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AUTHOR Dubey, Nileshkumar and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Daghrery, Arwa and Aytac, Zeynep and Malda, Jos and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Highly Tunable Bioactive Fiber-Reinforced Hydrogel for Guided Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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One of the most damaging pathologies that affects the health of both soft and hard tissues around the tooth is periodontitis. Clinically, periodontal tissue destruction has been managed by an integrated approach involving elimination of injured tissues followed by regenerative strategies with bone substitutes and/or barrier membranes. Regrettably, a barrier membrane with predictable mechanical integrity and multifunctional therapeutic features has yet to be established. Herein, we report a fiber-reinforced hydrogel with unprecedented tunability in terms of mechanical competence and therapeutic features by integration of highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) fibrous mesh(es) with well-controlled 3D architecture into bioactive amorphous magnesium phosphate-laden gelatin methacryloyl hydrogels. The presence of amorphous magnesium phosphate and PCL mesh in the hydrogel can control the mechanical properties and improve the osteogenic ability, opening a tremendous opportunity in guided bone regeneration (GBR). Results demonstrate that the presence of PCL meshes fabricated via melt electrowriting can delay hydrogel degradation preventing soft tissue invasion and providing the mechanical barrier to allow time for slower migrating progenitor cells to participate in bone regeneration due to their ability to differentiate into bone-forming cells. Altogether, our approach offers a platform technology for the development of the next-generation of GBR membranes with tunable mechanical and therapeutic properties to amplify bone regeneration in compromised sites.
AUTHOR Peiffer, Quentin C. and de Ruijter, Mylène and van Duijn, Joost and Crottet, Denis and Dominic, Ernst and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel
Title Melt electrowriting onto anatomically relevant biodegradable substrates: Resurfacing a diarthrodial joint [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials & Design
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Three-dimensional printed hydrogel constructs with well-organized melt electrowritten (MEW) fibre-reinforcing scaffolds have been demonstrated as a promising regenerative approach to treat small cartilage defects. Here, we investige how to translate the fabrication of small fibre-reinforced structures on flat surfaces to anatomically relevant structures. In particular, the accurate deposition of MEW-fibres onto curved surfaces of conductive and non-conductive regenerative biomaterials is studied. This study reveals that clinically relevant materials with low conductivities are compatible with resurfacing with organized MEW fibres. Importantly, accurate patterning on non-flat surfaces was successfully shown, provided that a constant electrical field strength and an electrical force normal to the substrate material is maintained. Furthermore, the application of resurfacing the geometry of the medial human femoral condyle is confirmed by the fabrication of a personalised osteochondral implant. The implant composed of an articular cartilage-resident chondroprogenitor cells (ACPCs)-laden hydrogel reinforced with a well-organized MEW scaffold retained its personalised shape, improved its compressive properties and supported neocartilage formation after 28 days in vitro culture. Overall, this study establishes the groundwork for translating MEW from planar and non-resorbable material substrates to anatomically relevant geometries and regenerative materials that the regenerative medicine field aims to create.
AUTHOR de Ruijter, Mylène and Ribeiro, Alexandre and Dokter, Inge and Castilho, Miguel and Malda, Jos
Title Simultaneous Micropatterning of Fibrous Meshes and Bioinks for the Fabrication of Living Tissue Constructs [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract Fabrication of biomimetic tissues holds much promise for the regeneration of cells or organs that are lost or damaged due to injury or disease. To enable the generation of complex, multicellular tissues on demand, the ability to design and incorporate different materials and cell types needs to be improved. Two techniques are combined: extrusion-based bioprinting, which enables printing of cell-encapsulated hydrogels; and melt electrowriting (MEW), which enables fabrication of aligned (sub)-micrometer fibers into a single-step biofabrication process. Composite structures generated by infusion of MEW fiber structures with hydrogels have resulted in mechanically and biologically competent constructs; however, their preparation involves a two-step fabrication procedure that limits freedom of design of microfiber architectures and the use of multiple materials and cell types. How convergence of MEW and extrusion-based bioprinting allows fabrication of mechanically stable constructs with the spatial distributions of different cell types without compromising cell viability and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells is demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this converged printing approach improves freedom of design of the MEW fibers, enabling 3D fiber deposition. This is an important step toward biofabrication of voluminous and complex hierarchical structures that can better resemble the characteristics of functional biological tissues.
AUTHOR Otto, I. A. and Capendale, P. E. and Garcia, J. P. and de Ruijter, M. and van Doremalen, R. F. M. and Castilho, M. and Lawson, T. and Grinstaff, M. W. and Breugem, C. C. and Kon, M. and Levato, R. and Malda, J.
Title Biofabrication of a shape-stable auricular structure for the reconstruction of ear deformities [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Today Bio
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Bioengineering of the human auricle remains a significant challenge, where the complex and unique shape, the generation of high-quality neocartilage, and shape preservation are key factors. Future regenerative medicine–based approaches for auricular cartilage reconstruction will benefit from a smart combination of various strategies. Our approach to fabrication of an ear-shaped construct uses hybrid bioprinting techniques, a recently identified progenitor cell population, previously validated biomaterials, and a smart scaffold design. Specifically, we generated a 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold via fused deposition modeling, photocrosslinked a human auricular cartilage progenitor cell–laden gelatin methacryloyl (gelMA) hydrogel within the scaffold, and cultured the bioengineered structure in vitro in chondrogenic media for 30 days. Our results show that the fabrication process maintains the viability and chondrogenic phenotype of the cells, that the compressive properties of the combined PCL and gelMA hybrid auricular constructs are similar to native auricular cartilage, and that biofabricated hybrid auricular structures exhibit excellent shape fidelity compared with the 3D digital model along with deposition of cartilage-like matrix in both peripheral and central areas of the auricular structure. Our strategy affords an anatomically enhanced auricular structure with appropriate mechanical properties, ensures adequate preservation of the auricular shape during a dynamic in vitro culture period, and enables chondrogenically potent progenitor cells to produce abundant cartilage-like matrix throughout the auricular construct. The combination of smart scaffold design with 3D bioprinting and cartilage progenitor cells holds promise for the development of clinically translatable regenerative medicine strategies for auricular reconstruction.
AUTHOR Mancini, I. A. D. and Schmidt, S. and Brommer, H. and Pouran, B. and Schäfer, S. and Tessmar, J. and Mensinga, A. and van Rijen, M. H. P. and Groll, J. and Blunk, T. and Levato, R. and Malda, J. and van Weeren, P. R.
Title A composite hydrogel-3D printed thermoplast osteochondral anchor as example for a zonal approach to cartilage repair: in vivo performance in a long-term equine model [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Recent research has been focusing on the generation of living personalized osteochondral constructs for joint repair. Native articular cartilage has a zonal structure, which is not reflected in current constructs and which may be a cause of the frequent failure of these repair attempts. Therefore, we investigated the performance of a composite implant that further reflects the zonal distribution of cellular component both in vitro and in vivo in a long-term equine model. Constructs constituted of a 3D-printed poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) bone anchor from which reinforcing fibers protruded into the chondral part of the construct over which two layers of a thiol-ene cross-linkable hyaluronic acid/poly(glycidol) hybrid hydrogel (HA-SH/P(AGE-co-G)) were fabricated. The top layer contained Articular Cartilage Progenitor Cells (ACPCs) derived from the superficial layer of native cartilage tissue, the bottom layer contained mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The chondral part of control constructs were homogeneously filled with MSCs. After six months in vivo, microtomography revealed significant bone growth into the anchor. Histologically, there was only limited production of cartilage-like tissue (despite persistency of hydrogel) both in zonal and non-zonal constructs. There were no differences in histological scoring; however, the repair tissue was significantly stiffer in defects repaired with zonal constructs. The sub-optimal quality of the repair tissue may be related to several factors, including early loss of implanted cells, or inappropriate degradation rate of the hydrogel. Nonetheless, this approach may be promising and research into further tailoring of biomaterials and of construct characteristics seems warranted.
AUTHOR Diloksumpan, Paweena and de Ruijter, Myl{`{e}}ne and Castilho, Miguel and Gbureck, Uwe and Vermonden, Tina and van Weeren, P. Ren{'{e}} and Malda, Jos and Levato, Riccardo
Title Combining multi-scale 3D printing technologies to engineer reinforced hydrogel-ceramic interfaces [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Multi-material 3D printing technologies that resolve features at different lengths down to the microscale open new avenues for regenerative medicine, particularly in the engineering of tissue interfaces. Herein, extrusion printing of a bone-biomimetic ceramic ink and melt electrowriting (MEW) of spatially organized polymeric microfibres are integrated for the biofabrication of an osteochondral plug, with a mechanically reinforced bone-to-cartilage interface. A printable physiological temperature-setting bioceramic, based on α-tricalcium phosphate, nanohydroxyapatite and a custom-synthesized biodegradable and crosslinkable poloxamer, was developed as bone support. The mild setting reaction of the bone ink enabled us to print directly within melt electrowritten polycaprolactone meshes, preserving their micro-architecture. Ceramic-integrated MEW meshes protruded into the cartilage region of the composite plug, and were embedded with mechanically soft gelatin-based hydrogels, laden with articular cartilage chondroprogenitor cells. Such interlocking design enhanced the hydrogel-to-ceramic adhesion strength >6.5-fold, compared with non-interlocking fibre architectures, enabling structural stability during handling and surgical implantation in osteochondral defects ex vivo. Furthermore, the MEW meshes endowed the chondral compartment with compressive properties approaching those of native cartilage (20-fold reinforcement versus pristine hydrogel). The osteal and chondral compartment supported osteogenesis and cartilage matrix deposition in vitro, and the neo-synthesized cartilage matrix further contributed to the mechanical reinforcement at the ceramic-hydrogel interface. This multi-material, multi-scale 3D printing approach provides a promising strategy for engineering advanced composite constructs for the regeneration of musculoskeletal and connective tissue interfaces.
AUTHOR Dubey, Nileshkumar and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Malda, Jos and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Extracellular Matrix/Amorphous Magnesium Phosphate Bioink for 3D Bioprinting of Craniomaxillofacial Bone Tissue [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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Bioprinting, a promising field in regenerative medicine, holds great potential to create three-dimensional, defect-specific vascularized bones with tremendous opportunities to address unmet craniomaxillofacial reconstructive challenges. A cytocompatible bioink is a critical prerequisite to successfully regenerate functional bone tissue. Synthetic self-assembling peptides have a nanofibrous structure resembling the native extracellular matrix (ECM), making them an excellent bioink component. Amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) have shown greater levels of resorption while maintaining high biocompatibility, osteoinductivity, and low inflammatory response, as compared to their calcium phosphate counterparts. Here, we have established a novel bioink formulation (ECM/AMP) that combines an ECM-based hydrogel containing 2% octapeptide FEFEFKFK and 98% water with AMP particles to realize high cell function with desirable bioprintability. We analyzed the osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) encapsulated in the bioink, as well as in vivo bone regeneration, to define the potential of the formulated bioink as a growth factor-free bone-forming strategy. Cell-laden AMP-modified bioprinted constructs showed an improved cell morphology but similar cell viability (∼90%) compared to their AMP-free counterpart. In functional assays, the cell-laden bioprinted constructs modified with AMP exhibited a high level of mineralization and osteogenic gene expression without the use of growth factors, thus suggesting that the presence of AMP-triggered DPSCs’ osteogenic differentiation. Cell-free ECM-based bioprinted constructs were implanted in vivo. In comparison with the ECM group, bone volume per total volume for ECM/1.0AMP was approximately 1.7- and 1.4-fold higher at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Further, a significant increase in the bone density was observed in ECM/1.0AMP from 4 to 8 weeks. These results demonstrate that the presence of AMP in the bioink significantly increased bone formation, thus showing promise for in situ bioprinting strategies. We foresee significant potential in translating this innovative bioink toward the regeneration of patient-specific bone tissue for regenerative dentistry. Bioprinting, a promising field in regenerative medicine, holds great potential to create three-dimensional, defect-specific vascularized bones with tremendous opportunities to address unmet craniomaxillofacial reconstructive challenges. A cytocompatible bioink is a critical prerequisite to successfully regenerate functional bone tissue. Synthetic self-assembling peptides have a nanofibrous structure resembling the native extracellular matrix (ECM), making them an excellent bioink component. Amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) have shown greater levels of resorption while maintaining high biocompatibility, osteoinductivity, and low inflammatory response, as compared to their calcium phosphate counterparts. Here, we have established a novel bioink formulation (ECM/AMP) that combines an ECM-based hydrogel containing 2% octapeptide FEFEFKFK and 98% water with AMP particles to realize high cell function with desirable bioprintability. We analyzed the osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) encapsulated in the bioink, as well as in vivo bone regeneration, to define the potential of the formulated bioink as a growth factor-free bone-forming strategy. Cell-laden AMP-modified bioprinted constructs showed an improved cell morphology but similar cell viability (∼90%) compared to their AMP-free counterpart. In functional assays, the cell-laden bioprinted constructs modified with AMP exhibited a high level of mineralization and osteogenic gene expression without the use of growth factors, thus suggesting that the presence of AMP-triggered DPSCs’ osteogenic differentiation. Cell-free ECM-based bioprinted constructs were implanted in vivo. In comparison with the ECM group, bone volume per total volume for ECM/1.0AMP was approximately 1.7- and 1.4-fold higher at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Further, a significant increase in the bone density was observed in ECM/1.0AMP from 4 to 8 weeks. These results demonstrate that the presence of AMP in the bioink significantly increased bone formation, thus showing promise for in situ bioprinting strategies. We foresee significant potential in translating this innovative bioink toward the regeneration of patient-specific bone tissue for regenerative dentistry.
AUTHOR Lim, Khoon S. and Abinzano, Florencia and Bernal, Paulina Nuñez and Albillos Sanchez, Ane and Atienza-Roca, Pau and Otto, Iris A. and Peiffer, Quentin C. and Matsusaki, Michiya and Woodfield, Tim B. F. and Malda, Jos and Levato, Riccardo
Title One-Step Photoactivation of a Dual-Functionalized Bioink as Cell Carrier and Cartilage-Binding Glue for Chondral Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract Cartilage defects can result in pain, disability, and osteoarthritis. Hydrogels providing a chondroregeneration-permissive environment are often mechanically weak and display poor lateral integration into the surrounding cartilage. This study develops a visible-light responsive gelatin ink with enhanced interactions with the native tissue, and potential for intraoperative bioprinting. A dual-functionalized tyramine and methacryloyl gelatin (GelMA-Tyr) is synthesized. Photo-crosslinking of both groups is triggered in a single photoexposure by cell-compatible visible light in presence of tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) and sodium persulfate as initiators. Neo-cartilage formation from embedded chondroprogenitor cells is demonstrated in vitro, and the hydrogel is successfully applied as bioink for extrusion-printing. Visible light in situ crosslinking in cartilage defects results in no damage to the surrounding tissue, in contrast to the native chondrocyte death caused by UV light (365–400 nm range), commonly used in biofabrication. Tyramine-binding to proteins in native cartilage leads to a 15-fold increment in the adhesive strength of the bioglue compared to pristine GelMA. Enhanced adhesion is observed also when the ink is extruded as printable filaments into the defect. Visible-light reactive GelMA-Tyr bioinks can act as orthobiologic carriers for in situ cartilage repair, providing a permissive environment for chondrogenesis, and establishing safe lateral integration into chondral defects.
AUTHOR Diloksumpan, Paweena and Bolaños, Rafael Vindas and Cokelaere, Stefan and Pouran, Behdad and de Grauw, Janny and van Rijen, Mattie and van Weeren, René and Levato, Riccardo and Malda, Jos
Title Orthotopic Bone Regeneration within 3D Printed Bioceramic Scaffolds with Region-Dependent Porosity Gradients in an Equine Model [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract The clinical translation of three-dimensionally printed bioceramic scaffolds with tailored architectures holds great promise toward the regeneration of bone to heal critical-size defects. Herein, the long-term in vivo performance of printed hydrogel-ceramic composites made of methacrylated-oligocaprolactone-poloxamer and low-temperature self-setting calcium-phosphates is assessed in a large animal model. Scaffolds printed with different internal architectures, displaying either a designed porosity gradient or a constant pore distribution, are implanted in equine tuber coxae critical size defects. Bone ingrowth is challenged and facilitated only from one direction via encasing the bioceramic in a polycaprolactone shell. After 7 months, total new bone volume and scaffold degradation are significantly greater in structures with constant porosity. Interestingly, gradient scaffolds show lower extent of remodeling and regeneration even in areas having the same porosity as the constant scaffolds. Low regeneration in distal regions from the interface with native bone impairs ossification in proximal regions of the construct, suggesting that anisotropic architectures modulate the cross-talk between distant cells within critical-size defects. The study provides key information on how engineered architectural patterns impact osteoregeneration in vivo, and also indicates the equine tuber coxae as promising orthotopic model for studying materials stimulating bone formation.
AUTHOR Schwab, Andrea and Levato, Riccardo and D’Este, Matteo and Piluso, Susanna and Eglin, David and Malda, Jos
Title Printability and Shape Fidelity of Bioinks in 3D Bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Chemical Reviews
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Three-dimensional bioprinting uses additive manufacturing techniques for the automated fabrication of hierarchically organized living constructs. The building blocks are often hydrogel-based bioinks, which need to be printed into structures with high shape fidelity to the intended computer-aided design. For optimal cell performance, relatively soft and printable inks are preferred, although these undergo significant deformation during the printing process, which may impair shape fidelity. While the concept of good or poor printability seems rather intuitive, its quantitative definition lacks consensus and depends on multiple rheological and chemical parameters of the ink. This review discusses qualitative and quantitative methodologies to evaluate printability of bioinks for extrusion- and lithography-based bioprinting. The physicochemical parameters influencing shape fidelity are discussed, together with their importance in establishing new models, predictive tools and printing methods that are deemed instrumental for the design of next-generation bioinks, and for reproducible comparison of their structural performance. Three-dimensional bioprinting uses additive manufacturing techniques for the automated fabrication of hierarchically organized living constructs. The building blocks are often hydrogel-based bioinks, which need to be printed into structures with high shape fidelity to the intended computer-aided design. For optimal cell performance, relatively soft and printable inks are preferred, although these undergo significant deformation during the printing process, which may impair shape fidelity. While the concept of good or poor printability seems rather intuitive, its quantitative definition lacks consensus and depends on multiple rheological and chemical parameters of the ink. This review discusses qualitative and quantitative methodologies to evaluate printability of bioinks for extrusion- and lithography-based bioprinting. The physicochemical parameters influencing shape fidelity are discussed, together with their importance in establishing new models, predictive tools and printing methods that are deemed instrumental for the design of next-generation bioinks, and for reproducible comparison of their structural performance.
AUTHOR Nasim Golafshan and Elke Vorndran and Stefan Zaharievski and Harold Brommer and Firoz Babu Kadumudi and Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz and Uwe Gbureck and René {van Weeren} and Miguel Castilho and Jos Malda
Title Tough magnesium phosphate-based 3D-printed implants induce bone regeneration in an equine defect model [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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One of the important challenges in bone tissue engineering is the development of biodegradable bone substitutes with appropriate mechanical and biological properties for the treatment of larger defects and those with complex shapes. Recently, magnesium phosphate (MgP) doped with biologically active ions like strontium (Sr2+) have shown to significantly enhance bone formation when compared with the standard calcium phosphate-based ceramics. However, such materials can hardly be shaped into large and complex geometries and more importantly lack the adequate mechanical properties for the treatment of load-bearing bone defects. In this study, we have fabricated bone implants through extrusion assisted three-dimensional (3D) printing of MgP ceramics modified with Sr2+ ions (MgPSr) and a medical grade polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer phase. MgPSr with 30 wt% PCL (MgPSr-PCL30) allowed the printability of relevant size structures (>780 mm3) at room temperature with an interconnected macroporosity of approximately 40%. The printing resulted in implants with a compressive strength of 4.3 MPa, which were able to support up to 50 cycles of loading without plastic deformation. Notably, MgPSr-PCL30 scaffolds were able to promote in vitro bone formation in medium without the supplementation with osteo-inducing components. In addition, long-term in vivo performance of the 3D printed scaffolds was investigated in an equine tuber coxae model over 6 months. The micro-CT and histological analysis showed that implantation of MgPSr-PCL30 induced bone regeneration, while no bone formation was observed in the empty defects. Overall, the novel polymer modified MgP ceramic material and extrusion-based 3D printing process presented here greatly improved the shape ability and load bearing properties of MgP-based ceramics with simultaneously induction of new bone formation.
AUTHOR Augurio, Adriana and Cortelletti, Paolo and Tognato, Riccardo and Rios, Anne and Levato, Riccardo and Malda, Jos and Alini, Mauro and Eglin, David and Giancane, Gabriele and Speghini, Adolfo and Serra, Tiziano
Title A Multifunctional Nanocomposite Hydrogel for Endoscopic Tracking and Manipulation [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Intelligent Systems
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In this work, the fabrication of multi-responsive and hierarchically organized nanomaterial by using core-shell SrF2 upconverting nanoparticles, doped with Yb3+, Tm3+, Nd3+ incorporated into gelatin methacryloyl matrix, is reported. Upon 800 nm excitation, deep monitoring of 3D printed constructs is demonstrated. Addition of magnetic self-assembly of iron oxide nanoparticles within the hydrogel provides anisotropic structuration from the nano- to the macro-scale and magnetic responsiveness permitting remote manipulation. The present study provides a new strategy for the fabrication of a novel highly organized multi-responsive material using additive manufacturing, which could have important implications in biomedicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
AUTHOR Tognato, Riccardo and Armiento, Angela R. and Bonfrate, Valentina and Levato, Riccardo and Malda, Jos and Alini, Mauro and Eglin, David and Giancane, Gabriele and Serra, Tiziano
Title A Stimuli-Responsive Nanocomposite for 3D Anisotropic Cell-Guidance and Magnetic Soft Robotics [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Functional Materials
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Abstract Stimuli-responsive materials have the potential to enable the generation of new bioinspired devices with unique physicochemical properties and cell-instructive ability. Enhancing biocompatibility while simplifying the production methodologies, as well as enabling the creation of complex constructs, i.e., via 3D (bio)printing technologies, remains key challenge in the field. Here, a novel method is presented to biofabricate cellularized anisotropic hybrid hydrogel through a mild and biocompatible process driven by multiple external stimuli: magnetic field, temperature, and light. A low-intensity magnetic field is used to align mosaic iron oxide nanoparticles (IOPs) into filaments with tunable size within a gelatin methacryloyl matrix. Cells seeded on top or embedded within the hydrogel align to the same axes of the IOPs filaments. Furthermore, in 3D, C2C12 skeletal myoblasts differentiate toward myotubes even in the absence of differentiation media. 3D printing of the nanocomposite hydrogel is achieved and creation of complex heterogeneous structures that respond to magnetic field is demonstrated. By combining the advanced, stimuli-responsive hydrogel with the architectural control provided by bioprinting technologies, 3D constructs can also be created that, although inspired by nature, express functionalities beyond those of native tissue, which have important application in soft robotics, bioactuators, and bionic devices.
AUTHOR Mouser, Vivian H. M. and Levato, Riccardo and Mensinga, Anneloes and Dhert, Wouter J. A. and Gawlitta, Debby and Malda, Jos
Title Bio-ink development for three-dimensional bioprinting of hetero-cellular cartilage constructs [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Connective Tissue Research
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ABSTRACTBioprinting is a promising tool to fabricate organized cartilage. This study aimed to investigate the printability of gelatin-methacryloyl/gellan gum (gelMA/gellan) hydrogels with and without methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HAMA), and to explore (zone-specific) chondrogenesis of chondrocytes, articular cartilage progenitor cells (ACPCs), and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) embedded in these bio-inks.The incorporating of HAMA in gelMA/gellan bio-ink increased filament stability, as measured using a filament collapse assay, but did not influence (zone-specific) chondrogenesis of any of the cell types. Highest chondrogenic potential was observed for MSCs, followed by ACPCs, which displayed relatively high proteoglycan IV mRNA levels. Therefore, two-zone constructs were printed with gelMA/gellan/HAMA containing ACPCs in the superficial region and MSCs in the middle/deep region. Chondrogenic differentiation was confirmed, however, printing influence cellular differentiation.ACPC- and MSC-laden gelMA/gellan/HAMA hydrogels are of interest for the fabrication of cartilage constructs. Nevertheless, this study underscores the need for careful evaluation of the effects of printing on cellular differentiation.
AUTHOR Ribeiro, Alexandre and Blokzijl, Maarten Michiel and Levato, Riccardo and Visser, Claas Willem and Castilho, Miguel and Hennink, Wim E. and Vermonden, Tina and Malda, Jos
Title Assessing bioink shape fidelity to aid material development in 3D bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Abstract During extrusion-based bioprinting, the deposited bioink filaments are subjected to deformations, such as collapse of overhanging filaments, which compromises the ability to stack several layers of bioink, and fusion between adjacent filaments, which compromises the resolution and maintenance of a desired pore structure. When developing new bioinks, approaches to assess their shape fidelity after printing would be beneficial to evaluate the degree of deformation of the deposited filament and to estimate how similar the final printed construct would be to the design. However, shape fidelity has been prevalently assessed qualitatively through visual inspection after printing, hampering the direct comparison of the printability of different bioinks. In this technical note, we propose a quantitative evaluation for shape fidelity of bioinks based on testing the filament collapse on overhanging structures and the filament fusion of parallel printed strands. Both tests were applied on a hydrogel platform based on poloxamer 407 and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blends, providing a library of hydrogels with different yield stresses. The presented approach is an easy way to assess bioink shape fidelity, applicable to any filament-based bioprinting system and able to quantitatively evaluate this aspect of printability , based on the degree of deformation of the printed filament. In addition, we built a simple theoretical model that relates filament collapse with bioink yield stress. The results of both shape fidelity tests underline the role of yield stress as one of the parameters influencing the printability of a bioink. The presented quantitative evaluation will allow for reproducible comparisons between different bioink platforms.
AUTHOR Mouser, V. H. M. and Abbadessa, A. and Levato, R. and Hennink, W. E. and Vermonden, T. and Gawlitta, D. and Malda, J.
Title Development of a thermosensitive HAMA-containing bio-ink for the fabrication of composite cartilage repair constructs [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Fine-tuning of bio-ink composition and material processing parameters is crucial for the development of biomechanically relevant cartilage constructs. This study aims to design and develop cartilage constructs with tunable internal architectures and relevant mechanical properties. More specifically, the potential of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HAMA) added to thermosensitive hydrogels composed of methacrylated poly[ N -(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide mono/dilactate] (pHPMA-lac)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) triblock copolymers, to optimize cartilage-like tissue formation by embedded chondrocytes, and enhance printability was explored. Additionally, co-printing with polycaprolactone (PCL) was performed for mechanical reinforcement. Chondrocyte-laden hydrogels composed of pHPMA-lac-PEG and different concentrations of HAMA (0%–1% w/w) were cultured for 28 d in vitro and subsequently evaluated for the presence of cartilage-like matrix. Young’s moduli were determined for hydrogels with the different HAMA concentrations. Additionally, hydrogel/PCL constructs with different internal architectures were co-printed and analyzed for their mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrated a dose-dependent effect of HAMA concentration on cartilage matrix synthesis by chondrocytes. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen type II content increased with intermediate HAMA concentrations (0.25%–0.5%) compared to HAMA-free controls, while a relatively high HAMA concentration (1%) resulted in increased fibrocartilage formation. Young’s moduli of generated hydrogel constructs ranged from 14 to 31 kPa and increased with increasing HAMA concentration. The pHPMA-lac-PEG hydrogels with 0.5% HAMA were found to be optimal for cartilage-like tissue formation. Therefore, this hydrogel system was co-printed with PCL to generate porous or solid constructs with different mesh sizes. Young’s moduli of these composite constructs were in the range of native cartilage (3.5–4.6 MPa). Interestingly, the co-printing procedure influenced the mechanical properties of the final constructs. These findings are relevant for future bio-ink development, as they demonstrate the importance of selecting proper HAMA concentrations, as well as appropriate print settings and construct designs for optimal cartilage matrix deposition and final mechanical properties of constructs, respectively.
AUTHOR Stichler, Simone and Böck, Thomas and Paxton, Naomi Claire and Bertlein, Sarah and Levato, Riccardo and Schill, Verena and Smolan, Willi and Malda, Jos and Tessmar, Joerg and Blunk, Torsten and Groll, Juergen
Title Double printing of hyaluronic acid / poly(glycidol) hybrid hydrogels with poly(ε-caprolactone) for MSC chondrogenesis [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Abstract This study investigates the use of allyl-functionalized poly(glycidol)s (P(AGE-co-G)) as cytocompatible cross-linker for thiol-functionalized hyaluronic acid (HA-SH) and the optimization of this hybrid hydrogel as bioink for 3D bioprinting. Chemical cross-linking of gels with 10 wt.% overall polymer concentration was achieved by UV-induced radical thiol-ene coupling between the thiol and allyl groups. Addition of unmodified high molecular weight HA (1.36 MDa) allowed tuning of the rheology for extrusion based bioprinting. Incorporation of additional HA resulted in hydrogels with lower Young’s modulus and higher swelling ratio especially in the first 24 h, but a comparable equilibrium swelling for all gels after 24 h. Embedding of human and equine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the gels and subsequent in vitro culture showed promising chondrogenic differentiation after 21 d for cells from both origins. Moreover, cells could be printed with these gels, and embedded hMSCs showed good cell survival for at least 21 d in culture. To achieve mechanical stable and robust constructs for the envisioned application in articular cartilage, the formulations were adjusted for double printing with the thermoplastic poly--caprolactone (PCL).
AUTHOR Mancini, Irina and Vindas Bolaños, Rafael and Brommer, Harold and Castilho, Miguel and Ribeiro, Alexandro and van Loon, Johannes and Mensinga, Anneloes and Rijen, Mattie and Malda, Jos and van Weeren, Paul
Title Fixation of hydrogel constructs for cartilage repair in the equine model: a challenging issue [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods
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u> Objective To evaluate the use of commercial and autologous fibrin glue and of an alternative method based on a 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL) anchor for the fixation of hydrogel-based scaffolds in an equine model for cartilage repair. Methods In a first study, three different hydrogel-based materials were orthotopically implanted in nine horses for 1-4 weeks in 6mm diameter full thickness cartilage defects in the medial femoral trochlear ridge and fixated with commercially available fibrin glue (CFG). One defect was filled with CFG only as a control. In a second study, CFG and autologous fibrin glue (AFG) were compared in an ectopic equine model. The third study compared the efficacy of AFG and a 3D-printed PCL-based osteal anchor for fixation of PCL-reinforced hydrogels in 3 horses for 2 weeks, with a 4 week follow-up to evaluate integration of bone with the PCL anchor. Short-term scaffold integration and cell infiltration were evaluated by micro-CT and histology as outcome parameters. Results The first study showed signs of subchondral bone resorption in all defects, including the controls filled with CFG only, with significant infiltration of neutrophils. Ectopically, CFG induced clear inflammation with strong neutrophil accumulation, AFG was less reactive, showing fibroblast infiltration only. In the third study the fixation potential for PCL-reinforced hydrogels of AFG was inferior to the PCL anchor. PCL-reinforcement had disappeared from two defects and showed signs of dislodging in the remaining four. All 6 constructs fixated with the PCL anchor were still in place after 2 weeks. At 4 weeks, the PCL anchor showed good integration and signs of new bone formation. Conclusions The use of AFG should be preferred to xenogeneic products in the horse, but AFG is subject to individual variations and laborious to make. The PCL anchor provide the best fixation, however this technique involves the whole osteochondral unit, which entails a different conceptual approach to cartilage repair.
AUTHOR Levato, Riccardo and Webb, William R. and Otto, Iris A. and Mensinga, Anneloes and Zhang, Yadan and van Rijen, Mattie and van Weeren, René and Khan, Ilyas M. and Malda, Jos
Title The bio in the ink: cartilage regeneration with bioprintable hydrogels and articular cartilage-derived progenitor cells
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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AUTHOR Abbadessa, Anna and Landín, Mariana and Oude Blenke, Erik and Hennink, Wim E. and Vermonden, Tina
Title Two-component thermosensitive hydrogels: Phase separation affecting rheological behavior [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings European Polymer Journal
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Abstract Extracellular matrices are mainly composed of a mixture of different biopolymers and therefore the use of two or more building blocks for the development of tissue-mimicking hydrogels is nowadays an attractive strategy in tissue-engineering. Multi-component hydrogel systems may undergo phase separation, which in turn can lead to new, unexpected material properties. The aim of this study was to understand the role of phase separation on the mechanical properties and 3D printability of hydrogels composed of triblock copolymers of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and methacrylated poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide-mono/dilactate) (pHPMAlac) blended with methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HAMA). To this end, hydrogels composed of different concentrations of PEG/pHPMAlac and HAMA, were analyzed for phase behavior and rheological properties. Subsequently, phase separation and rheological behavior as function of the two polymer concentrations were mathematically processed to generate a predictive model. Results showed that PEG/pHPMAlac/HAMA hydrogels were characterized by hydrophilic, HAMA-richer internal domains dispersed in a more hydrophobic continuous phase, composed of PEG/pHPMAlac, and that the volume fraction of the dispersed phase increased by increasing HAMA concentration. Storage modulus, yield stress and viscosity increased with increasing HAMA concentration for low/medium HAMA contents (≤0.75% w/w), while a further increase of HAMA resulted in a decrease of the mentioned properties. On the other hand, by increasing the concentration of PEG/pHPMAlac these rheological properties were enhanced. The generated models showed a good fitting with experimental data, and were used to identify an exemplary 3D printability window for PEG/pHPMAlac/HAMA hydrogels, which was verified by rheological characterization and preparation of 3D printed scaffolds. In conclusion, a clear relationship between phase separation and rheological behavior in these two-component hydrogels can be described by complex functions of the two polymer concentrations. The predictive model generated in this study can be used as a valid tool for the identification of hydrogel compositions with desired, selected characteristics.
AUTHOR Abbadessa, Anna and Mouser, Vivian H. M. and Blokzijl, Maarten M. and Gawlitta, Debby and Dhert, Wouter J. A. and Hennink, Wim E. and Malda, Jos and Vermonden, Tina
Title A Synthetic Thermosensitive Hydrogel for Cartilage Bioprinting and Its Biofunctionalization with Polysaccharides [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings Biomacromolecules
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Hydrogels based on triblock copolymers of polyethylene glycol and partially methacrylated poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide mono/dilactate] make up an attractive class of biomaterials because of their biodegradability, cytocompatibility, and tunable thermoresponsive and mechanical properties. If these properties are fine-tuned, the hydrogels can be three-dimensionally bioprinted, to generate, for instance, constructs for cartilage repair. This study investigated whether hydrogels based on the polymer mentioned above with a 10% degree of methacrylation (M10P10) support cartilage formation by chondrocytes and whether the incorporation of methacrylated chondroitin sulfate (CSMA) or methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HAMA) can improve the mechanical properties, long-term stability, and printability. Chondrocyte-laden M10P10 hydrogels were cultured for 42 days to evaluate chondrogenesis. M10P10 hydrogels with or without polysaccharides were evaluated for their mechanical properties (before and after UV photo-cross-linking), degradation kinetics, and printability. Extensive cartilage matrix production occurred in M10P10 hydrogels, highlighting their potential for cartilage repair strategies. The incorporation of polysaccharides increased the storage modulus of polymer mixtures and decreased the degradation kinetics in cross-linked hydrogels. Addition of HAMA to M10P10 hydrogels improved printability and resulted in three-dimensional constructs with excellent cell viability. Hence, this novel combination of M10P10 with HAMA forms an interesting class of hydrogels for cartilage bioprinting.
AUTHOR Abbadessa, A. and Blokzijl, M. M. and Mouser, V. H. M. and Marica, P. and Malda, J. and Hennink, W. E. and Vermonden, T.
Title A thermo-responsive and photo-polymerizable chondroitin sulfate-based hydrogel for 3D printing applications [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings Carbohydrate Polymers
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Abstract The aim of this study was to design a hydrogel system based on methacrylated chondroitin sulfate (CSMA) and a thermo-sensitive poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide-mono/dilactate)-polyethylene glycol triblock copolymer (M15P10) as a suitable material for additive manufacturing of scaffolds. {CSMA} was synthesized by reaction of chondroitin sulfate with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) in dimethylsulfoxide at 50 °C and its degree of methacrylation was tunable up to 48.5%, by changing reaction time and {GMA} feed. Unlike polymer solutions composed of {CSMA} alone (20% w/w), mixtures based on 2% w/w of {CSMA} and 18% of {M15P10} showed strain-softening, thermo-sensitive and shear-thinning properties more pronounced than those found for polymer solutions based on {M15P10} alone. Additionally, they displayed a yield stress of 19.2 ± 7.0 Pa. The 3D printing of this hydrogel resulted in the generation of constructs with tailorable porosity and good handling properties. Finally, embedded chondrogenic cells remained viable and proliferating over a culture period of 6 days. The hydrogel described herein represents a promising biomaterial for cartilage 3D printing applications.
AUTHOR Melchels, Ferry P. W. and Blokzijl, Maarten M. and Levato, Riccardo and Peiffer, Quentin C. and de Ruijter, Myl{`{e}}ne and Hennink, Wim E. and Vermonden, Tina and Malda, Jos
Title Hydrogel-based reinforcement of 3D bioprinted constructs [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Progress within the field of biofabrication is hindered by a lack of suitable hydrogel formulations. Here, we present a novel approach based on a hybrid printing technique to create cellularized 3D printed constructs. The hybrid bioprinting strategy combines a reinforcing gel for mechanical support with a bioink to provide a cytocompatible environment. In comparison with thermoplastics such as IMG [http://ej.iop.org/images/1758-5090/8/3/035004/bfaa2f97ieqn1.gif] {$epsilon $} -polycaprolactone, the hydrogel-based reinforcing gel platform enables printing at cell-friendly temperatures, targets the bioprinting of softer tissues and allows for improved control over degradation kinetics. We prepared amphiphilic macromonomers based on poloxamer that form hydrolysable, covalently cross-linked polymer networks. Dissolved at a concentration of 28.6%w/w in water, it functions as reinforcing gel, while a 5%w/w gelatin-methacryloyl based gel is utilized as bioink. This strategy allows for the creation of complex structures, where the bioink provides a cytocompatible environment for encapsulated cells. Cell viability of equine chondrocytes encapsulated within printed constructs remained largely unaffected by the printing process. The versatility of the system is further demonstrated by the ability to tune the stiffness of printed constructs between 138 and 263 kPa, as well as to tailor the degradation kinetics of the reinforcing gel from several weeks up to more than a year.