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AUTHOR Critchley, Susan and Sheehy, Eamon J. and Cunniffe, Gráinne and Diaz-Payno, Pedro and Carroll, Simon F. and Jeon, Oju and Alsberg, Eben and Brama, Pieter A. J. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D printing of fibre-reinforced cartilaginous templates for the regeneration of osteochondral defects [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Abstract
Successful osteochondral defect repair requires regenerating the subchondral bone whilst simultaneously promoting the development of an overlying layer of articular cartilage that is resistant to vascularization and endochondral ossification. During skeletal development articular cartilage also functions as a surface growth plate, which postnatally is replaced by a more spatially complex bone-cartilage interface. Motivated by this developmental process, the hypothesis of this study is that bi-phasic, fibre-reinforced cartilaginous templates can regenerate both the articular cartilage and subchondral bone within osteochondral defects created in caprine joints. To engineer mechanically competent implants, we first compared a range of 3D printed fibre networks (PCL, PLA and PLGA) for their capacity to mechanically reinforce alginate hydrogels whilst simultaneously supporting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis in vitro. These mechanically reinforced, MSC-laden alginate hydrogels were then used to engineer the endochondral bone forming phase of bi-phasic osteochondral constructs, with the overlying chondral phase consisting of cartilage tissue engineered using a co-culture of infrapatellar fat pad derived stem/stromal cells (FPSCs) and chondrocytes. Following chondrogenic priming and subcutaneous implantation in nude mice, these bi-phasic cartilaginous constructs were found to support the development of vascularised endochondral bone overlaid by phenotypically stable cartilage. These fibre-reinforced, bi-phasic cartilaginous templates were then evaluated in clinically relevant, large animal (caprine) model of osteochondral defect repair. Although the quality of repair was variable from animal-to-animal, in general more hyaline-like cartilage repair was observed after 6 months in animals treated with bi-phasic constructs compared to animals treated with commercial control scaffolds. This variability in the quality of repair points to the need for further improvements in the design of 3D bioprinted implants for joint regeneration. Statement of Significance Successful osteochondral defect repair requires regenerating the subchondral bone whilst simultaneously promoting the development of an overlying layer of articular cartilage. In this study, we hypothesised that bi-phasic, fibre-reinforced cartilaginous templates could be leveraged to regenerate both the articular cartilage and subchondral bone within osteochondral defects. To this end we used 3D printed fibre networks to mechanically reinforce engineered transient cartilage, which also contained an overlying layer of phenotypically stable cartilage engineered using a co-culture of chondrocytes and stem cells. When chondrogenically primed and implanted into caprine osteochondral defects, these fibre-reinforced bi-phasic cartilaginous grafts were shown to spatially direct tissue development during joint repair. Such developmentally inspired tissue engineering strategies, enabled by advances in biofabrication and 3D printing, could form the basis of new classes of regenerative implants in orthopaedic medicine.
AUTHOR Kang, Yuan and Wang, Chaoli and Qiao, Youbei and Gu, Junwei and Zhang, Han and Peijs, Ton and Kong, Jie and Zhang, Guangcheng and Shi, Xuetao
Title Tissue-Engineered Trachea Consisting of Electrospun Patterned sc-PLA/GO-g-IL Fibrous Membranes with Antibacterial Property and 3D-Printed Skeletons with Elasticity [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Biomacromolecules
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Abstract
In this study, a tissue-engineered trachea, consisting of multilevel structural electrospun polylactide (PLA) membranes enveloping 3D-printed thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) skeletons, was developed to create a mechanically robust, antibacterial and bioresorbable graft for the tracheal reconstruction. The study design incorporated two distinct uses of stereocomplex PLA: patterned electrospun fibers to enhance tissue integration compared to the random layered fibers, meanwhile possessing good antibacterial property; and 3D-printed TPU scaffold with elasticity to provide external support and protection. Herein, ionic liquid (IL)-functioned graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and presented enhanced mechanical and hydrophilicity properties. More interesting, antibacterial activity of the GO-g-IL modified PLA membranes were proved by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, showing superior antibacterial effect compared to single GO or IL. The synergistic antibacterial effect could be related to that GO break cytomembrane of bacteria by its extremely sharp edges, while IL works by electrostatic interaction between its cationic structures and electronegative phosphate groups of bacteria membranes, leading to the loss of cell electrolyte and cell death. Hence, after L929 fibroblast cells were seeded on patterned fibrous membranes with phenotypic shape, further effective cell infiltration, cell proliferation and attachment were observed. In addition, the tissue-engineered trachea scaffolds were implanted into rabbit models. The in vivo result confirmed that the scaffolds with patterned membranes manifested favorable biocompatibility and promoted tissue regeneration. In this study, a tissue-engineered trachea, consisting of multilevel structural electrospun polylactide (PLA) membranes enveloping 3D-printed thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) skeletons, was developed to create a mechanically robust, antibacterial and bioresorbable graft for the tracheal reconstruction. The study design incorporated two distinct uses of stereocomplex PLA: patterned electrospun fibers to enhance tissue integration compared to the random layered fibers, meanwhile possessing good antibacterial property; and 3D-printed TPU scaffold with elasticity to provide external support and protection. Herein, ionic liquid (IL)-functioned graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and presented enhanced mechanical and hydrophilicity properties. More interesting, antibacterial activity of the GO-g-IL modified PLA membranes were proved by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, showing superior antibacterial effect compared to single GO or IL. The synergistic antibacterial effect could be related to that GO break cytomembrane of bacteria by its extremely sharp edges, while IL works by electrostatic interaction between its cationic structures and electronegative phosphate groups of bacteria membranes, leading to the loss of cell electrolyte and cell death. Hence, after L929 fibroblast cells were seeded on patterned fibrous membranes with phenotypic shape, further effective cell infiltration, cell proliferation and attachment were observed. In addition, the tissue-engineered trachea scaffolds were implanted into rabbit models. The in vivo result confirmed that the scaffolds with patterned membranes manifested favorable biocompatibility and promoted tissue regeneration.
AUTHOR Prasopthum, Aruna and Shakesheff, Kevin M. and Yang, Jing
Title Direct three-dimensional printing of polymeric scaffolds with nanofibrous topography [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a powerful manufacturing tool for making 3D structures with well-defined architectures for a wide range of applications. The field of tissue engineering has also adopted this technology to fabricate scaffolds for tissue regeneration. The ability to control architecture of scaffolds, e.g. matching anatomical shapes and having defined pore size, has since been improved significantly. However, the material surface of these scaffolds is smooth and does not resemble that found in natural extracellular matrix (ECM), in particular, the nanofibrous morphology of collagen. This natural nanoscale morphology plays a critical role in cell behaviour. Here, we have developed a new approach to directly fabricate polymeric scaffolds with an ECM-like nanofibrous topography and defined architectures using extrusion-based 3D printing. 3D printed tall scaffolds with interconnected pores were created with disparate features spanning from nanometres to centimetres. Our approach removes the need for a sacrificial mould and subsequent mould removal compared to previous methods. Moreover, the nanofibrous topography of the 3D printed scaffolds significantly enhanced protein absorption, cell adhesion and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells when compared to those with smooth material surfaces. These 3D printed scaffolds with both defined architectures and nanoscale ECM-mimicking morphologies have potential applications in cartilage and bone regeneration.