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AUTHOR Dairaghi, Jacob and Rogozea, Dan and Cadle, Rachel and Bustamante, Joseph and Moldovan, Leni and Petrache, Horia I. and Moldovan, Nicanor I.
Title 3D Printing of Human Ossicle Models for the Biofabrication of Personalized Middle Ear Prostheses [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Applied Sciences
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
The middle ear bones (‘ossicles’) may become severely damaged due to accidents or to diseases. In these situations, the most common current treatments include replacing them with cadaver-derived ossicles, using a metal (usually titanium) prosthesis, or introducing bridges made of biocompatible ceramics. Neither of these solutions is ideal, due to the difficulty in finding or producing shape-matching replacements. However, the advent of additive manufacturing applications to biomedical problems has created the possibility of 3D-printing anatomically correct, shape- and size-personalized ossicle prostheses. To demonstrate this concept, we generated and printed several models of ossicles, as solid, porous, or soft material structures. These models were first printed with a plottable calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite paste by extrusion on a solid support or embedded in a Carbopol hydrogel bath, followed by temperature-induced hardening. We then also printed an ossicle model with this ceramic in a porous format, followed by loading and crosslinking an alginate hydrogel within the pores, which was validated by microCT imaging. Finally, ossicle models were printed using alginate as well as a cell-containing nanocellulose-based bioink, within the supporting hydrogel bath. In selected cases, the devised workflow and the printouts were tested for repeatability. In conclusion, we demonstrate that moving beyond simplistic geometric bridges to anatomically realistic constructs is possible by 3D printing with various biocompatible materials and hydrogels, thus opening the way towards the in vitro generation of personalized middle ear prostheses for implantation.
AUTHOR Dairaghi, Jacob and Rogozea, Dan and Cadle, Rachel and Bustamante, Joseph and Moldovan, Leni and Petrache, Horia I. and Moldovan, Nicanor I.
Title 3D Printing of Human Ossicle Models for the Biofabrication of Personalized Middle Ear Prostheses [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Applied Sciences
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
The middle ear bones (‘ossicles’) may become severely damaged due to accidents or to diseases. In these situations, the most common current treatments include replacing them with cadaver-derived ossicles, using a metal (usually titanium) prosthesis, or introducing bridges made of biocompatible ceramics. Neither of these solutions is ideal, due to the difficulty in finding or producing shape-matching replacements. However, the advent of additive manufacturing applications to biomedical problems has created the possibility of 3D-printing anatomically correct, shape- and size-personalized ossicle prostheses. To demonstrate this concept, we generated and printed several models of ossicles, as solid, porous, or soft material structures. These models were first printed with a plottable calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite paste by extrusion on a solid support or embedded in a Carbopol hydrogel bath, followed by temperature-induced hardening. We then also printed an ossicle model with this ceramic in a porous format, followed by loading and crosslinking an alginate hydrogel within the pores, which was validated by microCT imaging. Finally, ossicle models were printed using alginate as well as a cell-containing nanocellulose-based bioink, within the supporting hydrogel bath. In selected cases, the devised workflow and the printouts were tested for repeatability. In conclusion, we demonstrate that moving beyond simplistic geometric bridges to anatomically realistic constructs is possible by 3D printing with various biocompatible materials and hydrogels, thus opening the way towards the in vitro generation of personalized middle ear prostheses for implantation.
AUTHOR Nadernezhad, Ali and Groll, Jürgen
Title Machine Learning Reveals a General Understanding of Printability in Formulations Based on Rheology Additives [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Hydrogel ink formulations based on rheology additives are becoming increasingly popular as they enable 3-dimensional (3D) printing of non-printable but biologically relevant materials. Despite the widespread use, a generalized understanding of how these hydrogel formulations become printable is still missing, mainly due to their variety and diversity. Employing an interpretable machine learning approach allows the authors to explain the process of rendering printability through bulk rheological indices, with no bias toward the composition of formulations and the type of rheology additives. Based on an extensive library of rheological data and printability scores for 180 different formulations, 13 critical rheological measures that describe the printability of hydrogel formulations, are identified. Using advanced statistical methods, it is demonstrated that even though unique criteria to predict printability on a global scale are highly unlikely, the accretive and collaborative nature of rheological measures provides a qualitative and physically interpretable guideline for designing new printable materials.
AUTHOR Athanasiadis, Markos and Pak, Anna and Afanasenkau, Dzmitry and Minev, Ivan R.
Title Direct Writing of Elastic Fibers with Optical, Electrical, and Microfluidic Functionality [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Materials Technologies
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Direct Ink Writing is an additive fabrication technology that allows the integration of a diverse range of functional materials into soft and bioinspired devices such as robots and human-machine interfaces. Typically, a viscoelastic ink is extruded from a nozzle as a continuous filament of circular cross section. Here it is shown that a careful selection of printing parameters such as nozzle height and speed can produce filaments with a range of cross-sectional geometries. Thus, elliptic cylinder-, ribbon-, or groove-shaped filaments can be printed. By using the nozzle as a stylus for postprint filament modification, even filaments with an embedded microfluidic channel can be produced. This strategy is applied to directly write freeform and elastic optical fibers, electrical interconnects, and microfluidics. The integration of these components into simple sensor-actuator systems is demonstrated. Prototypes of an optical fiber with steerable tip and a thermal actuation system for soft tissues are presented.