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AUTHOR Liu, Chuan and Campbell, Scott B. and Li, Jianzhao and Bannerman, Dawn and Pascual-Gil, Simon and Kieda, Jennifer and Wu, Qinghua and Herman, Peter R. and Radisic, Milica
Title High Throughput Omnidirectional Printing of Tubular Microstructures from Elastomeric Polymers [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract
Abstract Bioelastomers have been extensively used in biomedical applications due to their desirable mechanical strength, tunable properties, and chemical versatility; however, 3D printing bioelastomers into microscale structures has proven elusive. Herein, a high throughput omnidirectional printing approach via coaxial extrusion is described that fabricated perfusable elastomeric microtubes of unprecedently small inner diameter (350-550 μm) and wall thickness (40-60 μm). The versatility of this approach was shown through the printing of two different polymeric elastomers, followed by photocrosslinking and removal of the fugitive inner phase. Designed experiments were used to tune the dimensions and stiffness of the microtubes to match that of native ex vivo rat vasculature. This approach afforded the fabrication of multiple biomimetic shapes resembling cochlea and kidney glomerulus and afforded facile, high-throughput generation of perfusable structures that can be seeded with endothelial cells for biomedical applications. Post-printing laser micromachining was performed to generate numerous micro-sized holes (5-20 μm) in the tube wall to tune microstructure permeability. Importantly, for organ-on-a-chip applications, the described approach took only 3.6 minutes to print microtubes (without microholes) over an entire 96-well plate device, in contrast to comparable hole-free structures that take between 1.5 to 6.5 days to fabricate using a manual 3D stamping approach. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
AUTHOR Bagnol, Romain and Sprecher, Christoph and Peroglio, Marianna and Chevalier, Jerome and Mahou, Redouan and Büchler, Philippe and Richards, Geoff and Eglin, David
Title Coaxial micro-extrusion of a calcium phosphate ink with aqueous solvents improves printing stability, structure fidelity and mechanical properties [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Abstract
Micro-extrusion-based 3D printing of complex geometrical and porous calcium phosphate (CaP) can improve treatment of bone defects through the production of personalized bone substitutes. However, achieving printing and post-printing shape stabilities for the efficient fabrication and application of rapid hardening protocol are still challenging. In this work, the coaxial printing of a self-setting CaP cement with water and ethanol mixtures aiming to increase the ink yield stress upon extrusion and the stability of fabricated structures was explored. Printing height of overhang structure was doubled when aqueous solvents were used and a 2 log increase of the stiffness was achieved post-printing. A standard and fast steam sterilization protocol applied as hardening step on the coaxial printed CaP cement (CPC) ink resulted in constructs with 4 to 5 times higher compressive moduli in comparison to extrusion process in the absence of solvent. This improved mechanical performance is likely due to rapid CPC setting, preventing cracks formation during hardening process. Thus, coaxial micro-extrusion-based 3D printing of a CPC ink with aqueous solvent enhances printability and allows the use of the widespread steam sterilization cycle as a standalone post-processing technique for production of 3D printed personalized CaP bone substitutes. Statement of Significance Coaxial micro-extrusion-based 3D printing of a self-setting CaP cement with water:ethanol mixtures increased the ink yield stress upon extrusion and the stability of fabricated structures. Printing height of overhang structure was doubled when aqueous solvents were used, and a 2 orders of magnitude log increase of the stiffness was achieved post-printing. A fast hardening step consisting of a standard steam sterilization was applied. Four to 5 times higher compressive moduli was obtained for hardened coaxially printed constructs. This improved mechanical performance is likely due to rapid CPC setting in the coaxial printing, preventing cracks formation during hardening process.