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AUTHOR Rachel Cadle and Dan Rogozea and Leni Moldovan and Patricia Parsons-Wingerter and Nicanor I. Moldovan
Title An image analysis-based workflow for 3D bioprinting of anatomically realistic retinal vascular patterns [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
There is an enduring need for vascularization of bioprinted constructs with vascular networks optimized for distribution of nutrient-containing fluids, both for in vitro applications and in vivo implantation. However, most of the efforts in this field were directed so far towards generation of simple linear channels, often lined with endothelial cells only, and thus lacking the anatomical details of real vascular networks. To start addressing this need, here we explored the possibility of using actual vascular patterns derived from human ocular fundus for instructing the 3D printing activity. In order to assign to these patterns the organ-specific topology, and eventually vessel branch-defined cellular composition, we describe the use of the branching analysis program VESGEN 2D for planning a workflow that links the primary vascular images with their 3D printing with bioinks. To this end, we show how to process flat vascular images and, for an even more realistic representation, how to retro-engineer concave retinal patterns from flat images and to print them in a supporting hydrogel. This work opens the possibility of bioprinting more anatomically realistic vascular networks, and thus to eventually improve the vascularization of living tissue-engineered constructs.
AUTHOR Lagatuz, M. and Vyas, R. J. and Predovic, M. and Lim, S. and Jacobs, N. and Martinho, M. and Valizadegan, H. and Kao, D. and Oza, N. and Theriot, C. A. and Zanello, S. B. and Taibbi, G. and Vizzeri, G. and Dupont, M. and Grant, M. B. and Lindner, D. J. and Reinecker, H.-C. and Pinhas, A. and Chui, T. Y. and Rosen, R. B. and Moldovan, N. and Vickerman, M. B. and Radhakrishnan, K. and Parsons-Wingerter, P.
Title Vascular Patterning as Integrative Readout of Complex Molecular and Physiological Signaling by VESsel GENeration Analysis [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings J Vasc Res
The molecular signaling cascades that regulate angiogenesis and microvascular remodeling are fundamental to normal development, healthy physiology, and pathologies such as inflammation and cancer. Yet quantifying such complex, fractally branching vascular patterns remains difficult. We review application of NASA’s globally available, freely downloadable VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis software to numerous examples of 2D vascular trees, networks, and tree-network composites. Upon input of a binary vascular image, automated output includes informative vascular maps and quantification of parameters such as tortuosity, fractal dimension, vessel diameter, area, length, number, and branch point. Previous research has demonstrated that cytokines and therapeutics such as vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor (fibroblast growth factor-2), transforming growth factor-beta-1, and steroid triamcinolone acetonide specify unique “fingerprint” or “biomarker” vascular patterns that integrate dominant signaling with physiological response. In vivo experimental examples described here include vascular response to keratinocyte growth factor, a novel vessel tortuosity factor; angiogenic inhibition in humanized tumor xenografts by the anti-angiogenesis drug leronlimab; intestinal vascular inflammation with probiotic protection by Saccharomyces boulardii, and a workflow programming of vascular architecture for 3D bioprinting of regenerative tissues from 2D images. Microvascular remodeling in the human retina is described for astronaut risks in microgravity, vessel tortuosity in diabetic retinopathy, and venous occlusive disease.