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AUTHOR Li, Huijun and Zheng, Han and Tan, Yu Jun and Tor, Shu Beng and Zhou, Kun
Title Development of an Ultrastretchable Double-Network Hydrogel for Flexible Strain Sensors [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
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The weak mechanical properties of hydrogels due to the inefficient dissipation of energy in the intrinsic structures limit their practical applications. Here, a double-network (DN) hydrogel has been developed by integrating an ionically cross-linked agar network, a covalently cross-linked acrylic acid (AAC) network, and the dynamic and reversible ionically cross-linked coordination between the AAC chains and Fe3+ ions. The proposed model reveals the mechanisms of the improved mechanical performances in the DN agar/AAC-Fe3+ hydrogel. The hydrogen-bond cross-linked double helices of agar and ionic-coordination interactions of AAC-Fe3+ can be temporarily sacrificed during large deformation to readily dissipate the energy, whereas the reversible AAC-Fe3+ interactions can be regenerated after stress relief, which greatly increases the material toughness. The developed DN hydrogel demonstrates a remarkable stretchability with a break strain up to 3174.3%, high strain sensitivity with the gauge factor being 0.83 under a strain of 1000%, and good 3D printability, making the material a desirable candidate for fabricating flexible strain sensors, electronic skin, and soft robots. The weak mechanical properties of hydrogels due to the inefficient dissipation of energy in the intrinsic structures limit their practical applications. Here, a double-network (DN) hydrogel has been developed by integrating an ionically cross-linked agar network, a covalently cross-linked acrylic acid (AAC) network, and the dynamic and reversible ionically cross-linked coordination between the AAC chains and Fe3+ ions. The proposed model reveals the mechanisms of the improved mechanical performances in the DN agar/AAC-Fe3+ hydrogel. The hydrogen-bond cross-linked double helices of agar and ionic-coordination interactions of AAC-Fe3+ can be temporarily sacrificed during large deformation to readily dissipate the energy, whereas the reversible AAC-Fe3+ interactions can be regenerated after stress relief, which greatly increases the material toughness. The developed DN hydrogel demonstrates a remarkable stretchability with a break strain up to 3174.3%, high strain sensitivity with the gauge factor being 0.83 under a strain of 1000%, and good 3D printability, making the material a desirable candidate for fabricating flexible strain sensors, electronic skin, and soft robots.
AUTHOR Balaji Mahendiran and Shalini Muthusamy and Sowndarya Sampath and S.N. Jaisankar and Ketul C. Popat and R. Selvakumar and Gopal Shankar Krishnakumar
Title Recent trends in natural polysaccharide based bioinks for multiscale 3D printing in tissue regeneration: A review [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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Biofabrication by three-dimensional (3D) printing has been an attractive technology in harnessing the possibility to print anatomical shaped native tissues with controlled architecture and resolution. 3D printing offers the possibility to reproduce complex microarchitecture of native tissues by printing live cells in a layer by layer deposition to provide a biomimetic structural environment for tissue formation and host tissue integration. Plant based biomaterials derived from green and sustainable sources have represented to emulate native physicochemical and biological cues in order to direct specific cellular response and formation of new tissues through biomolecular recognition patterns. This comprehensive review aims to analyze and identify the most commonly used plant based bioinks for 3D printing applications. An overview on the role of different plant based biomaterial of terrestrial origin (Starch, Nanocellulose and Pectin) and marine origin (Ulvan, Alginate, Fucoidan, Agarose and Carrageenan) used for 3D printing applications are discussed elaborately. Furthermore, this review will also emphasis in the functional aspects of different 3D printers, appropriate printing material, merits and demerits of numerous plant based bioinks in developing 3D printed tissue-like constructs. Additionally, the underlying potential benefits, limitations and future perspectives of plant based bioinks for tissue engineering (TE) applications are also discussed.
AUTHOR Critchley, Susan and Sheehy, Eamon J. and Cunniffe, Gráinne and Diaz-Payno, Pedro and Carroll, Simon F. and Jeon, Oju and Alsberg, Eben and Brama, Pieter A. J. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D printing of fibre-reinforced cartilaginous templates for the regeneration of osteochondral defects [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Successful osteochondral defect repair requires regenerating the subchondral bone whilst simultaneously promoting the development of an overlying layer of articular cartilage that is resistant to vascularization and endochondral ossification. During skeletal development articular cartilage also functions as a surface growth plate, which postnatally is replaced by a more spatially complex bone-cartilage interface. Motivated by this developmental process, the hypothesis of this study is that bi-phasic, fibre-reinforced cartilaginous templates can regenerate both the articular cartilage and subchondral bone within osteochondral defects created in caprine joints. To engineer mechanically competent implants, we first compared a range of 3D printed fibre networks (PCL, PLA and PLGA) for their capacity to mechanically reinforce alginate hydrogels whilst simultaneously supporting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis in vitro. These mechanically reinforced, MSC-laden alginate hydrogels were then used to engineer the endochondral bone forming phase of bi-phasic osteochondral constructs, with the overlying chondral phase consisting of cartilage tissue engineered using a co-culture of infrapatellar fat pad derived stem/stromal cells (FPSCs) and chondrocytes. Following chondrogenic priming and subcutaneous implantation in nude mice, these bi-phasic cartilaginous constructs were found to support the development of vascularised endochondral bone overlaid by phenotypically stable cartilage. These fibre-reinforced, bi-phasic cartilaginous templates were then evaluated in clinically relevant, large animal (caprine) model of osteochondral defect repair. Although the quality of repair was variable from animal-to-animal, in general more hyaline-like cartilage repair was observed after 6 months in animals treated with bi-phasic constructs compared to animals treated with commercial control scaffolds. This variability in the quality of repair points to the need for further improvements in the design of 3D bioprinted implants for joint regeneration. Statement of Significance Successful osteochondral defect repair requires regenerating the subchondral bone whilst simultaneously promoting the development of an overlying layer of articular cartilage. In this study, we hypothesised that bi-phasic, fibre-reinforced cartilaginous templates could be leveraged to regenerate both the articular cartilage and subchondral bone within osteochondral defects. To this end we used 3D printed fibre networks to mechanically reinforce engineered transient cartilage, which also contained an overlying layer of phenotypically stable cartilage engineered using a co-culture of chondrocytes and stem cells. When chondrogenically primed and implanted into caprine osteochondral defects, these fibre-reinforced bi-phasic cartilaginous grafts were shown to spatially direct tissue development during joint repair. Such developmentally inspired tissue engineering strategies, enabled by advances in biofabrication and 3D printing, could form the basis of new classes of regenerative implants in orthopaedic medicine.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Critchley, Susan E. and Rencsok, Emily M. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title A comparison of different bioinks for 3D bioprinting of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage [Abstract]
Year 2016
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Cartilage is a dense connective tissue with limited self-repair capabilities. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) laden hydrogels are commonly used for fibrocartilage and articular cartilage tissue engineering, however they typically lack the mechanical integrity for implantation into high load bearing environments. This has led to increased interested in 3D bioprinting of cell laden hydrogel bioinks reinforced with stiffer polymer fibres. The objective of this study was to compare a range of commonly used hydrogel bioinks (agarose, alginate, GelMA and BioINK™) for their printing properties and capacity to support the development of either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage in vitro . Each hydrogel was seeded with MSCs, cultured for 28 days in the presence of TGF- β 3 and then analysed for markers indicative of differentiation towards either a fibrocartilaginous or hyaline cartilage-like phenotype. Alginate and agarose hydrogels best supported the development of hyaline-like cartilage, as evident by the development of a tissue staining predominantly for type II collagen. In contrast, GelMA and BioINK ™ (a PEGMA based hydrogel) supported the development of a more fibrocartilage-like tissue, as evident by the development of a tissue containing both type I and type II collagen. GelMA demonstrated superior printability, generating structures with greater fidelity, followed by the alginate and agarose bioinks. High levels of MSC viability were observed in all bioinks post-printing (∼80%). Finally we demonstrate that it is possible to engineer mechanically reinforced hydrogels with high cell viability by co-depositing a hydrogel bioink with polycaprolactone filaments, generating composites with bulk compressive moduli comparable to articular cartilage. This study demonstrates the importance of the choice of bioink when bioprinting different cartilaginous tissues for musculoskeletal applications.