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AUTHOR Lai, Jiahui and Wang, Chong and Liu, Jia and Chen, Shangsi and Liu, Chaoyu and Huang, Xiangxuan and Wu, Jing and Pan, Yue and Xie, Yuancai and Wang, Min
Title Low temperature hybrid 3D printing of hierarchically porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds with in situ delivery of osteogenic peptide and mesenchymal stem cells [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
Compared to other conventional scaffold fabrication techniques, three-dimensional (3D) printing is advantageous in producing bone tissue engineering scaffolds with customized shape, tailored pore size/porosity, required mechanical properties and even desirable biomolecule delivery capability. However, for scaffolds with a large volume, it is highly difficult to get seeded cells to migrate to the central region of the scaffolds, resulting in an inhomogeneous cell distribution and therefore lowering the bone forming ability. To overcome this major obstacle, in this study, cell-laden bone tissue engineering scaffolds consisting of osteogenic peptide (OP) loaded β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (OP/TCP/PLGA, designated as OTP) nanocomposite struts and rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell (rBMSC)-laden gelatin/GelMA hydrogel rods were produced through ‘dual-nozzle’ low temperature hybrid 3D printing. The cell-laden scaffolds exhibited a bi-phasic structure and had a mechanical modulus of about 19.6 MPa, which was similar to that of human cancellous bone. OP can be released from the hybrid scaffolds in a sustained manner and achieved a cumulative release level of about 78% after 24 d. rBMSCs encapsulated in the hydrogel rods exhibited a cell viability of about 87.4% right after low temperature hybrid 3D printing and could be released from the hydrogel rods to achieve cell anchorage on the surface of adjacent OTP struts. The OP released from OTP struts enhanced rBMSCs proliferation. Compared to rBMSC-laden hybrid scaffolds without OP incorporation, the rBMSC-laden hybrid scaffolds incorporated with OP significantly up-regulated osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs by showing a higher level of alkaline phosphatase expression and calcium deposition. This ‘proof-of-concept’ study has provided a facile method to form cell-laden bone tissue engineering scaffolds with not only required mechanical strength, biomimetic structure and sustained biomolecule release profile but also excellent cell delivery capability with uniform cell distribution, which can improve the bone forming ability in the body.
AUTHOR Shen, Jie and Wang, Wenhao and Zhai, Xinyun and Chen, Bo and Qiao, Wei and Li, Wan and Li, Penghui and Zhao, Ying and Meng, Yuan and Qian, Shi and Liu, Xuanyong and Chu, Paul K. and Yeung, Kelvin W. K.
Title 3D-printed nanocomposite scaffolds with tunable magnesium ionic microenvironment induce in situ bone tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Applied Materials Today
Local tissue microenvironment is able to regulate cell-to-cell interaction that leads to effective tissue repair. This study aims to demonstrate a tunable magnesium ionic (Mg2+) microenvironment in bony tissue that can significantly induce bone defect repair. The concept can be realized by using a newly fabricated nanocomposite comprising of custom-made copolymer polycaprolactone-co-poly(ethylene glycol)-co-polycaprolactone (PCL-PEG-PCL) and surface-modified magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles. In this study, additive manufacturing (AM) technology had been adopted to help design the porous three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with tunable Mg2+ microenvironment. We found that the wettability and printability of new copolymer had been improved as compared with that of PCL polymer. Additionally, when MgO nanoparticles incorporated into the newly synthesized hydrophilic copolymer matrix, it could lead to increased compressive moduli significantly. In the in vitro studies, the fabricated nanocomposite scaffold with low concentration of Mg2+ microenvironment not only demonstrated better cytocompatibility, but also remarkably enhanced osteogenic differentiation in vitro as compared with the pure PCL and PCL-PEG-PCL co-polymer controls. In the animal studies, we also found that superior and early bone formation and tissue mineralization could be observed in the same 3D printed scaffold. However, the nanocomposite scaffold with high concentration of Mg2+ jeopardized the in situ bony tissue regeneration capability due to excessive magnesium ions in bone tissue microenvironment. Lastly, this study demonstrates that the nanocomposite 3D scaffold with controlled magnesium concentration in bone tissue microenvironment can effectively promote bone defect repair.