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AUTHOR Shen, Jie and Wang, Wenhao and Zhai, Xinyun and Chen, Bo and Qiao, Wei and Li, Wan and Li, Penghui and Zhao, Ying and Meng, Yuan and Qian, Shi and Liu, Xuanyong and Chu, Paul K. and Yeung, Kelvin W. K.
Title 3D-printed nanocomposite scaffolds with tunable magnesium ionic microenvironment induce in situ bone tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Applied Materials Today
Local tissue microenvironment is able to regulate cell-to-cell interaction that leads to effective tissue repair. This study aims to demonstrate a tunable magnesium ionic (Mg2+) microenvironment in bony tissue that can significantly induce bone defect repair. The concept can be realized by using a newly fabricated nanocomposite comprising of custom-made copolymer polycaprolactone-co-poly(ethylene glycol)-co-polycaprolactone (PCL-PEG-PCL) and surface-modified magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles. In this study, additive manufacturing (AM) technology had been adopted to help design the porous three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with tunable Mg2+ microenvironment. We found that the wettability and printability of new copolymer had been improved as compared with that of PCL polymer. Additionally, when MgO nanoparticles incorporated into the newly synthesized hydrophilic copolymer matrix, it could lead to increased compressive moduli significantly. In the in vitro studies, the fabricated nanocomposite scaffold with low concentration of Mg2+ microenvironment not only demonstrated better cytocompatibility, but also remarkably enhanced osteogenic differentiation in vitro as compared with the pure PCL and PCL-PEG-PCL co-polymer controls. In the animal studies, we also found that superior and early bone formation and tissue mineralization could be observed in the same 3D printed scaffold. However, the nanocomposite scaffold with high concentration of Mg2+ jeopardized the in situ bony tissue regeneration capability due to excessive magnesium ions in bone tissue microenvironment. Lastly, this study demonstrates that the nanocomposite 3D scaffold with controlled magnesium concentration in bone tissue microenvironment can effectively promote bone defect repair.