platforms with 3D-bioprinting which enables designing of self-healing scaffolds. And finally{,} the potential of smart inks based on chitosan for 4D bioprinting of more detailed and practical engineered tissues and artificial organs is reviewed.
AUTHOR Clua-Ferré, Laura and de Chiara, Francesco and Rodríguez-Comas, Júlia and Comelles, Jordi and Martinez, Elena and Godeau, Amelie Luise and García-Alamán, Ainhoa and Gasa, Rosa and Ramón-Azcón, Javier
Title Collagen-Tannic Acid Spheroids for β-Cell Encapsulation Fabricated Using a 3D Bioprinter [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Materials Technologies
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Abstract
Abstract Type 1 Diabetes results from autoimmune response elicited against β-cell antigens. Nowadays, insulin injections remain the leading therapeutic option. However, injection treatment fails to emulate the highly dynamic insulin release that β-cells provide. 3D cell-laden microspheres have been proposed during the last years as a major platform for bioengineering insulin-secreting constructs for tissue graft implantation and a model for in vitro drug screening platforms. Current microsphere fabrication technologies have several drawbacks: the need for an oil phase containing surfactants, diameter inconsistency of the microspheres, and high time-consuming processes. These technologies have widely used alginate for its rapid gelation, high processability, and low cost. However, its low biocompatible properties do not provide effective cell attachment. This study proposes a high-throughput methodology using a 3D bioprinter that employs an ECM-like microenvironment for effective cell-laden microsphere production to overcome these limitations. Crosslinking the resulting microspheres with tannic acid prevents collagenase degradation and enhances spherical structural consistency while allowing the diffusion of nutrients and oxygen. The approach allows customization of microsphere diameter with extremely low variability. In conclusion, a novel bio-printing procedure is developed to fabricate large amounts of reproducible microspheres capable of secreting insulin in response to extracellular glucose stimuli.
AUTHOR Man, Kenny and Barroso, Inês A. and Brunet, Mathieu Y. and Peacock, Ben and Federici, Angelica S. and Hoey, David A. and Cox, Sophie C.
Title Controlled Release of Epigenetically-Enhanced Extracellular Vesicles from a GelMA/Nanoclay Composite Hydrogel to Promote Bone Repair [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have garnered growing attention as promising acellular tools for bone repair. Although EVs’ potential for bone regeneration has been shown, issues associated with their therapeutic potency and short half-life in vivo hinders their clinical utility. Epigenetic reprogramming with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) has been reported to promote the osteoinductive potency of osteoblast-derived EVs. Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels functionalised with the synthetic nanoclay laponite (LAP) have been shown to effectively bind, stabilise, and improve the retention of bioactive factors. This study investigated the potential of utilising a GelMA-LAP hydrogel to improve local retention and control delivery of epigenetically enhanced osteoblast-derived EVs as a novel bone repair strategy. LAP was found to elicit a dose-dependent increase in GelMA compressive modulus and shear-thinning properties. Incorporation of the nanoclay was also found to enhance shape fidelity when 3D printed compared to LAP-free gels. Interestingly, GelMA hydrogels containing LAP displayed increased mineralisation capacity (1.41-fold) (p ≤ 0.01) over 14 days. EV release kinetics from these nanocomposite systems were also strongly influenced by LAP concentration with significantly more vesicles being released from GelMA constructs as detected by a CD63 ELISA (p ≤ 0.001). EVs derived from TSA-treated osteoblasts (TSA-EVs) enhanced proliferation (1.09-fold), migration (1.83-fold), histone acetylation (1.32-fold) and mineralisation (1.87-fold) of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) when released from the GelMA-LAP hydrogel compared to the untreated EV gels (p ≤ 0.01). Importantly, the TSA-EV functionalised GelMA-LAP hydrogel significantly promoted encapsulated hBMSCs extracellular matrix collagen production (≥1.3-fold) and mineralisation (≥1.78-fold) in a dose-dependent manner compared to untreated EV constructs (p ≤ 0.001). Taken together, these findings demonstrate the potential of combining epigenetically enhanced osteoblast-derived EVs with a nanocomposite photocurable hydrogel to promote the therapeutic efficacy of acellular vesicle approaches for bone regeneration.
AUTHOR Cadle, Rachel and Rogozea, Dan and Moldovan, Leni and Moldovan, Nicanor I.
Title Design and Implementation of Anatomically Inspired Mesenteric and Intestinal Vascular Patterns for Personalized 3D Bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Applied Sciences
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Abstract
Recent progress in bioprinting has made possible the creation of complex 3D intestinal constructs, including vascularized villi. However, for their integration into functional units useful for experimentation or implantation, the next challenge is to endow them with a larger-scale, anatomically realistic vasculature. In general, the perfusion of bioprinted constructs has remained difficult, and the current solution is to provide them with mostly linear and simply branched channels. To address this limitation, here we demonstrated an image analysis-based workflow leading through computer-assisted design from anatomic images of rodent mesentery and colon to the actual printing of such patterns with paste and hydrogel bioinks. Moreover, we reverse-engineered the 2D intestinal image-derived designs into cylindrical objects, and 3D-printed them in a support hydrogel. These results open the path towards generation of more realistically vascularized tissue constructs for a variety of personalized medicine applications.
AUTHOR Geevarghese, Rency and Somasekharan, Lakshmi T. and Bhatt, Anugya and Kasoju, Naresh and Nair, Renjith P.
Title Development and evaluation of a multicomponent bioink consisting of alginate, gelatin, diethylaminoethyl cellulose and collagen peptide for 3D bioprinting of tissue construct for drug screening application [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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Abstract
Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology has been making a progressive advancement in the field of tissue engineering to produce tissue constructs that mimic the shape, framework, and microenvironment of an organ. The technology has not only paved the way to organ development but has been widely studied for its application in drug and cosmetic testing using 3D bioprinted constructs. However, not much has been explored on the utilization of bioprinting technology for the development of tumor models to test anti-cancer drug efficacy. The conventional methodology involves a two dimensional (2D) monolayer model to test cellular drug response which has multiple limitations owing to its inability to mimic the natural tissue environment. The choice of bioink for 3D bioprinting is critical as cell morphology and proliferation depend greatly on the property of bioink. In this study, we developed a multicomponent bioink composed of alginate, diethylaminoethyl cellulose, gelatin, and collagen peptide to generate a 3D bioprinted construct. The bioink has been characterised and validated for its printability, shape fidelity and biocompatibility to be used for generating tumor models. Further, a bioprinted tumor model was developed using lung cancer cell line and the efficacy of 3D printed construct for drug screening application was established.
AUTHOR Da Silva, Aruã Clayton and Akbar, Teuku Fawzul and Paterson, Thomas Edward and Werner, Carsten and Tondera, Christoph and Minev, Ivan Rusev
Title Electrically Controlled Click-Chemistry for Assembly of Bioactive Hydrogels on Diverse Micro- and Flexible Electrodes [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Macromolecular Rapid Communications
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Abstract
Abstract The seamless integration of electronics with living matter requires advanced materials with programmable biological and engineering properties. Here electrochemical methods to assemble semi-synthetic hydrogels directly on electronically conductive surfaces are explored. Hydrogels consisting of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and heparin building blocks are polymerized by spatially controlling the click reaction between their thiol and maleimide moieties. The gels are grown as conformal coatings or 2D patterns on ITO, gold, and PtIr. This study demonstrates that such coatings significantly influence the electrochemical properties of the metal-electrolyte interface, likely due to space charge effects in the gels. Further a promising route toward engineering and electrically addressable extracellular matrices by printing arrays of gels with binary cell adhesiveness on flexible conductive surfaces is highlighted.
AUTHOR Da Silva, Aruã Clayton and Wang, Junzhi and Minev, Ivan Rusev
Title Electro-assisted printing of soft hydrogels via controlled electrochemical reactions [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Nature Communications
Reftype Da Silva2022
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