REGENHU-Switzerland-3d-bioprinting-instrument-bio-3d-bioprinter-DevelopmentTeam-0006

SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS

You are researching: Alginate
Matching entries: 51 /51
All Groups
AUTHOR Monferrer, Ezequiel and Martín-Vañó, Susana and Carretero, Aitor and García-Lizarribar, Andrea and Burgos-Panadero, Rebeca and Navarro, Samuel and Samitier, Josep and Noguera, Rosa
Title A three-dimensional bioprinted model to evaluate the effect of stiffness on neuroblastoma cell cluster dynamics and behavior [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Scientific Reports
Reftype Monferrer2020
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted culture systems allow to accurately control microenvironment components and analyze their effects at cellular and tissue levels. The main objective of this study was to identify, quantify and localize the effects of physical-chemical communication signals between tumor cells and the surrounding biomaterial stiffness over time, defining how aggressiveness increases in SK-N-BE(2) neuroblastoma (NB) cell line. Biomimetic hydrogels with SK-N-BE(2) cells, methacrylated gelatin and increasing concentrations of methacrylated alginate (AlgMA 0%, 1% and 2%) were used. Young’s modulus was used to define the stiffness of bioprinted hydrogels and NB tumors. Stained sections of paraffin-embedded hydrogels were digitally quantified. Human NB and 1% AlgMA hydrogels presented similar Young´s modulus mean, and orthotopic NB mice tumors were equally similar to 0% and 1% AlgMA hydrogels. Porosity increased over time; cell cluster density decreased over time and with stiffness, and cell cluster occupancy generally increased with time and decreased with stiffness. In addition, cell proliferation, mRNA metabolism and antiapoptotic activity advanced over time and with stiffness. Together, this rheological, optical and digital data show the potential of the 3D in vitro cell model described herein to infer how intercellular space stiffness patterns drive the clinical behavior associated with NB patients.
AUTHOR Gonzalez-Fernandez, T. and Rathan, S. and Hobbs, C. and Pitacco, P. and Freeman, F. E. and Cunniffe, G. M. and Dunne, N. J. and McCarthy, H. O. and Nicolosi, V. and O'Brien, F. J. and Kelly, D. J.
Title Pore-forming bioinks to enable Spatio-temporally defined gene delivery in bioprinted tissues [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Controlled Release
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
The regeneration of complex tissues and organs remains a major clinical challenge. With a view towards bioprinting such tissues, we developed a new class of pore-forming bioink to spatially and temporally control the presentation of therapeutic genes within bioprinted tissues. By blending sacrificial and stable hydrogels, we were able to produce bioinks whose porosity increased with time following printing. When combined with amphipathic peptide-based plasmid DNA delivery, these bioinks supported enhanced non-viral gene transfer to stem cells in vitro. By modulating the porosity of these bioinks, it was possible to direct either rapid and transient (pore-forming bioinks), or slower and more sustained (solid bioinks) transfection of host or transplanted cells in vivo. To demonstrate the utility of these bioinks for the bioprinting of spatially complex tissues, they were next used to zonally position stem cells and plasmids encoding for either osteogenic (BMP2) or chondrogenic (combination of TGF-β3, BMP2 and SOX9) genes within networks of 3D printed thermoplastic fibers to produce mechanically reinforced, gene activated constructs. In vivo, these bioprinted tissues supported the development of a vascularised, bony tissue overlaid by a layer of stable cartilage. When combined with multiple-tool biofabrication strategies, these gene activated bioinks can enable the bioprinting of a wide range of spatially complex tissues.
AUTHOR Cunniffe, Gráinne and Gonzalez-Fernandez, Tomas and Daly, Andrew and Nelson Sathy, Binulal and Jeon, Oju and Alsberg, Eben and J. Kelly, Daniel
Title Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Polycaprolactone Reinforced Gene Activated Bioinks for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part A
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Regeneration of complex bone defects remains a significant clinical challenge. Multi-tool biofabrication has permitted the combination of various biomaterials to create multifaceted composites with tailorable mechanical properties and spatially controlled biological function. In this study we sought to use bioprinting to engineer nonviral gene activated constructs reinforced by polymeric micro-filaments. A gene activated bioink was developed using RGD-g-irradiated alginate and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) complexed to plasmid DNA (pDNA). This ink was combined with bonemarrow-derived mesenchymal stemcells (MSCs) and then co-printed with a polycaprolactone supporting mesh to provide mechanical stability to the construct. Reporter genes were first used to demonstrate successful cell transfection using this system, with sustained expression of the transgene detected over 14 days postbioprinting. Delivery of a combination of therapeutic genes encoding for bone morphogenic protein and transforming growth factor promoted robust osteogenesis of encapsulated MSCs in vitro, with enhanced levels of matrix deposition and mineralization observed following the incorporation of therapeutic pDNA. Gene activated MSC-laden constructs were then implanted subcutaneously, directly postfabrication, and were found to support superior levels of vascularization andmineralization compared to cell-free controls. These results validate the use of a gene activated bioink to impart biological functionality to three-dimensional bioprinted constructs.
AUTHOR Freeman, Fiona E. and Pitacco, Pierluca and van Dommelen, Lieke H. A. and Nulty, Jessica and Browe, David C. and Shin, Jung-Youn and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D bioprinting spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors to tightly control tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Science Advances
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Therapeutic growth factor delivery typically requires supraphysiological dosages, which can cause undesirable off-target effects. The aim of this study was to 3D bioprint implants containing spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors optimized for coupled angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Using nanoparticle functionalized bioinks, it was possible to print implants with distinct growth factor patterns and release profiles spanning from days to weeks. The extent of angiogenesis in vivo depended on the spatial presentation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Higher levels of vessel invasion were observed in implants containing a spatial gradient of VEGF compared to those homogenously loaded with the same total amount of protein. Printed implants containing a gradient of VEGF, coupled with spatially defined BMP-2 localization and release kinetics, accelerated large bone defect healing with little heterotopic bone formation. This demonstrates the potential of growth factor printing, a putative point of care therapy, for tightly controlled tissue regeneration.
AUTHOR Nulty, Jessica and Freeman, Fiona E. and Browe, David C. and Burdis, Ross and Ahern, Daniel P. and Pitacco, Pierluca and Lee, Yu Bin and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D Bioprinting of prevascularised implants for the repair of critically-sized bone defects [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
For 3D bioprinted tissues to be scaled-up to clinically relevant sizes, effective prevascularisation strategies are required to provide the necessary nutrients for normal metabolism and to remove associated waste by-products. The aim of this study was to develop a bioprinting strategy to engineer prevascularised tissues in vitro and to investigate the capacity of such constructs to enhance the vascularisation and regeneration of large bone defects in vivo. From a screen of different bioinks, a fibrin-based hydrogel was found to best support human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) sprouting and the establishment of a microvessel network. When this bioink was combined with HUVECs and supporting human bone marrow stem/stromal cells (hBMSCs), these microvessel networks persisted in vitro. Furthermore, only bioprinted tissues containing both HUVECs and hBMSCs, that were first allowed to mature in vitro, supported robust blood vessel development in vivo. To assess the therapeutic utility of this bioprinting strategy, these bioinks were used to prevascularise 3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds, which were subsequently implanted into critically-sized femoral bone defects in rats. Microcomputed tomography (µCT) angiography revealed increased levels of vascularisation in vivo, which correlated with higher levels of new bone formation. Such prevascularised constructs could be used to enhance the vascularisation of a range of large tissue defects, forming the basis of multiple new bioprinted therapeutics. Statement of Significance This paper demonstrates a versatile 3D bioprinting technique to improve the vascularisation of tissue engineered constructs and further demonstrates how this method can be incorporated into a bone tissue engineering strategy to improve vascularisation in a rat femoral defect model.
AUTHOR Rößler, Sina and Brückner, Andreas and Kruppke, Iris and Wiesmann, Hans-Peter and Hanke, Thomas and Kruppke, Benjamin
Title 3D Plotting of Silica/Collagen Xerogel Granules in an Alginate Matrix for Tissue-Engineered Bone Implants [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Today, materials designed for bone regeneration are requested to be degradable and resorbable, bioactive, porous, and osteoconductive, as well as to be an active player in the bone-remodeling process. Multiphasic silica/collagen Xerogels were shown, earlier, to meet these requirements. The aim of the present study was to use these excellent material properties of silica/collagen Xerogels and to process them by additive manufacturing, in this case 3D plotting, to generate implants matching patient specific shapes of fractures or lesions. The concept is to have Xerogel granules as active major components embedded, to a large proportion, in a matrix that binds the granules in the scaffold. By using viscoelastic alginate as matrix, pastes of Xerogel granules were processed via 3D plotting. Moreover, alginate concentration was shown to be the key to a high content of irregularly shaped Xerogel granules embedded in a minimum of matrix phase. Both the alginate matrix and Xerogel granules were also shown to influence viscoelastic behavior of the paste, as well as the dimensionally stability of the scaffolds. In conclusion, 3D plotting of Xerogel granules was successfully established by using viscoelastic properties of alginate as matrix phase.
AUTHOR Jiahui Lai and Xinliang Ye and Jia Liu and Chong Wang and Junzhi Li and Xiang Wang and Mingze Ma and Min Wang
Title 4D printing of highly printable and shape morphing hydrogels composed of alginate and methylcellulose [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials & Design
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
4D printing of swellable/shrinkable hydrogels has been viewed as an appealing approach for fabricating dynamic structures for various biomedical applications. However, 4D printing of precise hydrogel structures is still highly challenging due to the relatively poor printability of hydrogels and high surface roughness of printed patterns, when micro extrusion-based 3D printers are used. In this study, a highly printable and shape morphing hydrogel was investigated for 4D printing by blending alginate (Alg) and methylcellulose (MC). The optimized Alg/MC hydrogel exhibited excellent rheological properties, extrudability and shape fidelity of printed structures. The printable Alg/MC hydrogel was 4D printed into a series of patterned 2D architectures which were encoded with anisotropic stiffness and swelling behaviors by strategically controlling the network density gradients vertical to the orientation of the patterned strips. By controlling the strip interspacing and angle, these 2D architectures could transform into various prescribed simple 3D morphologies (e.g., tube-curling and helix) and complex 3D morphologies (e.g., double helix and flowers) after immersion in a calcium chloride solution. This shape morphing Alg/MC hydrogel with excellent printability has high potential for 4D printing of delicate hydrogel patterns, which are increasingly needed in the tissue engineering, biomedical device and soft robotics fields.
AUTHOR Chelsea Twohig and Mari Helsinga and Amin Mansoorifar and Avathamsa Athirasala and Anthony Tahayeri and Cristiane Miranda França and Silvia Amaya Pajares and Reyan Abdelmoniem and Susanne Scherrer and Stéphane Durual and Jack Ferracane and Luiz E. Bertassoni
Title A dual-ink 3D printing strategy to engineer pre-vascularized bone scaffolds in-vitro [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
A functional vascular supply is a key component of any large-scale tissue, providing support for the metabolic needs of tissue-remodeling cells. Although well-studied strategies exist to fabricate biomimetic scaffolds for bone regeneration, success rates for regeneration in larger defects can be improved by engineering microvascular capillaries within the scaffolds to enhance oxygen and nutrient supply to the core of the engineered tissue as it grows. Even though the role of calcium and phosphate has been well understood to enhance osteogenesis, it remains unclear whether calcium and phosphate may have a detrimental effect on the vasculogenic and angiogenic potential of endothelial cells cultured on 3D printed bone scaffolds. In this study, we presented a novel dual-ink bioprinting method to create vasculature interwoven inside CaP bone constructs. In this method, strands of a CaP ink and a sacrificial template material was used to form scaffolds containing CaP fibers and microchannels seeded with vascular endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within a photo-crosslinkable gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel material. Our results show similar morphology of growing vessels in the presence of CaP bioink, and no significant difference in endothelial cell sprouting was found. Furthermore, our initial results showed the differentiation of hMSCs into pericytes in the presence of CaP ink. These results indicate the feasibility of creating vascularized bone scaffolds, which can be used for enhancing vascular formation in the core of bone scaffolds.
AUTHOR Bin Wang and Pedro J. Díaz-Payno and David C. Browe and Fiona E. Freeman and Jessica Nulty and Ross Burdis and Daniel J. Kelly
Title Affinity-bound growth factor within sulfated interpenetrate network bioinks for bioprinting cartilaginous tissues [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
3D bioprinting has emerged as a promising technology in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to its ability to create anatomically complex tissue substitutes. However, it still remains challenging to develop bioactive bioinks that provide appropriate and permissive environments to instruct and guide the regenerative process in vitro and in vivo. In this study alginate sulfate, a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) mimic, was used to functionalize an alginate-gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) interpenetrating network (IPN) bioink to enable the bioprinting of cartilaginous tissues. The inclusion of alginate sulfate had a limited influence on the viscosity, shear-thinning and thixotropic properties of the IPN bioink, enabling high-fidelity bioprinting and supporting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) viability post-printing. The stiffness of printed IPN constructs greatly exceeded that achieved by printing alginate or GelMA alone, while maintaining resilience and toughness. Furthermore, given the high affinity of alginate sulfate to heparin-binding growth factors, the sulfated IPN bioink supported the sustained release of transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3), providing an environment that supported robust chondrogenesis in vitro, with little evidence of hypertrophy or mineralization over extended culture periods. Such bioprinted constructs also supported chondrogenesis in vivo, with the controlled release of TGF-β3 promoting significantly higher levels of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix deposition. Altogether, these results demonstrate the potential of bioprinting sulfated bioinks as part of a ‘single-stage’ or ‘point-of-care’ strategy for regenerating cartilaginous tissues. Statement of Significance: This study highlights the potential of using sulfated interpenetrating network (IPN) bioink to support the regeneration of phenotypically stable articular cartilage. Construction of interpenetrate networks in the bioink enables unique high-fidelity bioprinting and unique synergistic mechanical properties. The presence of alginate sulfate provided the capacity of high affinity-binding of TGF-β3, which promoted robust chondrogenesis.
AUTHOR Curti, Filis and Drăgușin, Diana-Maria and Serafim, Andrada and Iovu, Horia and Stancu, Izabela-Cristina
Title Development of thick paste-like inks based on superconcentrated gelatin/alginate for 3D printing of scaffolds with shape fidelity and stability [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Shape fidelity and integrity are serious challenges in the 3D printing of hydrogel precursors, as they can influence the overall performance of 3D scaffolds. This work reports the development of superconcentrated inks based on sodium alginate and fish gelatin as an appealing strategy to satisfy such challenges and dictate the quality of the printed scaffolds, without using crosslinking strategies during 3D printing. SEM micrographs and micro-CT images indicate the homogeneous distribution of the polysaccharide in the gelatin-based matrix, suggesting its potential to act as a reinforcing additive. The high concentration of gelatin aqueous solution (50 wt%) and substantial incorporation of alginate have facilitated the highly accurate printability and influence the in vitro stability and mechanical properties of the printed scaffolds. An improvement of the stiffness is dictated by the increase of alginate concentration from 20 wt% to 25 wt%, and an increase of Young modulus with about 46% is reached, confirming the reinforcing effect of polysaccharide. This study highlights the potential of paste-type inks to provide high resolution 3D printed structures with appealing structural and dimensional stability, in vitro degradability and mechanical properties for biomedical applications.
AUTHOR Tan, Edgar Y. S. and Suntornnond, Ratima and Yeong, Wai Yee
Title High-Resolution Novel Indirect Bioprinting of Low-Viscosity Cell-Laden Hydrogels via Model-Support Bioink Interaction [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Bioprinting of unmodified soft extracellular matrix into complex 3D structures has remained challenging to fabricate. Herein, we established a novel process for the printing of low-viscosity hydrogel by using a unique support technique to retain the structural integrity of the support structure. We demonstrated that this process of printing could be used for different types of hydrogel, ranging from fast crosslinking gelatin methacrylate to slow crosslinking collagen type I. In addition, we evaluated the biocompatibility of the process by observing the effects of the cytotoxicity of L929 and the functionality of the human umbilical vein endothelium primary cells after printing. The results show that the bioprinted construct provided excellent biocompatibility as well as supported cell growth and differentiation. Thus, this is a novel technique that can be potentially used to enhance the resolution of the extrusion-based bioprinter.
AUTHOR Hamid, Omar A. and Eltaher, Hoda M. and Sottile, Virginie and Yang, Jing
Title 3D bioprinting of a stem cell-laden, multi-material tubular composite: An approach for spinal cord repair [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Development of a biomimetic tubular scaffold capable of recreating developmental neurogenesis using pluripotent stem cells offers a novel strategy for the repair of spinal cord tissues. Recent advances in 3D printing technology have facilitated biofabrication of complex biomimetic environments by precisely controlling the 3D arrangement of various acellular and cellular components (biomaterials, cells and growth factors). Here, we present a 3D printing method to fabricate a complex, patterned and embryoid body (EB)-laden tubular scaffold composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydrogel (alginate or gelatine methacrylate (GelMA)). Our results revealed 3D printing of a strong, macro-porous PCL/hydrogel tubular scaffold with a high capacity to control the porosity of the PCL scaffold, wherein the maximum porosity in the PCL wall was 15%. The method was equally employed to create spatiotemporal protein concentration within the scaffold, demonstrating its ability to generate linear and opposite gradients of model molecules (fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and rhodamine). 3D bioprinting of EBs-laden GelMA was introduced as a novel 3D printing strategy to incorporate EBs in a hydrogel matrix. Cell viability and proliferation were measured post-printing. Following the bioprinting of EBs-laden 5% GelMA hydrogel, neural differentiation of EBs was induced using 1 μM retinoic acid (RA). The differentiated EBs contained βIII-tubulin positive neurons displaying axonal extensions and cells migration. Finally, 3D bioprinting of EBs-laden PCL/GelMA tubular scaffold successfully supported EBs neural differentiation and patterning in response to co-printing with 1 μM RA. 3D printing of a complex heterogeneous tubular scaffold that can encapsulate EBs, spatially controlled protein concentration and promote neuronal patterning will help in developing more biomimetic scaffolds capable of replicating the neural patterning which occurs during neural tube development.
AUTHOR Chen, Shengyang and Jang, Tae-Sik and Pan, Houwen Matthew and Jung, Hyun-Do and Sia, Ming Wei and Xie, Shuying and Hang, Yao and Chong, Seow and Wong, Dongan
Title 3D Freeform Printing of Nanocomposite Hydrogels through in situ Precipitation in Reactive Viscous Fluid
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Bioprinting
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
AUTHOR Critchley, Susan and Sheehy, Eamon J. and Cunniffe, Gráinne and Diaz-Payno, Pedro and Carroll, Simon F. and Jeon, Oju and Alsberg, Eben and Brama, Pieter A. J. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D printing of fibre-reinforced cartilaginous templates for the regeneration of osteochondral defects [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Successful osteochondral defect repair requires regenerating the subchondral bone whilst simultaneously promoting the development of an overlying layer of articular cartilage that is resistant to vascularization and endochondral ossification. During skeletal development articular cartilage also functions as a surface growth plate, which postnatally is replaced by a more spatially complex bone-cartilage interface. Motivated by this developmental process, the hypothesis of this study is that bi-phasic, fibre-reinforced cartilaginous templates can regenerate both the articular cartilage and subchondral bone within osteochondral defects created in caprine joints. To engineer mechanically competent implants, we first compared a range of 3D printed fibre networks (PCL, PLA and PLGA) for their capacity to mechanically reinforce alginate hydrogels whilst simultaneously supporting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis in vitro. These mechanically reinforced, MSC-laden alginate hydrogels were then used to engineer the endochondral bone forming phase of bi-phasic osteochondral constructs, with the overlying chondral phase consisting of cartilage tissue engineered using a co-culture of infrapatellar fat pad derived stem/stromal cells (FPSCs) and chondrocytes. Following chondrogenic priming and subcutaneous implantation in nude mice, these bi-phasic cartilaginous constructs were found to support the development of vascularised endochondral bone overlaid by phenotypically stable cartilage. These fibre-reinforced, bi-phasic cartilaginous templates were then evaluated in clinically relevant, large animal (caprine) model of osteochondral defect repair. Although the quality of repair was variable from animal-to-animal, in general more hyaline-like cartilage repair was observed after 6 months in animals treated with bi-phasic constructs compared to animals treated with commercial control scaffolds. This variability in the quality of repair points to the need for further improvements in the design of 3D bioprinted implants for joint regeneration. Statement of Significance Successful osteochondral defect repair requires regenerating the subchondral bone whilst simultaneously promoting the development of an overlying layer of articular cartilage. In this study, we hypothesised that bi-phasic, fibre-reinforced cartilaginous templates could be leveraged to regenerate both the articular cartilage and subchondral bone within osteochondral defects. To this end we used 3D printed fibre networks to mechanically reinforce engineered transient cartilage, which also contained an overlying layer of phenotypically stable cartilage engineered using a co-culture of chondrocytes and stem cells. When chondrogenically primed and implanted into caprine osteochondral defects, these fibre-reinforced bi-phasic cartilaginous grafts were shown to spatially direct tissue development during joint repair. Such developmentally inspired tissue engineering strategies, enabled by advances in biofabrication and 3D printing, could form the basis of new classes of regenerative implants in orthopaedic medicine.
AUTHOR García-Astrain, Clara and Lenzi, Elisa and Jimenez de Aberasturi, Dorleta and Henriksen-Lacey, Malou and Binelli, Marco R. and Liz-Marzán, Luis M.
Title 3D-Printed Biocompatible Scaffolds with Built-In Nanoplasmonic Sensors [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Functional Materials
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract 3D printing strategies have acquired great relevance toward the design of 3D scaffolds with precise macroporous structures, for supported mammalian cell growth. Despite advances in 3D model designs, there is still a shortage of detection tools to precisely monitor in situ cell behavior in 3D, thereby allowing a better understanding of the progression of diseases or to test the efficacy of drugs in a more realistic microenvironment. Even if the number of available inks has exponentially increased, they do not necessarily offer the required functionalities to be used as internal sensors. Herein the potential of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy for the detection of biorelevant analytes within a plasmonic hydrogel-based, 3D-printed scaffold is demonstrated. Such SERS-active scaffolds allow for the 3D detection of model molecules, such as 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. Flexibility in the choice of plasmonic nanoparticles is demonstrated through the use of gold nanoparticles with different morphologies, gold nanorods showing the best balance between SERS enhancement and scaffold transparency. Detection of the biomarker adenosine is also demonstrated as a proof-of-concept toward the use of these plasmonic scaffolds for SERS sensing of cell-secreted molecules over extended periods of time.
AUTHOR Kamdem Tamo, Arnaud and Doench, Ingo and Morales Helguera, Aliuska and Hoenders, Daniel and Walther, Andreas and Madrazo, Anayancy Osorio
Title Biodegradation of Crystalline Cellulose Nanofibers by Means of Enzyme Immobilized-Alginate Beads and Microparticles [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Recent advances in nanocellulose technology have revealed the potential of crystalline cellulose nanofibers to reinforce materials which are useful for tissue engineering, among other functions. However, the low biodegradability of nanocellulose can possess some problems in biomedical applications. In this work, alginate particles with encapsulated enzyme cellulase extracted from Trichoderma reesei were prepared for the biodegradation of crystalline cellulose nanofibers, which carrier system could be incorporated in tissue engineering biomaterials to degrade the crystalline cellulose nanoreinforcement in situ and on-demand during tissue regeneration. Both alginate beads and microparticles were processed by extrusion-dropping and inkjet-based methods, respectively. Processing parameters like the alginate concentration, concentration of ionic crosslinker Ca2+, hardening time, and ionic strength of the medium were varied. The hydrolytic activity of the free and encapsulated enzyme was evaluated for unmodified (CNFs) and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNFs) in suspension (heterogeneous conditions); in comparison to solubilized cellulose derivatives (homogeneous conditions). The enzymatic activity was evaluated for temperatures between 25–75 °C, pH range from 3.5 to 8.0 and incubation times until 21 d. Encapsulated cellulase in general displayed higher activity compared to the free enzyme over wider temperature and pH ranges and for longer incubation times. A statistical design allowed optimizing the processing parameters for the preparation of enzyme-encapsulated alginate particles presenting the highest enzymatic activity and sphericity. The statistical analysis yielded the optimum particles characteristics and properties by using a formulation of 2% (w/v) alginate, a coagulation bath of 0.2 M CaCl2 and a hardening time of 1 h. In homogeneous conditions the highest catalytic activity was obtained at 55 °C and pH 4.8. These temperature and pH values were considered to study the biodegradation of the crystalline cellulose nanofibers in suspension. The encapsulated cellulase preserved its activity for several weeks over that of the free enzyme, which latter considerably decreased and practically showed deactivation after just 10 d. The alginate microparticles with their high surface area-to-volume ratio effectively allowed the controlled release of the encapsulated enzyme and thereby the sustained hydrolysis of the cellulose nanofibers. The relative activity of cellulase encapsulated in the microparticles leveled-off at around 60% after one day and practically remained at that value for three weeks.
AUTHOR Zamani, Yasaman and Mohammadi, Javad and Amoabediny, Ghassem and Helder, Marco N. and Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz and Klein-Nulend, Jenneke
Title Bioprinting of Alginate-Encapsulated Pre-osteoblasts in PLGA/β-TCP Scaffolds Enhances Cell Retention but Impairs Osteogenic Differentiation Compared to Cell Seeding after 3D-Printing [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Regenerative Engineering and Translational Medicine
Reftype Zamani2020
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
In tissue engineering, cellularization of scaffolds has typically been performed by seeding the cells after scaffold fabrication. 3D-printing technology now allows bioprinting of cells encapsulated in a hydrogel simultaneously with the scaffold material. Here, we aimed to investigate whether bioprinting or cell seeding post-printing is more effective in enhancing responses of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line derived from mouse calvaria.
AUTHOR Lee, Jia Min and Yeong, Wai Yee
Title Engineering macroscale cell alignment through coordinated toolpath design using support-assisted 3D bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of The Royal Society Interface
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Aligned cells provide direction-dependent mechanical properties that influence biological and mechanical function in native tissues. Alignment techniques such as casting and uniaxial stretching cannot fully replicate the complex fibre orientation of native tissue such as the heart. In this study, bioprinting is used to direct the orientation of cell alignment. A 0°–90° grid structure was printed to assess the robustness of the support-assisted bioprinting technique. The variation in the angles of the grid pattern is designed to mimic the differences in fibril orientation of native tissues, where angles of cell alignment vary across the different layers. Through bioprinting of a cell–hydrogel mixture, C2C12 cells displayed directed alignment along the longitudinal axis of printed struts. Cell alignment is induced through firstly establishing structurally stable constructs (i.e. distinct 0°–90° structures) and secondly, allowing cells to dynamically remodel the bioprinted construct. Herein reports a method of inducing a macroscale level of controlled cell alignment with angle variation. This was not achievable both in terms of methods (i.e. conventional alignment techniques such as stretching and electrical stimulation) and magnitude (i.e. hydrogel features with less than 100 µm features).
AUTHOR Song, Jie-Liang and Fu, Xin-Ye and Raza, Ali and Shen, Nai-An and Xue, Ya-Qi and Wang, Hua-Jie and Wang, Jin-Ye
Title Enhancement of mechanical strength of TCP-alginate based bioprinted constructs [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
To overcome the mechanical drawback of bioink, we proposed a supporter model to enhance the mechanical strength of bioprinted 3D constructs, in which a unit-assembly idea was involved. Based on Computed Tomography images of critical-sized rabbit bone defect, the 3D re-construction was accomplished by a sequenced process using Mimics 17.0, BioCAM and BioCAD software. 3D constructs were bioprinted using polycaprolactone (PCL) ink for the outer supporter under extrusion mode, and cell-laden tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/alginate bioink for the inner filler under air pressure dispensing mode. The relationship of viscosity of bioinks, 3D bioprinting pressure, TCP/alginate ratio and cell survival were investigated by the shear viscosities analysis, live/dead cell test and cell-counting kit 8 measurement. The viscosity of bioinks at 1.0 s−1-shear rate could be adjusted within the range of 1.75 ± 0.29 Pa·s to 155.65 ± 10.86 Pa·s by changing alginate concentration, corresponding to 10 kPa–130 kPa of printing pressure. This design with PCL supporter could significantly enhance the compressive strength and compressive modulus of standardized 3D mechanical testing specimens up to 2.15 ± 0.14 MPa to 2.58 ± 0.09 MPa, and 42.83 ± 4.75 MPa to 53.12 ± 1.19 MPa, respectively. Cells could maintain the high viability (over 80%) under the given printing pressure but cell viability declined with the increase of TCP content. Cell survival after experiencing 7 days of cell culture could be achieved when the ratio of TCP/alginate was 1 : 4. All data supported the feasibility of the supporter and unit-assembly model to enhance mechanical properties of bioprinted 3D constructs.
AUTHOR Somasekharan, Lakshmi and Kasoju, Naresh and Raju, Riya and Bhatt, Anugya
Title Formulation and Characterization of Alginate Dialdehyde, Gelatin, and Platelet-Rich Plasma-Based Bioink for Bioprinting Applications [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Bioengineering
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Layer-by-layer additive manufacturing process has evolved into three-dimensional (3D) “bio-printing” as a means of constructing cell-laden functional tissue equivalents. The process typically involves the mixing of cells of interest with an appropriate hydrogel, termed as “bioink”, followed by printing and tissue maturation. An ideal bioink should have adequate mechanical, rheological, and biological features of the target tissues. However, native extracellular matrix (ECM) is made of an intricate milieu of soluble and non-soluble extracellular factors, and mimicking such a composition is challenging. To this end, here we report the formulation of a multi-component bioink composed of gelatin and alginate -based scaffolding material, as well as a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) suspension, which mimics the insoluble and soluble factors of native ECM respectively. Briefly, sodium alginate was subjected to controlled oxidation to yield alginate dialdehyde (ADA), and was mixed with gelatin and PRP in various volume ratios in the presence of borax. The formulation was systematically characterized for its gelation time, swelling, and water uptake, as well as its morphological, chemical, and rheological properties; furthermore, blood- and cytocompatibility were assessed as per ISO 10993 (International Organization for Standardization). Printability, shape fidelity, and cell-laden printing was evaluated using the RegenHU 3D Discovery bioprinter. The results indicated the successful development of ADA–gelatin–PRP based bioink for 3D bioprinting and biofabrication applications.
AUTHOR Eltaher, Hoda M. and Abukunna, Fatima E. and Ruiz-Cantu, Laura and Stone, Zack and Yang, Jing and Dixon, James E.
Title Human-scale tissues with patterned vascular networks by additive manufacturing of sacrificial sugar-protein composites [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Combating necrosis, by supplying nutrients and removing waste, presents the major challenge for engineering large three-dimensional (3D) tissues. Previous elegant work used 3D printing with carbohydrate glass as a cytocompatible sacrificial template to create complex engineered tissues with vascular networks (Miller et al. 2012, Nature Materials). The fragile nature of this material compounded with the technical complexity needed to create high-resolution structures led us to create a flexible sugar-protein composite, termed Gelatin-sucrose matrix (GSM), to achieve a more robust and applicable material. Here we developed a low-range (25–37˚C) temperature sensitive formulation that can be moulded with micron-resolution features or cast during 3D printing to produce complex flexible filament networks forming sacrificial vessels. Using the temperature-sensitivity, we could control filament degeneration meaning GSM can be used with a variety of matrices and crosslinking strategies. Furthermore by incorporation of biocompatible crosslinkers into GSM directly, we could create thin endothelialized vessel walls and generate patterned tissues containing multiple matrices and cell-types. We also demonstrated that perfused vascular channels sustain metabolic function of a variety of cell-types including primary human cells. Importantly, we were able to construct vascularized human noses which otherwise would have been necrotic. Our material can now be exploited to create human-scale tissues for regenerative medicine applications. Statement of Significance Authentic and engineered tissues have demands for mass transport, exchanging nutrients and oxygen, and therefore require vascularization to retain viability and inhibit necrosis. Basic vascular networks must be included within engineered tissues intrinsically. Yet, this has been unachievable in physiologically-sized constructs with tissue-like cell densities until recently. Sacrificial moulding is an alternative in which networks of rigid lattices of filaments are created to prevent subsequent matrix ingress. Our study describes a biocompatible sacrificial sugar-protein formulation; GSM, made from mixtures of inexpensive and readily available bio-grade materials. GSM can be cast/moulded or bioprinted as sacrificial filaments that can rapidly dissolve in an aqueous environment temperature-sensitively. GSM material can be used to engineer viable and vascularized human-scale tissues for regenerative medicine applications.
AUTHOR López-Carrasco, Amparo and Martín-Vañó, Susana and Burgos-Panadero, Rebeca and Monferrer, Ezequiel and Berbegall, Ana P. and Fernández-Blanco, Beatriz and Navarro, Samuel and Noguera, Rosa
Title Impact of extracellular matrix stiffness on genomic heterogeneity in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell line [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research
Reftype López-Carrasco2020
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Increased tissue stiffness is a common feature of malignant solid tumors, often associated with metastasis and poor patient outcomes. Vitronectin, as an extracellular matrix anchorage glycoprotein related to a stiff matrix, is present in a particularly increased quantity and specific distribution in high-risk neuroblastoma. Furthermore, as cells can sense and transform the proprieties of the extracellular matrix into chemical signals through mechanotransduction, genotypic changes related to stiffness are possible.
AUTHOR Fisch, Philipp and Holub, Martin and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Improved accuracy and precision of bioprinting through progressive cavity pump-controlled extrusion [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings bioRxiv
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
3D bioprinting has seen a tremendous growth in recent years in a variety of fields such as tissue and organ models, drug testing and regenerative medicine. This growth has led researchers and manufacturers to continuously advance and develop novel bioprinting techniques and materials. Although new bioprinting methods are emerging (e.g. contactless and volumetric bioprinting), micro-extrusion bioprinting remains the most widely used method. Micro-extrusion bioprinting, however, is still largely dependent on the conventional pneumatic extrusion process, which relies heavily on homogenous biomaterial inks and bioinks to maintain a constant material flowrate. Augmenting the functionality of the bioink with the addition of nanoparticles, cells or biopolymers can induce inhomogeneities resulting in uneven material flow during printing and/or clogging of the nozzle, leading to defects in the printed construct. In this work, we evaluated a novel extrusion technique based on a miniaturized progressive cavity pump. We compared the accuracy and precision of this system to the pneumatic extrusion system and tested both for their effect on cell viability after extrusion. The progressive cavity pump achieved a significantly higher accuracy and precision compared to the pneumatic system while maintaining good viability and was able to maintain its reliability independently of the bioink composition, printing speed or nozzle size. Progressive cavity pumps are a promising tool for bioprinting and could help provide standardized and validated bioprinted constructs while leaving the researcher more freedom in the design of the bioinks with increased functionality.
AUTHOR Lee, Mihyun and Bae, Kraun and Levinson, Clara and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Nanocomposite bioink exploits dynamic covalent bonds between nanoparticles and polysaccharides for precision bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
The field of bioprinting has made significant recent progress towards engineering tissues with increasing complexity and functionality. It remains challenging, however, to develop bioinks with optimal biocompatibility and good printing fidelity. Here, we demonstrate enhanced printability of a polymer-based bioink based on dynamic covalent linkages between nanoparticles (NPs) and polymers, which retains good biocompatibility. Amine-presenting silica NPs (ca. 45 nm) were added to a polymeric ink containing oxidized alginate (OxA). The formation of reversible imine bonds between amines on the NPs and aldehydes of OxA lead to significantly improved rheological properties and high printing fidelity. In particular, the yield stress increased with increasing amounts of NPs (14.5 Pa without NPs, 79 Pa with 2 wt% NPs). In addition, the presence of dynamic covalent linkages in the gel provided improved mechanical stability over 7 d compared to ionically crosslinked gels. The nanocomposite ink retained high printability and mechanical strength, resulting in generation of centimeter-scale porous constructs and an ear structure with overhangs and high structural fidelity. Furthermore, the nanocomposite ink supported both in vitro and in vivo maturation of bioprinted gels containing chondrocytes. This approach based on simple oxidation can be applied to any polysaccharide, thus the widely applicability of the method is expected to advance the field towards the goal of precision bioprinting.
AUTHOR Cernecu, Alexandra and Lungu, Adriana and Stancu, Izabela Cristina and Vasile, Eugeniu and Iovu, Horia
Title Polysaccharide-Based 3D Printing Inks Supplemented with Additives
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings University Politechnica of Bucharest Scientific Bulletin
Reftype
DOI/URL URL
AUTHOR Tan, Wen See and Shi, Qian and Chen, Shengyang and Bin Juhari, Muhammad Aidil and Song, Juha
Title Recyclable and biocompatible microgel-based supporting system for positive 3D freeform printing of silicone rubber [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biomedical Engineering Letters
Reftype Tan2020
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) of biomaterials has evolved from a rapid prototyping tool into a viable approach for the manufacturing of patient-specific implants over the past decade. It can tailor to the unique physiological and anatomical criteria of the patient’s organs or bones through precise controlling of the structure during the 3D printing. Silicone elastomers, which is a major group of materials in many biomedical implants, have low viscosities and can be printed with a special AM platform, known as freeform 3D printing systems. The freeform 3D printing systems are composed of a supporting bath and a printing material. Current supporting matrices that are either commercially purchased or synthesized were usually disposed of after retrieval of the printed part. In this work, we proposed a new and improved supporting matrix comprises of synthesized calcium alginate microgels produced via encapsulation which can be recycled, reused, and recovered for multiple prints, hence minimizing wastage and cost of materials. The dehydration tolerance of the calcium alginate microgels was improved through physical means by the addition of glycerol and chemical means by developing new calcium alginate microgels encapsulated with glycerol. The recyclability of the heated calcium alginate microgels was also enhanced by a rehydration step with sodium chloride solution and a recovery step with calcium chloride solution via the ion exchange process. We envisaged that our reusable and recyclable biocompatible calcium alginate microgels can save material costs, time, and can be applied in various freeform 3D printing systems.
AUTHOR Schipani, Rossana and Scheurer, Stefan and Florentin, Romain and Critchley, Susan E. and Kelly, Daniel John
Title Reinforcing interpenetrating network hydrogels with 3D printed polymer networks to engineer cartilage mimetic composites [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Engineering constructs that mimic the complex structure, composition and biomechanics of the articular cartilage represents a promising route to joint regeneration. Such tissue engineering strategies require the development of biomaterials that mimic the mechanical properties of articular cartilage whilst simultaneously providing an environment supportive of chondrogenesis. Here three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is used to develop polycaprolactone (PCL) fibre networks to mechanically reinforce interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogels consisting of alginate and gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA). Inspired by the significant tension-compression nonlinearity of the collagen network in articular cartilage, we printed reinforcing PCL networks with different ratios of tensile to compressive modulus. Synergistic increases in compressive modulus were observed when IPN hydrogels were reinforced with PCL networks that were relatively soft in compression and stiff in tension. The resulting composites possessed equilibrium and dynamic mechanical properties that matched or approached that of native articular cartilage. Finite Element (FE) modelling revealed that the reinforcement of IPN hydrogels with specific PCL networks limited radial expansion and increased the hydrostatic pressure generated within the IPN upon the application of compressive loading. Next, multiple-tool biofabrication techniques were used to 3D bioprint PCL reinforced IPN hydrogels laden with a co-culture of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) and chondrocytes (CCs). The bioprinted biomimetic composites were found to support robust chondrogenesis, with encapsulated cells producing hyaline-like cartilage that stained strongly for sGAG and type II collagen deposition, and negatively for type X collagen and calcium deposition. Taken together, these results demonstrate how 3D bioprinting can be used to engineer constructs that are both pro-chondrogenic and biomimetic of the mechanical properties of articular cartilage.
AUTHOR Li, Huijun and Tan, Yu Jun and Kiran, Raj and Tor, Shu Beng and Zhou, Kun
Title Submerged and non-submerged 3D bioprinting approaches for the fabrication of complex structures with the hydrogel pair GelMA and alginate/methylcellulose [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Additive Manufacturing
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
The extrusion-based bioprinting of hydrogels such as gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) into structures with complex shape suffers from poor printability due to their low viscosity. The present study deals with hydrogel materials by using the mixture of cell-laden photopolymerizable GelMA as a main printing material and the mixture of alginate and methylcellulose (Alg/MC) as a support material because of its high viscosity and good thixotropic property. One extrusion-based approach is developed by printing the two mixtures into structures in an alternating layer-by-layer manner, with the electrostatic interactions between polycationic GelMA and polyanionic Alg/MC contributing to the integrity of the structures. The final printed structures are exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light to form crosslinks in GelMA through photopolymerization for further structural strengthening. The one-time UV exposure minimizes cell damage in cell-GelMA, demonstrating an advantage over those in previously reported studies that required repeated UV exposures upon the printing of each layer of a structure. The other approach is developed by submerging the extrusion nozzle into a bath of Alg/MC to print cell-laden GelMA structures, which, upon printing completion, are also subject to one-time UV exposure before the removal of the support material Alg/MC. A flower with living cells is printed to demonstrate the capability of the second approach of fabricating structures with geometric complexity. The structures printed using both approaches demonstrate a well-maintained shape fidelity, structural integrity and cell viability of over 93% up to five culturing days. The proposed two printing approaches based on the cell-GelMA and Alg/MC pair will be beneficial for exploring new opportunities in bioprinting.
AUTHOR Rathan, Swetha and Dejob, Léa and Schipani, Rossana and Haffner, Benjamin and Möbius, Matthias E. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Fiber Reinforced Cartilage ECM Functionalized Bioinks for Functional Cartilage Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Focal articular cartilage (AC) defects, if left untreated, can lead to debilitating diseases such as osteoarthritis. While several tissue engineering strategies have been developed to promote cartilage regeneration, it is still challenging to generate functional AC capable of sustaining high load-bearing environments. Here, a new class of cartilage extracellular matrix (cECM)-functionalized alginate bioink is developed for the bioprinting of cartilaginous tissues. The bioinks are 3D-printable, support mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) viability postprinting and robust chondrogenesis in vitro, with the highest levels of COLLII and ACAN expression observed in bioinks containing the highest concentration of cECM. Enhanced chondrogenesis in cECM-functionalized bioinks is also associated with progression along an endochondral-like pathway, as evident by increases in RUNX2 expression and calcium deposition in vitro. The bioinks loaded with MSCs and TGF-β3 are also found capable of supporting robust chondrogenesis, opening the possibility of using such bioinks for direct “print-and-implant” cartilage repair strategies. Finally, it is demonstrated that networks of 3D-printed polycaprolactone fibers with compressive modulus comparable to native AC can be used to mechanically reinforce these bioinks, with no loss in cell viability. It is envisioned that combinations of such biomaterials can be used in multiple-tool biofabrication strategies for the bioprinting of biomimetic cartilaginous implants.
AUTHOR Apelgren, Peter and Karabulut, Erdem and Amoroso, Matteo and Mantas, Athanasios and Martínez Ávila, Héctor and Kölby, Lars and Kondo, Tetsuo and Toriz, Guillermo and Gatenholm, Paul
Title In Vivo Human Cartilage Formation in Three-Dimensional Bioprinted Constructs with a Novel Bacterial Nanocellulose Bioink [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a 3D network of nanofibrils exhibiting excellent biocompatibility. Here, we present the aqueous counter collision (ACC) method of BNC disassembly to create bioink with suitable properties for cartilage-specific 3D-bioprinting. BNC was disentangled by ACC, and fibril characteristics were analyzed. Bioink printing fidelity and shear-thinning properties were evaluated. Cell-laden bioprinted grid constructs (5 × 5 × 1 mm3) containing human nasal chondrocytes (10 M mL-1) were implanted in nude mice and explanted after 30 and 60 days. Both ACC and hydrolysis resulted in significantly reduced fiber lengths, with ACC resulting in longer fibrils and fewer negative charges relative to hydrolysis. Moreover, ACC-BNC bioink showed outstanding printability, postprinting mechanical stability, and structural integrity. In vivo, cell-laden structures were rapidly integrated, maintained structural integrity, and showed chondrocyte proliferation, with 32.8 ± 13.8 cells per mm2 observed after 30 days and 85.6 ± 30.0 cells per mm2 at day 60 (p = 0.002). Furthermore, a full-thickness skin graft was attached and integrated completely on top of the 3D-bioprinted construct. The novel ACC disentanglement technique makes BNC biomaterial highly suitable for 3D-bioprinting and clinical translation, suggesting cell-laden 3D-bioprinted ACC-BNC as a promising solution for cartilage repair. Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a 3D network of nanofibrils exhibiting excellent biocompatibility. Here, we present the aqueous counter collision (ACC) method of BNC disassembly to create bioink with suitable properties for cartilage-specific 3D-bioprinting. BNC was disentangled by ACC, and fibril characteristics were analyzed. Bioink printing fidelity and shear-thinning properties were evaluated. Cell-laden bioprinted grid constructs (5 × 5 × 1 mm3) containing human nasal chondrocytes (10 M mL-1) were implanted in nude mice and explanted after 30 and 60 days. Both ACC and hydrolysis resulted in significantly reduced fiber lengths, with ACC resulting in longer fibrils and fewer negative charges relative to hydrolysis. Moreover, ACC-BNC bioink showed outstanding printability, postprinting mechanical stability, and structural integrity. In vivo, cell-laden structures were rapidly integrated, maintained structural integrity, and showed chondrocyte proliferation, with 32.8 ± 13.8 cells per mm2 observed after 30 days and 85.6 ± 30.0 cells per mm2 at day 60 (p = 0.002). Furthermore, a full-thickness skin graft was attached and integrated completely on top of the 3D-bioprinted construct. The novel ACC disentanglement technique makes BNC biomaterial highly suitable for 3D-bioprinting and clinical translation, suggesting cell-laden 3D-bioprinted ACC-BNC as a promising solution for cartilage repair.
AUTHOR Xu, Yichi and Peng, Jiang and Richards, Geoff and Lu, Shibi and Eglin, David
Title Optimization of electrospray fabrication of stem cell–embedded alginate–gelatin microspheres and their assembly in 3D-printed poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Objective Our study reports the optimization of electrospray human bone marrow stromal cell (hBMSCs)–embedded alginate–gelatin (Alg-Gel, same as following) microspheres for the purpose of their assembly in 3D-printed poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold for the fabrication of a mechanically stable and biological supportive tissue engineering cartilage construct. Methods The fabrication of the Alg-Gel microspheres using an electrospray technique was optimized in terms of polydispersity, yield of microspheres and circularity and varying fabrication conditions. PCL scaffolds were designed and printed by melt extrusion. Then, four groups were set: Alg-hBMSC microspheres cultured in the 2D well plate (Alg-hBMSCs+2D) group, Alg-Gel-hBMSC microspheres cultured in the 2D well plate (Alg-Gel-hBMSCs+2D) group, Alg-Gel-hBMSC microspheres embedded in PCL scaffold cultured in the 2D well plate (Alg-Gel-hBMSCs+2D) group and Alg-Gel-hBMSCs microspheres cultured in the 3D bioreactor (Alg-Gel-hBMSCs+3D) group. Cell viability, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation were evaluated, and mechanical test was performed. Results Nonaggregated, low polydispersity and almost spherical microspheres of average diameter of 200–300 μm were produced with alginate 1.5 w: v%, gelatin (Type B) concentration of 0.5 w: v % and CaCl2 coagulating bath concentration of 3.0 w: v %, using 30G needle size and 8 kV and 0.6 bar voltage and air pressure, respectively. Alginate with gelatin hydrogel improved viability and promoted hBMSC proliferation better than alginate microspheres. Interestingly, hBMSCs embedded in microspheres assembled in 3D-printed PCL scaffold and cultured in a 3D bioreactor were more proliferative in comparison to the previous two groups (p < 0.05). Similarly, the GAG content, GAG/DNA ratio as well as Coll 2 and Aggr gene expression were increased in the last two groups. Conclusion Optimization of hBMSC-embedded Alg-Gel microspheres produced by electrospray has been performed. The Alg-Gel composition selected allows conservation of hBMSC viability and supports proliferation and matrix deposition. The possibility to seed and assemble microspheres in designed 3D-printed PCL scaffolds for the fabrication of a mechanically stable and biological supportive tissue engineering cartilage construct was demonstrated. Translational potential of this article We optimize and demonstrate that electrospray microsphere fabrication is a cytocompatible and facile process to produce the hBMSC-embedded microsize tissue-like particles that can easily be assembled into a stable construct. This finding could have application in the development of mechanically competent stem cell–based tissue engineering of cartilage regeneration.
AUTHOR Pan, Houwen Matthew and Chen, Shengyang and Jang, Tae-Sik and Han, Win Tun and Jung, Hyun-do and Li, Yaning and Song, Juha
Title Plant seed-inspired cell protection, dormancy, and growth for large-scale biofabrication [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Biofabrication technologies have endowed us with the capability to fabricate complex biological constructs. However, cytotoxic biofabrication conditions have been a major challenge for their clinical application, leading to a trade-off between cell viability and scalability of biofabricated constructs. Taking inspiration from nature, we proposed a cell protection strategy which mimicks the protected and dormant state of plant seeds in adverse external conditions and their germination in response to appropriate environmental cues. Applying this bioinspired strategy to biofabrication, we successfully preserved cell viability and enhanced the seeding of cell-laden biofabricated constructs via a cytoprotective pyrogallol (PG)-alginate encapsulation system. Our cytoprotective encapsulation technology utilizes PG-triggered sporulation and germination processes to preserve cells, is mechanically robust, chemically resistant, and highly customizable to adequately match cell protectability with cytotoxicity of biofabrication conditions. More importantly, the facile and tunable decapsulation of our PG-alginate system allows for effective germination of dormant cells, under typical culture conditions. With this approach, we have successfully achieved a biofabrication process which is reproducible, scalable, and provided a practical solution for off-the-shelf availability, shipping and temporary storage of fabricated bio-constructs.
AUTHOR Gretzinger, Sarah and Beckert, Nicole and Gleadall, Andrew and Lee-Thedieck, Cornelia and Hubbuch, Jürgen
Title 3D bioprinting – Flow cytometry as analytical strategy for 3D cell structures [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
The importance of 3D printing technologies increased significantly over the recent years. They are considered to have a huge impact in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, since 3D bioprinting enables the production of cell-laden 3D scaffolds. Transition from academic research to pharmaceutical industry or clinical applications, however, is highly dependent on developing a robust and well-known process, while maintaining critical cell characteristics. Hence, a directed and systematic approach to 3D bioprinting process development is required, which also allows for the monitoring of these cell characteristics. This work presents the development of a flow cytometry-based analytical strategy as a tool for 3D bioprinting research. The development was based on a model process using a commercially available alginate-based bioink, the β-cell line INS-1E, and direct dispensing as 3D bioprinting method. We demonstrated that this set-up enabled viability and proliferation analysis. Additionally, use of an automated sampler facilitated high-throughput screenings. Finally, we showed that each process step, e.g. suspension of cells in bioink or 3D printing, cross-linking of the alginate scaffold after printing, has a crucial impact on INS-1E viability. This reflects the importance of process optimization in 3D bioprinting and the usefulness of the flow cytometry-based analytical strategy described here. The presented strategy has a great potential as a cell characterisation tool for 3D bioprinting and may contribute to a more directed process development.
AUTHOR Aied, Ahmed and Song, Wenhui and Wang, Wenxin and Baki, Abdulrahman and Sigen, A.
Title 3D Bioprinting of stimuli-responsive polymers synthesised from DE-ATRP into soft tissue replicas [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Synthetic polymers possess more reproducible physical and chemical properties than their naturally occurring counterparts. They have also emerged as an important alternative for fabricating tissue substitutes because they can be molecularly tailored to have vast array of molecular weights, block structures, active functional groups, and mechanical properties. To this date however, there has been very few successful and fully functional synthetic tissue and organ substitutes and with the rapidly spreading 3D printing technology beginning to reshape the tissue engineering and regenerative field, the need for an effective, safe, and bio printable biomaterial is becoming more and more urgent. Here, we have developed a synthetic polymer from controlled living radical polymerisation that can be printed into well-defined structures. The polymer showed low cytotoxicity before and after printing. Additionally, the incorporation of gelatine-methacrylate coated PLGA microparticles within the hydrogel provided cell adhesion surfaces for cell proliferation. The results point to possible application of the microparticle seeded, synthetic hydrogel as a direct printable tissue or organ substitute.
AUTHOR García-Lizarribar, Andrea and Fernández-Garibay, Xiomara and Velasco-Mallorquí, Ferran and G. Castaño, Albert and Samitier, Josep and Ramón-Azcón, Javier
Title Composite Biomaterials as Long-Lasting Scaffolds for 3D Bioprinting of Highly Aligned Muscle Tissue
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Macromolecular Bioscience
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
AUTHOR Visscher, D. O. and Gleadall, A. and Buskermolen, J. K. and Burla, F. and Segal, J. and Koenderink, G. H. and Helder, M. N. and van Zuijlen, P. P. M.
Title Design and fabrication of a hybrid alginate hydrogel/poly(ε-caprolactone) mold for auricular cartilage reconstruction [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract The aim of this study was to design and manufacture an easily assembled cartilage implant model for auricular reconstruction. First, the printing accuracy and mechanical properties of 3D-printed poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with varying porosities were determined to assess overall material properties. Next, the applicability of alginate as cell carrier for the cartilage implant model was determined. Using the optimal outcomes of both experiments (in terms of (bio)mechanical properties, cell survival, neocartilage formation, and printing accuracy), a hybrid auricular implant model was developed. PCL scaffolds with 600 μm distances between strands exhibited the best mechanical properties and most optimal printing quality for further exploration. In alginate, chondrocytes displayed high cell survival (~83% after 21 days) and produced cartilage-like matrix in vitro. Alginate beads cultured in proliferation medium exhibited slightly higher compressive moduli (6 kPa) compared to beads cultured in chondrogenic medium (3.5 kPa, p > .05). The final auricular mold could be printed with 300 μm pores and high fidelity, and the injected chondrocytes survived the culture period of 21 days. The presented hybrid auricular mold appears to be an adequate model for cartilage tissue engineering and may provide a novel approach to auricular cartilage regeneration for facial reconstruction. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res B Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018.
AUTHOR Lee, Mihyun and Bae, Kraun and Guillon, Pierre and Chang, Jin and Arlov, Øystein and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Exploitation of Cationic Silica Nanoparticles for Bioprinting of Large-Scale Constructs with High Printing Fidelity [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting allows the fabrication of 3D structures containing living cells whose 3D shape and architecture are matched to a patient. The feature is desirable to achieve personalized treatment of trauma or diseases. However, realization of this promising technique in the clinic is greatly hindered by inferior mechanical properties of most biocompatible bioink materials. Here, we report a novel strategy to achieve printing large constructs with high printing quality and fidelity using an extrusion-based printer. We incorporate cationic nanoparticles in an anionic polymer mixture, which significantly improves mechanical properties, printability, and printing fidelity of the polymeric bioink due to electrostatic interactions between the nanoparticles and polymers. Addition of cationic-modified silica nanoparticles to an anionic polymer mixture composed of alginate and gellan gum results in significantly increased zero-shear viscosity (1062%) as well as storage modulus (486%). As a result, it is possible to print a large (centimeter-scale) porous structure with high printing quality, whereas the use of the polymeric ink without the nanoparticles leads to collapse of the printed structure during printing. We demonstrate such a mechanical enhancement is achieved by adding nanoparticles within a certain size range (90%) and extracellular matrix secretion are observed for cells printed with nanocomposite inks. The design principle demonstrated can be applied for various anionic polymer-based systems, which could lead to achievement of 3D bioprinting-based personalized treatment.
AUTHOR Romanazzo, S. and Vedicherla, S. and Moran, C. and Kelly, D. J.
Title Meniscus ECM‐functionalised hydrogels containing infrapatellar fat pad‐derived stem cells for bioprinting of regionally defined meniscal tissue [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Injuries to the meniscus of the knee commonly lead to osteoarthritis. Current therapies for meniscus regeneration, including meniscectomies and scaffold implantation, fail to achieve complete functional regeneration of the tissue. This has led to increased interest in cell and gene therapies and tissue engineering approaches to meniscus regeneration. The implantation of a biomimetic implant, incorporating cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix (ECM)‐derived proteins, represents a promising approach to functional meniscus regeneration. The objective of this study was to develop a range of ECM‐functionalised bioinks suitable for 3D bioprinting of meniscal tissue. To this end, alginate hydrogels were functionalised with ECM derived from the inner and outer regions of the meniscus and loaded with infrapatellar fat pad‐derived stem cells. In the absence of exogenously supplied growth factors, inner meniscus ECM promoted chondrogenesis of fat pad‐derived stem cells, whereas outer meniscus ECM promoted a more elongated cell morphology and the development of a more fibroblastic phenotype. With exogenous growth factors supplementation, a more fibrogenic phenotype was observed in outer ECM‐functionalised hydrogels supplemented with connective tissue growth factor, whereas inner ECM‐functionalised hydrogels supplemented with TGFβ3 supported the highest levels of Sox‐9 and type II collagen gene expression and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) deposition. The final phase of the study demonstrated the printability of these ECM‐functionalised hydrogels, demonstrating that their codeposition with polycaprolactone microfibres dramatically improved the mechanical properties of the 3D bioprinted constructs with no noticeable loss in cell viability. These bioprinted constructs represent an exciting new approach to tissue engineering of functional meniscal grafts.
AUTHOR Hauser, Daniel and Estermann, Manuela and Milosevic, Ana and Steinmetz, Lukas and Vanhecke, Dimitri and Septiadi, Dedy and Drasler, Barbara and Petri-Fink, Alke and Ball, Vincent and Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara
Title Polydopamine/Transferrin Hybrid Nanoparticles for Targeted Cell-Killing [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Nanomaterials
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Polydopamine can form biocompatible particles that convert light into heat. Recently, a protocol has been optimized to synthesize polydopamine/protein hybrid nanoparticles that retain the biological function of proteins, and combine it with the stimuli-induced heat generation of polydopamine. We have utilized this novel system to form polydopamine particles, containing transferrin (PDA/Tf). Mouse melanoma cells, which strongly express the transferrin receptor, were exposed to PDA/Tf nanoparticles (NPs) and, subsequently, were irradiated with a UV laser. The cell death rate was monitored in real-time. When irradiated, the melanoma cells exposed to PDA/Tf NPs underwent apoptosis, faster than the control cells, pointing towards the ability of PDA/Tf to mediate UV-light-induced cell death. The system was also validated in an organotypic, 3D-printed tumor spheroid model, comprising mouse melanoma cells, and the exposure and subsequent irradiation with UV-light, yielded similar results to the 2D cell culture. The process of apoptosis was found to be targeted and mediated by the lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Therefore, the herein presented polydopamine/protein NPs constitute a versatile and stable system for cancer cell-targeting and photothermal apoptosis induction.
AUTHOR Allig, Sebastian and Mayer, Margot and Thielemann, Christiane
Title Workflow for bioprinting of cell-laden bioink
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Lekar a Technika
Reftype
DOI/URL URL
AUTHOR Nguyen, Duong and Hägg, Daniel and Forsman, Alma and Ekholm, Josefine and Nimkingratana, Puwapong and Brantsing, Camilla and Kalogeropoulos, Theodoros and Zaunz, Samantha and Concaro, Sebastian and Brittberg, Mats and Lindahl, Anders and Gatenholm, Paul and Enejder, Annika and Simonsson, Stina
Title Cartilage Tissue Engineering by the 3D Bioprinting of iPS Cells in a Nanocellulose/Alginate Bioink [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Scientific Reports
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Cartilage lesions can progress into secondary osteoarthritis and cause severe clinical problems in numerous patients. As a prospective treatment of such lesions, human-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were shown to be 3D bioprinted into cartilage mimics using a nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) composite bioink when co-printed with irradiated human chondrocytes. Two bioinks were investigated: NFC with alginate (NFC/A) or hyaluronic acid (NFC/HA). Low proliferation and phenotypic changes away from pluripotency were seen in the case of NFC/HA. However, in the case of the 3D-bioprinted NFC/A (60/40, dry weight % ratio) constructs, pluripotency was initially maintained, and after five weeks, hyaline-like cartilaginous tissue with collagen type II expression and lacking tumorigenic Oct4 expression was observed in 3D -bioprinted NFC/A (60/40, dry weight % relation) constructs. Moreover, a marked increase in cell number within the cartilaginous tissue was detected by 2-photon fluorescence microscopy, indicating the importance of high cell densities in the pursuit of achieving good survival after printing. We conclude that NFC/A bioink is suitable for bioprinting iPSCs to support cartilage production in co-cultures with irradiated chondrocytes.
AUTHOR Henriksson, I. and Gatenholm, P. and Hägg, D. A.
Title Increased lipid accumulation and adipogenic gene expression of adipocytes in 3D bioprinted nanocellulose scaffolds [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
Reftype
DOI/URL URL
Abstract
Compared to standard 2D culture systems, new methods for 3D cell culture of adipocytes could provide more physiologically accurate data and a deeper understanding of metabolic diseases such as diabetes. By resuspending living cells in a bioink of nanocellulose and hyaluronic acid, we were able to print 3D scaffolds with uniform cell distribution. After one week in culture, cell viability was 95%, and after two weeks the cells displayed a more mature phenotype with larger lipid droplets than standard 2D cultured cells. Unlike cells in 2D culture, the 3D bioprinted cells did not detach upon lipid accumulation. After two weeks, the gene expression of the adipogenic marker genes PPAR γ and FABP4 was increased 2.0- and 2.2-fold, respectively, for cells in 3D bioprinted constructs compared with 2D cultured cells. Our 3D bioprinted culture system produces better adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and a more mature cell phenotype than conventional 2D culture systems.
AUTHOR Paxton, Naomi Claire and Smolan, Willi and Böck, Thomas and Melchels, Ferry P. W. and Groll, Juergen and Juengst, Tomasz
Title Proposal to Assess Printability of Bioinks for Extrusion-Based Bioprinting and Evaluation of Rheological Properties Governing Bioprintability [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract The development and formulation of printable inks for extrusion-based 3D bioprinting has been a major challenge in the field of biofabrication. Inks, often polymer solutions with the addition of crosslinking to form hydrogels, must not only display adequate mechanical properties for the chosen application, but also show high biocompatibility as well as printability. Here we describe a reproducible two-step method for the assessment of the printability of inks for bioprinting, focussing firstly on screening ink formulations to assess fibre formation and the ability to form 3D constructs before presenting a method for the rheological evaluation of inks to characterise the yield point, shear thinning and recovery behaviour. In conjunction, a mathematical model was formulated to provide a theoretical understanding of the pressure-driven, shear thinning extrusion of inks through needles in a bioprinter. The assessment methods were trialled with a commercially-available crème, poloxamer 407, alginate-based inks and an alginate-gelatin composite material. Yield stress was investigated by applying a stress ramp to a number of inks, which demonstrated the necessity of high yield for printable materials. The shear thinning behaviour of the inks was then characterised by quantifying the degree of shear thinning and using the mathematical model to predict the window of printer operating parameters in which the materials could be printed. Furthermore, the model predicted high shear conditions and high residence times for cells at the walls of the needle and effects on cytocompatibility at different printing conditions. Finally, the ability of the materials to recover to their original viscosity after extrusion was examined using rotational recovery rheological measurements. Taken together, these assessment techniques revealed significant insights into the requirements for printable inks and shear conditions present during the extrusion process and allow the rapid and reproducible characterisation of a wide variety of inks for bioprinting.
AUTHOR Freeman, Fiona E. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Tuning Alginate Bioink Stiffness and Composition for Controlled Growth Factor Delivery and to Spatially Direct MSC Fate within Bioprinted Tissues [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Scientific Reports
Reftype Freeman2017
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Alginate is a commonly used bioink in 3D bioprinting. Matrix stiffness is a key determinant of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation, suggesting that modulation of alginate bioink mechanical properties represents a promising strategy to spatially regulate MSC fate within bioprinted tissues. In this study, we define a printability window for alginate of differing molecular weight (MW) by systematically varying the ratio of alginate to ionic crosslinker within the bioink. We demonstrate that the MW of such alginate bioinks, as well as the choice of ionic crosslinker, can be tuned to control the mechanical properties (Young’s Modulus, Degradation Rate) of 3D printed constructs. These same factors are also shown to influence growth factor release from the bioinks. We next explored if spatially modulating the stiffness of 3D bioprinted hydrogels could be used to direct MSC fate inside printed tissues. Using the same alginate and crosslinker, but varying the crosslinking ratio, it is possible to bioprint constructs with spatially varying mechanical microenvironments. Moreover, these spatially varying microenvironments were found to have a significant effect on the fate of MSCs within the alginate bioinks, with stiffer regions of the bioprinted construct preferentially supporting osteogenesis over adipogenesis.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Cunniffe, Gr{'{a}}inne M. and Sathy, Binulal N. and Jeon, Oju and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D Bioprinting of Developmentally Inspired Templates for Whole Bone Organ Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
The ability to print defined patterns of cells and extracellular-matrix components in three dimensions has enabled the engineering of simple biological tissues; however, bioprinting functional solid organs is beyond the capabilities of current biofabrication technologies. An alternative approach would be to bioprint the developmental precursor to an adult organ, using this engineered rudiment as a template for subsequent organogenesis in vivo. This study demonstrates that developmentally inspired hypertrophic cartilage templates can be engineered in vitro using stem cells within a supporting gamma-irradiated alginate bioink incorporating Arg-Gly-Asp adhesion peptides. Furthermore, these soft tissue templates can be reinforced with a network of printed polycaprolactone fibers, resulting in a ≈350 fold increase in construct compressive modulus providing the necessary stiffness to implant such immature cartilaginous rudiments into load bearing locations. As a proof-of-principal, multiple-tool biofabrication is used to engineer a mechanically reinforced cartilaginous template mimicking the geometry of a vertebral body, which in vivo supported the development of a vascularized bone organ containing trabecular-like endochondral bone with a supporting marrow structure. Such developmental engineering approaches could be applied to the biofabrication of other solid organs by bioprinting precursors that have the capacity to mature into their adult counterparts over time in vivo.
AUTHOR {{'{A}}}vila, H{'{e}}ctor Mart{'{i}}nez and Schwarz, Silke and Rotter, Nicole and Gatenholm, Paul
Title 3D bioprinting of human chondrocyte-laden nanocellulose hydrogels for patient-specific auricular cartilage regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
Reftype
DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Auricular cartilage tissue engineering (TE) aims to provide an effective treatment for patients with acquired or congenital auricular defects. Bioprinting has gained attention in several {TE} strategies for its ability to spatially control the placement of cells, biomaterials and biological molecules. Although considerable advances have been made to bioprint complex 3D tissue analogues, the development of hydrogel bioinks with good printability and bioactive properties must improve in order to advance the translation of 3D bioprinting into the clinic. In this study, the biological functionality of a bioink composed of nanofibrillated cellulose and alginate (NFC-A) is extensively evaluated for auricular cartilage TE. 3D bioprinted auricular constructs laden with human nasal chondrocytes (hNC) are cultured for up to 28 days and the redifferentiation capacity of hNCs in NFC-A is studied on gene expression as well as on protein levels. 3D bioprinting with NFC-A bioink facilitates the biofabrication of cell-laden, patient-specific auricular constructs with an open inner structure, high cell density and homogenous cell distribution. The cell-laden NFC-A constructs exhibit an excellent shape and size stability as well as an increase in cell viability and proliferation during in vitro culture. Furthermore, NFC-A bioink supports the redifferentiation of hNCs and neo-synthesis of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix components. This demonstrated that NFC-A bioink supports redifferentiation of hNCs while offering proper printability in a biologically relevant aqueous 3D environment, making it a promising tool for auricular cartilage {TE} and many other biomedical applications.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Critchley, Susan E. and Rencsok, Emily M. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title A comparison of different bioinks for 3D bioprinting of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
Reftype
DOI/URL URL
Abstract
Cartilage is a dense connective tissue with limited self-repair capabilities. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) laden hydrogels are commonly used for fibrocartilage and articular cartilage tissue engineering, however they typically lack the mechanical integrity for implantation into high load bearing environments. This has led to increased interested in 3D bioprinting of cell laden hydrogel bioinks reinforced with stiffer polymer fibres. The objective of this study was to compare a range of commonly used hydrogel bioinks (agarose, alginate, GelMA and BioINK™) for their printing properties and capacity to support the development of either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage in vitro . Each hydrogel was seeded with MSCs, cultured for 28 days in the presence of TGF- β 3 and then analysed for markers indicative of differentiation towards either a fibrocartilaginous or hyaline cartilage-like phenotype. Alginate and agarose hydrogels best supported the development of hyaline-like cartilage, as evident by the development of a tissue staining predominantly for type II collagen. In contrast, GelMA and BioINK ™ (a PEGMA based hydrogel) supported the development of a more fibrocartilage-like tissue, as evident by the development of a tissue containing both type I and type II collagen. GelMA demonstrated superior printability, generating structures with greater fidelity, followed by the alginate and agarose bioinks. High levels of MSC viability were observed in all bioinks post-printing (∼80%). Finally we demonstrate that it is possible to engineer mechanically reinforced hydrogels with high cell viability by co-depositing a hydrogel bioink with polycaprolactone filaments, generating composites with bulk compressive moduli comparable to articular cartilage. This study demonstrates the importance of the choice of bioink when bioprinting different cartilaginous tissues for musculoskeletal applications.
AUTHOR M{"u}ller, Michael and {"O}zt{"u}rk, Ece and Arlov, {O}ystein and Gatenholm, Paul and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Alginate Sulfate--Nanocellulose Bioinks for Cartilage Bioprinting Applications [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
One of the challenges of bioprinting is to identify bioinks which support cell growth, tissue maturation, and ultimately the formation of functional grafts for use in regenerative medicine. The influence of this new biofabrication technology on biology of living cells, however, is still being evaluated. Recently we have identified a mitogenic hydrogel system based on alginate sulfate which potently supports chondrocyte phenotype, but is not printable due to its rheological properties (no yield point). To convert alginate sulfate to a printable bioink, it was combined with nanocellulose, which has been shown to possess very good printability. The alginate sulfate/nanocellulose ink showed good printing properties and the non-printed bioink material promoted cell spreading, proliferation, and collagen II synthesis by the encapsulated cells. When the bioink was printed, the biological performance of the cells was highly dependent on the nozzle geometry. Cell spreading properties were maintained with the lowest extrusion pressure and shear stress. However, extruding the alginate sulfate/nanocellulose bioink and chondrocytes significantly compromised cell proliferation, particularly when using small diameter nozzles and valves.
AUTHOR Kesti, Matti and Fisch, Philipp and Pensalfini, Marco and Mazza, Edoardo and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Guidelines for standardization of bioprinting: a systematic study of process parameters and their effect on bioprinted structures [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings BioNanoMaterials
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Biofabrication techniques including three-dimensional bioprinting could be used one day to fabricate living, patient-specific tissues and organs for use in regenerative medicine. Compared to traditional casting and molding methods, bioprinted structures can be much more complex, containing for example multiple materials and cell types in controlled spatial arrangement, engineered porosity, reinforcement structures and gradients in mechanical properties. With this complexity and increased function, however, comes the necessity to develop guidelines to standardize the bioprinting process, so printed grafts can safely enter the clinics. The bioink material must firstly fulfil requirements for biocompatibility and flow. Secondly, it is important to understand how process parameters affect the final mechanical properties of the printed graft. Using a gellan-alginate physically crosslinked bioink as an example, we show shear thinning and shear recovery properties which allow good printing resolution. Printed tensile specimens were used to systematically assess effect of line spacing, printing direction and crosslinking conditions. This standardized testing allowed direct comparison between this bioink and three commercially-available products. Bioprinting is a promising, yet complex fabrication method whose outcome is sensitive to a range of process parameters. This study provides the foundation for highly needed best practice guidelines for reproducible and safe bioprinted grafts.
AUTHOR Markstedt, Kajsa and Mantas, Athanasios and Tournier, Ivan and Mart{'{i}}nez {{'{A}}}vila, H{'{e}}ctor and H{"{a}}gg, Daniel and Gatenholm, Paul
Title 3D Bioprinting Human Chondrocytes with Nanocellulose-Alginate Bioink for Cartilage Tissue Engineering Applications [Abstract]
Year 2015
Journal/Proceedings Biomacromolecules
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
The introduction of 3D bioprinting is expected to revolutionize the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The 3D bioprinter is able to dispense materials while moving in X, Y, and Z directions, which enables the engineering of complex structures from the bottom up. In this study, a bioink that combines the outstanding shear thinning properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with the fast cross-linking ability of alginate was formulated for the 3D bioprinting of living soft tissue with cells. Printability was evaluated with concern to printer parameters and shape fidelity. The shear thinning behavior of the tested bioinks enabled printing of both 2D gridlike structures as well as 3D constructs. Furthermore, anatomically shaped cartilage structures, such as a human ear and sheep meniscus, were 3D printed using MRI and CT images as blueprints. Human chondrocytes bioprinted in the noncytotoxic, nanocellulose-based bioink exhibited a cell viability of 73% and 86% after 1 and 7 days of 3D culture, respectively. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that the nanocellulose-based bioink is a suitable hydrogel for 3D bioprinting with living cells. This study demonstrates the potential use of nanocellulose for 3D bioprinting of living tissues and organs. The introduction of 3D bioprinting is expected to revolutionize the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The 3D bioprinter is able to dispense materials while moving in X, Y, and Z directions, which enables the engineering of complex structures from the bottom up. In this study, a bioink that combines the outstanding shear thinning properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with the fast cross-linking ability of alginate was formulated for the 3D bioprinting of living soft tissue with cells. Printability was evaluated with concern to printer parameters and shape fidelity. The shear thinning behavior of the tested bioinks enabled printing of both 2D gridlike structures as well as 3D constructs. Furthermore, anatomically shaped cartilage structures, such as a human ear and sheep meniscus, were 3D printed using MRI and CT images as blueprints. Human chondrocytes bioprinted in the noncytotoxic, nanocellulose-based bioink exhibited a cell viability of 73% and 86% after 1 and 7 days of 3D culture, respectively. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that the nanocellulose-based bioink is a suitable hydrogel for 3D bioprinting with living cells. This study demonstrates the potential use of nanocellulose for 3D bioprinting of living tissues and organs.
AUTHOR Kesti, Matti and Eberhardt, Christian and Pagliccia, Guglielmo and Kenkel, David and Grande, Daniel and Boss, Andreas and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Bioprinting Complex Cartilaginous Structures with Clinically Compliant Biomaterials [Abstract]
Year 2015
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Functional Materials
Reftype
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Bioprinting is an emerging technology for the fabrication of patient-specific, anatomically complex tissues and organs. A novel bioink for printing cartilage grafts is developed based on two unmodified FDA-compliant polysaccharides, gellan and alginate, combined with the clinical product BioCartilage (cartilage extracellular matrix particles). Cell-friendly physical gelation of the bioink occurs in the presence of cations, which are delivered by co-extrusion of a cation-loaded transient support polymer to stabilize overhanging structures. Rheological properties of the bioink reveal optimal shear thinning and shear recovery properties for high-fidelity bioprinting. Tensile testing of the bioprinted grafts reveals a strong, ductile material. As proof of concept, 3D auricular, nasal, meniscal, and vertebral disk grafts are printed based on computer tomography data or generic 3D models. Grafts after 8 weeks in vitro are scanned using magnetic resonance imaging and histological evaluation is performed. The bioink containing BioCartilage supports proliferation of chondrocytes and, in the presence of transforming growth factor beta-3, supports strong deposition of cartilage matrix proteins. A clinically compliant bioprinting method is presented which yields patient-specific cartilage grafts with good mechanical and biological properties. The versatile method can be used with any type of tissue particles to create tissue-specific and bioactive scaffolds.