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AUTHOR Azim, N. and Hart, C. and Sommerhage, F. and Aubin, M. and Hickman, J. J. and Rajaraman, S.
Title Precision Plating of Human Electrogenic Cells on Microelectrodes Enhanced With Precision Electrodeposited Nano-Porous Platinum for Cell-Based Biosensing Applications [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Microelectrode Arrays are established platforms for biosensing applications; however, limitations in electrode impedance and cell-electrode coupling still exist. In this paper, the SNR of 25 μm diameter gold (Au) microelectrodes was improved by decreasing the impedance with precision electrodeposition. SEM determined that N-P Pt. microelectrodes had nanoporous structures that filled the insulation cylinders. EIS, CV, and RMS noise measurements concluded that the optimized electrodeposition of N-P Pt. led to a lowered impedance of 18.36 kΩ ± 2.6 kΩ at 1 kHz, a larger double layer capacitance of 73 nF, and lowered RMS noise of 2.08±0.16 μV as compared to the values for Au of 159 kΩ ± 28 kΩ at 1 kHz, 17nF, and 3.14 ± 0.42 μV, respectively. Human motoneurons and human cardiomyocytes were cultured on N-P Pt. devices to assess their biocompatibility and signal quality. In order to improve the cell-electrode coupling, a precision plating technique was used. Both cell types were electrically active on devices for up to 10 weeks, demonstrated improved SNR, and expected responses to precision chemical and electrical stimulation. The modification of Au microelectrodes with nanomaterials in combination with precision culturing of human cell types provides cost effective, highly sensitive, well coupled and relevant biosensing platforms for medical and pharmaceutical research.
AUTHOR Wu, Qinghua and Zhang, Peikai and O'Leary, Gerard and Zhao, Yimu and Xu, Yinghao and Rafatian, Naimeh and Okhovatian, Sargol and Landau, Shira and Valiante, Taufik A. and Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka and Radisic, Milica
Title Flexible 3D printed microwires and 3D microelectrodes for heart-on-a-chip engineering [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
We developed a heart-on-a-chip platform that integrates highly flexible, vertical, 3D micropillar electrodes for electrophysiological recording and elastic microwires for the tissue’s contractile force assessment. The high aspect ratio microelectrodes were 3D-printed into the device using a conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). A pair of flexible, quantum dots/thermoplastic elastomer nanocomposite microwires were 3D printed to anchor the tissue and enable continuous contractile force assessment. The 3D microelectrodes and flexible microwires enabled unobstructed human iPSC-based cardiac tissue formation and contraction, suspended above the device surface, under both spontaneous beating and upon pacing with a separate set of integrated carbon electrodes. Recording of extracellular field potentials using the PEDOT:PSS micropillars was demonstrated with and without epinephrine as a model drug, non-invasively, along with in situ monitoring of tissue contractile properties and calcium transients. Uniquely, the platform provides integrated profiling of electrical and contractile tissue properties, which is critical for proper evaluation of complex, mechanically and electrically active tissues, such as the heart muscle under both physiological and pathological conditions.
AUTHOR Athanasiadis, Markos and Afanasenkau, Dzmitry and Derks, Wouter and Tondera, Christoph and Murganti, Francesca and Busskamp, Volker and Bergmann, Olaf and Minev, Ivan R.
Title Printed elastic membranes for multimodal pacing and recording of human stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings npj Flexible Electronics
Reftype Athanasiadis2020
Bioelectronic interfaces employing arrays of sensors and bioactuators are promising tools for the study, repair and engineering of cardiac tissues. They are typically constructed from rigid and brittle materials processed in a cleanroom environment. An outstanding technological challenge is the integration of soft materials enabling a closer match to the mechanical properties of biological cells and tissues. Here we present an algorithm for direct writing of elastic membranes with embedded electrodes, optical waveguides and microfluidics using a commercial 3D printing system and a palette of silicone elastomers. As proof of principle, we demonstrate interfacing of cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), which are engineered to express Channelrhodopsin-2. We demonstrate electrical recording of cardiomyocyte field potentials and their concomitant modulation by optical and pharmacological stimulation delivered via the membrane. Our work contributes a simple prototyping strategy with potential applications in organ-on-chip or implantable systems that are multi-modal and mechanically soft.