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AUTHOR Da Silva, Aruã Clayton and Wang, Junzhi and Minev, Ivan Rusev
Title Electro-assisted printing of soft hydrogels via controlled electrochemical reactions [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Nature Communications
Reftype Da Silva2022
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Hydrogels underpin many applications in tissue engineering, cell encapsulation, drug delivery and bioelectronics. Methods improving control over gelation mechanisms and patterning are still needed. Here we explore a less-known gelation approach relying on sequential electrochemical-chemical-chemical (ECC) reactions. An ionic species and/or molecule in solution is oxidised over a conductive surface at a specific electric potential. The oxidation generates an intermediate species that reacts with a macromolecule, forming a hydrogel at the electrode-electrolyte interface. We introduce potentiostatic control over this process, allowing the selection of gelation reactions and control of hydrogel growth rate. In chitosan and alginate systems, we demonstrate precipitation, covalent and ionic gelation mechanisms. The method can be applied in the polymerisation of hybrid systems consisting of more than one polymer. We demonstrate concomitant deposition of the conductive polymer Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and alginate. Deposition of the hydrogels occurs in small droplets held between a conductive plate (working electrode, WE), a printing nozzle (counter electrode, CE) and a pseudoreference electrode (reference electrode, RE). We install this setup on a commercial 3D printer to demonstrate patterning of adherent hydrogels on gold and flexible ITO foils. Electro-assisted printing may contribute to the integration of well-defined hydrogels on hybrid electronic-hydrogel devices for bioelectronics applications.
AUTHOR Tondera, Christoph and Akbar, Teuku Fawzul and Thomas, Alvin Kuriakose and Lin, Weilin and Werner, Carsten and Busskamp, Volker and Zhang, Yixin and Minev, Ivan R.
Title Highly Conductive, Stretchable, and Cell-Adhesive Hydrogel by Nanoclay Doping [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Small
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Electrically conductive materials that mimic physical and biological properties of tissues are urgently required for seamless brain–machine interfaces. Here, a multinetwork hydrogel combining electrical conductivity of 26 S m−1, stretchability of 800%, and tissue-like elastic modulus of 15 kPa with mimicry of the extracellular matrix is reported. Engineering this unique set of properties is enabled by a novel in-scaffold polymerization approach. Colloidal hydrogels of the nanoclay Laponite are employed as supports for the assembly of secondary polymer networks. Laponite dramatically increases the conductivity of in-scaffold polymerized poly(ethylene-3,4-diethoxy thiophene) in the absence of other dopants, while preserving excellent stretchability. The scaffold is coated with a layer containing adhesive peptide and polysaccharide dextran sulfate supporting the attachment, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells directly on the surface of conductive hydrogels. Due to its compatibility with simple extrusion printing, this material promises to enable tissue-mimetic neurostimulating electrodes.
AUTHOR Fortunato, Gabriele Maria and Maria, Carmelo De and Eglin, David and Serra, Tiziano and Vozzi, Giovanni
Title An ink-jet printed electrical stimulation platform for muscle tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Conducting polymeric materials have been used to modulate response of cells seeded on their surfaces. However, there is still major improvement to be made related to their biocompatibility, conductivity, stability in biological milieu, and processability toward truly tissue engineered functional device. In this work, conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrene-sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), and its possible applications in tissue engineering were explored. In particular PEDOT:PSS solution was inkjet printed onto a gelatin substrate for obtaining a conductive structure. Mechanical and electrical characterizations, structural stability by swelling and degradation tests were carried out on different PEDOT-based samples obtained by varying the number of printed PEDOT layers from 5 to 50 on gelatin substrate. Biocompatibility of substrates was investigated on C2C12 myoblasts, through metabolic activity assay and imaging analysis during a 7-days culture period, to assess cell morphology, differentiation and alignment. The results of this first part allowed to proceed with the second part of the study in which these substrates were used for the design of an electrical stimulation device, with the aim of providing the external stimulus (3 V amplitude square wave at 1 and 2 Hz frequency) to guide myotubes alignment and enhance differentiation, having in this way promising applications in the field of muscle tissue engineering.