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You are researching: Magnesium
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AUTHOR Kleger, Nicole and Cihova, Martina and Masania, Kunal and Studart, André R. and Löffler, Jörg F.
Title 3d printing of salt as a template for magnesium with structured porosity [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings advanced materials
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Abstract
Abstract Porosity is an essential feature in a wide range of applications that combine light weight with high surface area and tunable density. Porous materials can be easily prepared with a vast variety of chemistries using the salt-leaching technique. However, this templating approach has so far been limited to the fabrication of structures with random porosity and relatively simple macroscopic shapes. Here, a technique is reported that combines the ease of salt leaching with the complex shaping possibilities given by additive manufacturing (AM). By tuning the composition of surfactant and solvent, the salt-based paste is rheologically engineered and printed via direct ink writing into grid-like structures displaying structured pores that span from the sub-millimeter to the macroscopic scale. As a proof of concept, dried and sintered NaCl templates are infiltrated with magnesium (Mg), which is typically highly challenging to process by conventional AM techniques due to its highly oxidative nature and high vapor pressure. Mg scaffolds with well-controlled, ordered porosity are obtained after salt removal. The tunable mechanical properties and the potential to be predictably bioresorbed by the human body make these Mg scaffolds attractive for biomedical implants and demonstrate the great potential of this additive technique.
AUTHOR Nasim Golafshan and Elke Vorndran and Stefan Zaharievski and Harold Brommer and Firoz Babu Kadumudi and Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz and Uwe Gbureck and René {van Weeren} and Miguel Castilho and Jos Malda
Title Tough magnesium phosphate-based 3D-printed implants induce bone regeneration in an equine defect model [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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One of the important challenges in bone tissue engineering is the development of biodegradable bone substitutes with appropriate mechanical and biological properties for the treatment of larger defects and those with complex shapes. Recently, magnesium phosphate (MgP) doped with biologically active ions like strontium (Sr2+) have shown to significantly enhance bone formation when compared with the standard calcium phosphate-based ceramics. However, such materials can hardly be shaped into large and complex geometries and more importantly lack the adequate mechanical properties for the treatment of load-bearing bone defects. In this study, we have fabricated bone implants through extrusion assisted three-dimensional (3D) printing of MgP ceramics modified with Sr2+ ions (MgPSr) and a medical grade polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer phase. MgPSr with 30 wt% PCL (MgPSr-PCL30) allowed the printability of relevant size structures (>780 mm3) at room temperature with an interconnected macroporosity of approximately 40%. The printing resulted in implants with a compressive strength of 4.3 MPa, which were able to support up to 50 cycles of loading without plastic deformation. Notably, MgPSr-PCL30 scaffolds were able to promote in vitro bone formation in medium without the supplementation with osteo-inducing components. In addition, long-term in vivo performance of the 3D printed scaffolds was investigated in an equine tuber coxae model over 6 months. The micro-CT and histological analysis showed that implantation of MgPSr-PCL30 induced bone regeneration, while no bone formation was observed in the empty defects. Overall, the novel polymer modified MgP ceramic material and extrusion-based 3D printing process presented here greatly improved the shape ability and load bearing properties of MgP-based ceramics with simultaneously induction of new bone formation.
AUTHOR Shen, Jie and Wang, Wenhao and Zhai, Xinyun and Chen, Bo and Qiao, Wei and Li, Wan and Li, Penghui and Zhao, Ying and Meng, Yuan and Qian, Shi and Liu, Xuanyong and Chu, Paul K. and Yeung, Kelvin W. K.
Title 3D-printed nanocomposite scaffolds with tunable magnesium ionic microenvironment induce in situ bone tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Applied Materials Today
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Local tissue microenvironment is able to regulate cell-to-cell interaction that leads to effective tissue repair. This study aims to demonstrate a tunable magnesium ionic (Mg2+) microenvironment in bony tissue that can significantly induce bone defect repair. The concept can be realized by using a newly fabricated nanocomposite comprising of custom-made copolymer polycaprolactone-co-poly(ethylene glycol)-co-polycaprolactone (PCL-PEG-PCL) and surface-modified magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles. In this study, additive manufacturing (AM) technology had been adopted to help design the porous three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with tunable Mg2+ microenvironment. We found that the wettability and printability of new copolymer had been improved as compared with that of PCL polymer. Additionally, when MgO nanoparticles incorporated into the newly synthesized hydrophilic copolymer matrix, it could lead to increased compressive moduli significantly. In the in vitro studies, the fabricated nanocomposite scaffold with low concentration of Mg2+ microenvironment not only demonstrated better cytocompatibility, but also remarkably enhanced osteogenic differentiation in vitro as compared with the pure PCL and PCL-PEG-PCL co-polymer controls. In the animal studies, we also found that superior and early bone formation and tissue mineralization could be observed in the same 3D printed scaffold. However, the nanocomposite scaffold with high concentration of Mg2+ jeopardized the in situ bony tissue regeneration capability due to excessive magnesium ions in bone tissue microenvironment. Lastly, this study demonstrates that the nanocomposite 3D scaffold with controlled magnesium concentration in bone tissue microenvironment can effectively promote bone defect repair.