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AUTHOR Daghrery, Arwa and Ferreira, Jessica A. and de Souza Araújo, Isaac J. and Clarkson, Brian H. and Eckert, George J. and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Malda, Jos and Bottino, Marco C.
Title A Highly Ordered, Nanostructured Fluorinated CaP-Coated Melt Electrowritten Scaffold for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory, bacteria-triggered disorder affecting nearly half of American adults. Although some level of tissue regeneration is realized, its low success in complex cases demands superior strategies to amplify regenerative capacity. Herein, highly ordered scaffolds are engineered via Melt ElectroWriting (MEW), and the effects of strand spacing, as well as the presence of a nanostructured fluorinated calcium phosphate (F/CaP) coating on the adhesion/proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human-derived periodontal ligament stem cells, are investigated. Upon initial cell-scaffold interaction screening aimed at defining the most suitable design, MEW poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds with 500 µm strand spacing are chosen. Following an alkali treatment, scaffolds are immersed in a pre-established solution to allow for coating formation. The presence of a nanostructured F/CaP coating leads to a marked upregulation of osteogenic genes and attenuated bacterial growth. In vivo findings confirm that the F/CaP-coated scaffolds are biocompatible and lead to periodontal regeneration when implanted in a rat mandibular periodontal fenestration defect model. In aggregate, it is considered that this work can contribute to the development of personalized scaffolds capable of enabling tissue-specific differentiation of progenitor cells, and thus guide simultaneous and coordinated regeneration of soft and hard periodontal tissues, while providing antimicrobial protection.
AUTHOR He, Shaolong and Radeke, Carmen and Jacobsen, Jette and Lind, Johan Ulrik and Mu, Huiling
Title Multi-material 3D printing of programmable and stretchable oromucosal patches for delivery of saquinavir [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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Oromucosal patches for drug delivery allow fast onset of action and ability to circumvent hepatic first pass metabolism of drugs. While conventional fabrication methods such as solvent casting or hot melt extrusion are ideal for scalable production of low-cost delivery patches, these methods chiefly allow for simple, homogenous patch designs. As alternative, a multi-material direct-ink-write 3D printing for rapid fabrication of complex oromucosal patches with unique design features was demonstrated in the present study. Specifically, three print-materials: an acidic saquinavir-loaded hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ink, an alkaline effervescent sodium carbonate-loaded ink, and a methyl cellulose backing material were combined in various designs. The CO2 content and pH of the microenvironment were controlled by adjusting the number of alkaline layers in the patch. Additionally, the rigid and brittle patches were converted to compliant and stretchable patches by implementing mesh-like designs. Our results illustrate how 3D printing can be used for rapid design and fabrication of multifunctional or customized oromucosal patches with tailored dosages and changed drug permeation.
AUTHOR Asulin, Masha and Michael, Idan and Shapira, Assaf and Dvir, Tal
Title One-Step 3D Printing of Heart Patches with Built-In Electronics for Performance Regulation [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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Abstract Three dimensional (3D) printing of heart patches usually provides the ability to precisely control cell location in 3D space. Here, one-step 3D printing of cardiac patches with built-in soft and stretchable electronics is reported. The tissue is simultaneously printed using three distinct bioinks for the cells, for the conducting parts of the electronics and for the dielectric components. It is shown that the hybrid system can withstand continuous physical deformations as those taking place in the contracting myocardium. The electronic patch is flexible, stretchable, and soft, and the electrodes within the printed patch are able to monitor the function of the engineered tissue by providing extracellular potentials. Furthermore, the system allowed controlling tissue function by providing electrical stimulation for pacing. It is envisioned that such transplantable patches may regain heart contractility and allow the physician to monitor the implant function as well as to efficiently intervene from afar when needed.
AUTHOR Madiedo-Podvrsan, Sabrina and Belaïdi, Jean-Philippe and Desbouis, Stephanie and Simonetti, Lucie and Ben-Khalifa, Youcef and Soeur, Jérémie and Rielland, Maïté
Title Utilization of patterned bioprinting for heterogeneous and physiologically representative reconstructed epidermal skin models [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Scientific Reports
Reftype Madiedo-Podvrsan2021
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Organotypic skin tissue models have decades of use for basic research applications, the treatment of burns, and for efficacy/safety evaluation studies. The complex and heterogeneous nature of native human skin however creates difficulties for the construction of physiologically comparable organotypic models. Within the present study, we utilized bioprinting technology for the controlled deposition of separate keratinocyte subpopulations to create a reconstructed epidermis with two distinct halves in a single insert, each comprised of a different keratinocyte sub-population, in order to better model heterogonous skin and reduce inter-sample variability. As an initial proof-of-concept, we created a patterned epidermal skin model using GPF positive and negative keratinocyte subpopulations, both printed into 2 halves of a reconstructed skin insert, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. We then demonstrated the physiological relevance of this bioprinting technique by generating a heterogeneous model comprised of dual keratinocyte population with either normal or low filaggrin expression. The resultant model exhibited a well-organized epidermal structure with each half possessing the phenotypic characteristics of its constituent cells, indicative of a successful and stable tissue reconstruction. This patterned skin model aims to mimic the edge of lesions as seen in atopic dermatitis or ichthyosis vulgaris, while the use of two populations within a single insert allows for paired statistics in evaluation studies, likely increasing study statistical power and reducing the number of models required per study. This is the first report of human patterned epidermal model using a predefined bioprinted designs, and demonstrates the relevance of bioprinting to faithfully reproduce human skin microanatomy.
AUTHOR Benmeridja, Lara and De Moor, Lise and De Maere, Elisabeth and Vanlauwe, Florian and Ryx, Michelle and Tytgat, Liesbeth and Vercruysse, Chris and Dubruel, Peter and Van Vlierberghe, Sandra and Blondeel, Phillip and Declercq, Heidi
Title High-throughput fabrication of vascularized adipose microtissues for 3D bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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Abstract For patients with soft tissue defects, repair with autologous in vitro engineered adipose tissue could be a promising alternative to current surgical therapies. A volume-persistent engineered adipose tissue construct under in vivo conditions can only be achieved by early vascularization after transplantation. The combination of 3D bioprinting technology with self-assembling microvascularized units as building blocks can potentially answer the need for a microvascular network. In the present study, co-culture spheroids combining adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were created with an ideal geometry for bioprinting. When applying the favourable seeding technique and condition, compact viable spheroids were obtained, demonstrating high adipogenic differentiation and capillary-like network formation after 7 and 14 days of culture, as shown by live/dead analysis, immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. Moreover, we were able to successfully 3D bioprint the encapsulated spheroids, resulting in compact viable spheroids presenting capillary-like structures, lipid droplets and spheroid outgrowth after 14 days of culture. This is the first study that generates viable high-throughput (pre-)vascularized adipose microtissues as building blocks for bioprinting applications using a novel ASC/HUVEC co-culture spheroid model, which enables both adipogenic differentiation while simultaneously supporting the formation of prevascular-like structures within engineered tissues in vitro.
AUTHOR Dubey, Nileshkumar and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Daghrery, Arwa and Aytac, Zeynep and Malda, Jos and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Highly Tunable Bioactive Fiber-Reinforced Hydrogel for Guided Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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One of the most damaging pathologies that affects the health of both soft and hard tissues around the tooth is periodontitis. Clinically, periodontal tissue destruction has been managed by an integrated approach involving elimination of injured tissues followed by regenerative strategies with bone substitutes and/or barrier membranes. Regrettably, a barrier membrane with predictable mechanical integrity and multifunctional therapeutic features has yet to be established. Herein, we report a fiber-reinforced hydrogel with unprecedented tunability in terms of mechanical competence and therapeutic features by integration of highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) fibrous mesh(es) with well-controlled 3D architecture into bioactive amorphous magnesium phosphate-laden gelatin methacryloyl hydrogels. The presence of amorphous magnesium phosphate and PCL mesh in the hydrogel can control the mechanical properties and improve the osteogenic ability, opening a tremendous opportunity in guided bone regeneration (GBR). Results demonstrate that the presence of PCL meshes fabricated via melt electrowriting can delay hydrogel degradation preventing soft tissue invasion and providing the mechanical barrier to allow time for slower migrating progenitor cells to participate in bone regeneration due to their ability to differentiate into bone-forming cells. Altogether, our approach offers a platform technology for the development of the next-generation of GBR membranes with tunable mechanical and therapeutic properties to amplify bone regeneration in compromised sites.
AUTHOR Peiffer, Quentin C. and de Ruijter, Mylène and van Duijn, Joost and Crottet, Denis and Dominic, Ernst and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel
Title Melt electrowriting onto anatomically relevant biodegradable substrates: Resurfacing a diarthrodial joint [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials & Design
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Three-dimensional printed hydrogel constructs with well-organized melt electrowritten (MEW) fibre-reinforcing scaffolds have been demonstrated as a promising regenerative approach to treat small cartilage defects. Here, we investige how to translate the fabrication of small fibre-reinforced structures on flat surfaces to anatomically relevant structures. In particular, the accurate deposition of MEW-fibres onto curved surfaces of conductive and non-conductive regenerative biomaterials is studied. This study reveals that clinically relevant materials with low conductivities are compatible with resurfacing with organized MEW fibres. Importantly, accurate patterning on non-flat surfaces was successfully shown, provided that a constant electrical field strength and an electrical force normal to the substrate material is maintained. Furthermore, the application of resurfacing the geometry of the medial human femoral condyle is confirmed by the fabrication of a personalised osteochondral implant. The implant composed of an articular cartilage-resident chondroprogenitor cells (ACPCs)-laden hydrogel reinforced with a well-organized MEW scaffold retained its personalised shape, improved its compressive properties and supported neocartilage formation after 28 days in vitro culture. Overall, this study establishes the groundwork for translating MEW from planar and non-resorbable material substrates to anatomically relevant geometries and regenerative materials that the regenerative medicine field aims to create.
AUTHOR Afanasenkau, Dzmitry and Kalinina, Daria and Lyakhovetskii, Vsevolod and Tondera, Christoph and Gorsky, Oleg and Moosavi, Seyyed and Pavlova, Natalia and Merkulyeva, Natalia and Kalueff, Allan V. and Minev, Ivan R. and Musienko, Pavel
Title Rapid prototyping of soft bioelectronic implants for use as neuromuscular interfaces [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Nature Biomedical Engineering
Reftype Afanasenkau2020
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Neuromuscular interfaces are required to translate bioelectronic technologies for application in clinical medicine. Here, by leveraging the robotically controlled ink-jet deposition of low-viscosity conductive inks, extrusion of insulating silicone pastes and in situ activation of electrode surfaces via cold-air plasma, we show that soft biocompatible materials can be rapidly printed for the on-demand prototyping of customized electrode arrays well adjusted to specific anatomical environments, functions and experimental models. We also show, with the monitoring and activation of neuronal pathways in the brain, spinal cord and neuromuscular system of cats, rats and zebrafish, that the printed bioelectronic interfaces allow for long-term integration and functional stability. This technology might enable personalized bioelectronics for neuroprosthetic applications.
AUTHOR Noor, Nadav and Shapira, Assaf and Edri, Reuven and Gal, Idan and Wertheim, Lior and Dvir, Tal
Title 3D Printing of Personalized Thick and Perfusable Cardiac Patches and Hearts [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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Abstract Generation of thick vascularized tissues that fully match the patient still remains an unmet challenge in cardiac tissue engineering. Here, a simple approach to 3D-print thick, vascularized, and perfusable cardiac patches that completely match the immunological, cellular, biochemical, and anatomical properties of the patient is reported. To this end, a biopsy of an omental tissue is taken from patients. While the cells are reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cells, and differentiated to cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, the extracellular matrix is processed into a personalized hydrogel. Following, the two cell types are separately combined with hydrogels to form bioinks for the parenchymal cardiac tissue and blood vessels. The ability to print functional vascularized patches according to the patient's anatomy is demonstrated. Blood vessel architecture is further improved by mathematical modeling of oxygen transfer. The structure and function of the patches are studied in vitro, and cardiac cell morphology is assessed after transplantation, revealing elongated cardiomyocytes with massive actinin striation. Finally, as a proof of concept, cellularized human hearts with a natural architecture are printed. These results demonstrate the potential of the approach for engineering personalized tissues and organs, or for drug screening in an appropriate anatomical structure and patient-specific biochemical microenvironment.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Biofabrication of spatially organised tissues by directing the growth of cellular spheroids within 3D printed polymeric microchambers [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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Successful tissue engineering requires the generation of human scale implants that mimic the structure, composition and mechanical properties of native tissues. Here, we report a novel biofabrication strategy that enables the engineering of structurally organised tissues by guiding the growth of cellular spheroids within arrays of 3D printed polymeric microchambers. With the goal of engineering stratified articular cartilage, inkjet bioprinting was used to deposit defined numbers of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes into pre-printed microchambers. These jetted cell suspensions rapidly underwent condensation within the hydrophobic microchambers, leading to the formation of organised arrays of cellular spheroids. The microchambers were also designed to provide boundary conditions to these spheroids, guiding their growth and eventual fusion, leading to the development of stratified cartilage tissue with a depth-dependant collagen fiber architecture that mimicked the structure of native articular cartilage. Furthermore, the composition and biomechanical properties of the bioprinted cartilage was also comparable to the native tissue. Using multi-tool biofabrication, we were also able to engineer anatomically accurate, human scale, osteochondral templates by printing this microchamber system on top of a hypertrophic cartilage region designed to support endochondral bone formation and then maintaining the entire construct in long-term bioreactor culture to enhance tissue development. This bioprinting strategy provides a versatile and scalable approach to engineer structurally organised cartilage tissues for joint resurfacing applications.
AUTHOR Derr, Kristy and Zou, Jinyun and Luo, Keren and Song, Min Jae and Sittampalam, G. Sitta and Zhou, Chao and Michael, Samuel and Ferrer, Marc and Derr, Paige
Title Fully 3D Bioprinted Skin Equivalent Constructs with Validated Morphology and Barrier Function [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods
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Development of high throughput, reproducible, three-dimensional bioprinted skin equivalents that are morphologically and functionally comparable to native skin tissue is advancing research in skin diseases, and providing a physiologically relevant platform for the development of therapeutics, transplants for regenerative medicine, and testing of skin products like cosmetics. Current protocols for the production of engineered skin rafts are limited in their ability to control three dimensional geometry of the structure and contraction leading to variability of skin function between constructs. Here we describe a method for the biofabrication of skin equivalents that are fully bioprinted using an open market bioprinter, made with commercially available primary cells and natural hydrogels. The unique hydrogel formulation allows for the production of a human-like skin equivalent with minimal lateral tissue contraction in a multiwell plate format, thus making them suitable for high throughput bioprinting in a single print with fast print and relatively short incubation times. The morphology and barrier function of the fully three-dimensional bioprinted skin equivalents are validated by immunohistochemistry staining, optical coherence tomography, and permeation assays.
AUTHOR Gonzalez-Fernandez, T. and Rathan, S. and Hobbs, C. and Pitacco, P. and Freeman, F. E. and Cunniffe, G. M. and Dunne, N. J. and McCarthy, H. O. and Nicolosi, V. and O'Brien, F. J. and Kelly, D. J.
Title Pore-forming bioinks to enable Spatio-temporally defined gene delivery in bioprinted tissues [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Controlled Release
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The regeneration of complex tissues and organs remains a major clinical challenge. With a view towards bioprinting such tissues, we developed a new class of pore-forming bioink to spatially and temporally control the presentation of therapeutic genes within bioprinted tissues. By blending sacrificial and stable hydrogels, we were able to produce bioinks whose porosity increased with time following printing. When combined with amphipathic peptide-based plasmid DNA delivery, these bioinks supported enhanced non-viral gene transfer to stem cells in vitro. By modulating the porosity of these bioinks, it was possible to direct either rapid and transient (pore-forming bioinks), or slower and more sustained (solid bioinks) transfection of host or transplanted cells in vivo. To demonstrate the utility of these bioinks for the bioprinting of spatially complex tissues, they were next used to zonally position stem cells and plasmids encoding for either osteogenic (BMP2) or chondrogenic (combination of TGF-β3, BMP2 and SOX9) genes within networks of 3D printed thermoplastic fibers to produce mechanically reinforced, gene activated constructs. In vivo, these bioprinted tissues supported the development of a vascularised, bony tissue overlaid by a layer of stable cartilage. When combined with multiple-tool biofabrication strategies, these gene activated bioinks can enable the bioprinting of a wide range of spatially complex tissues.
AUTHOR de Ruijter, Mylène and Ribeiro, Alexandre and Dokter, Inge and Castilho, Miguel and Malda, Jos
Title Simultaneous Micropatterning of Fibrous Meshes and Bioinks for the Fabrication of Living Tissue Constructs [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract Fabrication of biomimetic tissues holds much promise for the regeneration of cells or organs that are lost or damaged due to injury or disease. To enable the generation of complex, multicellular tissues on demand, the ability to design and incorporate different materials and cell types needs to be improved. Two techniques are combined: extrusion-based bioprinting, which enables printing of cell-encapsulated hydrogels; and melt electrowriting (MEW), which enables fabrication of aligned (sub)-micrometer fibers into a single-step biofabrication process. Composite structures generated by infusion of MEW fiber structures with hydrogels have resulted in mechanically and biologically competent constructs; however, their preparation involves a two-step fabrication procedure that limits freedom of design of microfiber architectures and the use of multiple materials and cell types. How convergence of MEW and extrusion-based bioprinting allows fabrication of mechanically stable constructs with the spatial distributions of different cell types without compromising cell viability and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells is demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this converged printing approach improves freedom of design of the MEW fibers, enabling 3D fiber deposition. This is an important step toward biofabrication of voluminous and complex hierarchical structures that can better resemble the characteristics of functional biological tissues.
AUTHOR Cunniffe, Gráinne and Gonzalez-Fernandez, Tomas and Daly, Andrew and Nelson Sathy, Binulal and Jeon, Oju and Alsberg, Eben and J. Kelly, Daniel
Title Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Polycaprolactone Reinforced Gene Activated Bioinks for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part A
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Regeneration of complex bone defects remains a significant clinical challenge. Multi-tool biofabrication has permitted the combination of various biomaterials to create multifaceted composites with tailorable mechanical properties and spatially controlled biological function. In this study we sought to use bioprinting to engineer nonviral gene activated constructs reinforced by polymeric micro-filaments. A gene activated bioink was developed using RGD-g-irradiated alginate and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) complexed to plasmid DNA (pDNA). This ink was combined with bonemarrow-derived mesenchymal stemcells (MSCs) and then co-printed with a polycaprolactone supporting mesh to provide mechanical stability to the construct. Reporter genes were first used to demonstrate successful cell transfection using this system, with sustained expression of the transgene detected over 14 days postbioprinting. Delivery of a combination of therapeutic genes encoding for bone morphogenic protein and transforming growth factor promoted robust osteogenesis of encapsulated MSCs in vitro, with enhanced levels of matrix deposition and mineralization observed following the incorporation of therapeutic pDNA. Gene activated MSC-laden constructs were then implanted subcutaneously, directly postfabrication, and were found to support superior levels of vascularization andmineralization compared to cell-free controls. These results validate the use of a gene activated bioink to impart biological functionality to three-dimensional bioprinted constructs.
AUTHOR Freeman, Fiona E. and Pitacco, Pierluca and van Dommelen, Lieke H. A. and Nulty, Jessica and Browe, David C. and Shin, Jung-Youn and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D bioprinting spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors to tightly control tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Science Advances
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Therapeutic growth factor delivery typically requires supraphysiological dosages, which can cause undesirable off-target effects. The aim of this study was to 3D bioprint implants containing spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors optimized for coupled angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Using nanoparticle functionalized bioinks, it was possible to print implants with distinct growth factor patterns and release profiles spanning from days to weeks. The extent of angiogenesis in vivo depended on the spatial presentation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Higher levels of vessel invasion were observed in implants containing a spatial gradient of VEGF compared to those homogenously loaded with the same total amount of protein. Printed implants containing a gradient of VEGF, coupled with spatially defined BMP-2 localization and release kinetics, accelerated large bone defect healing with little heterotopic bone formation. This demonstrates the potential of growth factor printing, a putative point of care therapy, for tightly controlled tissue regeneration.
AUTHOR Lee, Ji Seung and Park, Hae Sang and Jung, Harry and Lee, Hanna and Hong, Heesun and Lee, Young Jin and Suh, Ye Ji and Lee, Ok Joo and Kim, Soon Hee and Park, Chan Hum
Title 3D-printable photocurable bioink for cartilage regeneration of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Additive Manufacturing
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Cartilage regeneration is challenging because of the poor intrinsic self-repair capacity of avascular tissue. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has gained significant attention in the field of tissue engineering and is a promising technology to overcome current difficulties in cartilage regeneration. Although bioink is an essential component of bioprinting technology, several challenges remain in satisfying different requirements for ideal bioink, including biocompatibility and printability based on specific biological requirements. Gelatin and hyaluronic acid (HA) have been shown to be ideal biomimetic hydrogel sources for cartilage regeneration. However, controlling their structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and degradation rate for cartilage repair remains a challenge. Here, we show a photocurable bioink created by hybridization of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and glycidyl-methacrylated HA (GMHA) for material extrusion 3D bioprinting in cartilage regeneration. GelMA and GMHA were mixed in various ratios, and the mixture of 7% GelMA and 5% GMHA bioink (G7H5) demonstrated the most reliable mechanical properties, rheological properties, and printability. This G7H5 bioink allowed us to build a highly complex larynx structure, including the hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, arytenoid cartilage, and cervical trachea. This bioink also provided an excellent microenvironment for chondrogenesis of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) in vitro and in vivo. In summary, this study presents the ideal formulation of GelMA/GMHA hybrid bioink to generate a well-suited photocurable bioink for cartilage regeneration of TMSCs using a material extrusion bioprinter, and could be applied to cartilage tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Liu, Xue and Michael, Samuel and Bharti, Kapil and Ferrer, Marc and Song, Min Jae
Title A biofabricated vascularized skin model of atopic dermatitis for preclinical studies [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Three-dimensional (3D) biofabrication techniques enable the production of multicellular tissue models as assay platforms for drug screening. The increased cellular and physiological complexity in these 3D tissue models should recapitulate the relevant biological environment found in the body. Here we describe the use of 3D bioprinting techniques to fabricate skin equivalent tissues of varying physiological complexity, including human epidermis, non-vascularized and vascularized full-thickness skin tissue equivalents, in a multi-well platform to enable drug screening. Human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and pericytes, and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived endothelial cells were used in the biofabrication process to produce the varying complexity. The skin equivalents exhibit the correct structural markers of dermis and epidermis stratification, with physiological functions of the skin barrier. The robustness, versatility and reproducibility of the biofabrication techniques are further highlighted by the generation of atopic dermatitis (AD)-disease like tissues. These AD models demonstrate several clinical hallmarks of the disease, including: (i) spongiosis and hyperplasia; (ii) early and terminal expression of differentiation proteins; and (iii) increases in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We show the pre-clinical relevance of the biofabricated AD tissue models to correct disease phenotype by testing the effects of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, and three Janus Kinase inhibitors from clinical trials for AD. This study demonstrates the development of a versatile and reproducible bioprinting approach to create human skin equivalents with a range of cellular complexity for disease modelling. In addition, we establish several assay readouts that are quantifiable, robust, AD relevant, and can be scaled up for compound screening. The results show that the cellular complexity of the tissues develops a more physiologically relevant AD disease model. Thus, the skin models in this study offer an in vitro approach for the rapid understanding of pathological mechanisms, and testing for efficacy of action and toxic effects of drugs.
AUTHOR Colle, Julien and Blondeel, Phillip and De Bruyne, Axelle and Bochar, Silke and Tytgat, Liesbeth and Vercruysse, Chris and Van Vlierberghe, Sandra and Dubruel, Peter and Declercq, Heidi
Title Bioprinting predifferentiated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell spheroids with methacrylated gelatin ink for adipose tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine
Reftype Colle2020
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The increasing number of mastectomies results in a greater demand for breast reconstruction characterized by simplicity and a low complication profile. Reconstructive surgeons are investigating tissue engineering (TE) strategies to overcome the current surgical drawbacks. 3D bioprinting is the rising technique for the fabrication of large tissue constructs which provides a potential solution for unmet clinical needs in breast reconstruction building on decades of experience in autologous fat grafting, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ASC) biology and TE. A scaffold was bioprinted using encapsulated ASC spheroids in methacrylated gelatin ink (GelMA). Uniform ASC spheroids with an ideal geometry and diameter for bioprinting were formed, using a high-throughput non-adhesive agarose microwell system. ASC spheroids in adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM) were evaluated through live/dead staining, histology (HE, Oil Red O), TEM and RT-qPCR. Viable spheroids were obtained for up to 14 days post-printing and showed multilocular microvacuoles and successful differentiation toward mature adipocytes shown by gene expression analysis. Moreover, spheroids were able to assemble at random in GelMA, creating a macrotissue. Combining the advantage of microtissues to self-assemble and the controlled organization by bioprinting technologies, these ASC spheroids can be useful as building blocks for the engineering of soft tissue implants.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Pitacco, Pierluca and Nulty, Jessica and Cunniffe, Gráinne M. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D printed microchannel networks to direct vascularisation during endochondral bone repair [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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Bone tissue engineering strategies that recapitulate the developmental process of endochondral ossification offer a promising route to bone repair. Clinical translation of such endochondral tissue engineering strategies will require overcoming a number of challenges, including the engineering of large and often anatomically complex cartilage grafts, as well as the persistence of core regions of avascular cartilage following their implantation into large bone defects. Here 3D printing technology is utilized to develop a versatile and scalable approach to guide vascularisation during endochondral bone repair. First, a sacrificial pluronic ink was used to 3D print interconnected microchannel networks in a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) laden gelatin-methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel. These constructs (with and without microchannels) were next chondrogenically primed in vitro and then implanted into critically sized femoral bone defects in rats. The solid and microchanneled cartilage templates enhanced bone repair compared to untreated controls, with the solid cartilage templates (without microchannels) supporting the highest levels of total bone formation. However, the inclusion of 3D printed microchannels was found to promote osteoclast/immune cell invasion, hydrogel degradation, and vascularisation following implantation. In addition, the endochondral bone tissue engineering strategy was found to support comparable levels of bone healing to BMP-2 delivery, whilst promoting lower levels of heterotopic bone formation, with the microchanneled templates supporting the lowest levels of heterotopic bone formation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 3D printed hypertrophic cartilage grafts represent a promising approach for the repair of complex bone fractures, particularly for larger defects where vascularisation will be a key challenge.
AUTHOR Ng, Wei Long and Qi, Jovina Tan Zhi and Yeong, Wai Yee and Naing, May Win
Title Proof-of-concept: 3D bioprinting of pigmented human skin constructs [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Three-dimensional (3D) pigmented human skin constructs have been fabricated using a 3D bioprinting approach. The 3D pigmented human skin constructs are obtained from using three different types of skin cells (keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts from three different skin donors) and they exhibit similar constitutive pigmentation (pale pigmentation) as the skin donors. A two-step drop-on-demand bioprinting strategy facilitates the deposition of cell droplets to emulate the epidermal melanin units (pre-defined patterning of keratinocytes and melanocytes at the desired positions) and manipulation of the microenvironment to fabricate 3D biomimetic hierarchical porous structures found in native skin tissue. The 3D bioprinted pigmented skin constructs are compared to the pigmented skin constructs fabricated by conventional a manual-casting approach; in-depth characterization of both the 3D pigmented skin constructs has indicated that the 3D bioprinted skin constructs have a higher degree of resemblance to native skin tissue in term of the presence of well-developed stratified epidermal layers and the presence of a continuous layer of basement membrane proteins as compared to the manually-cast samples. The 3D bioprinting approach facilitates the development of 3D in vitro pigmented human skin constructs for potential toxicology testing and fundamental cell biology research.
AUTHOR Kessel, Benjamin and Lee, Mihyun and Bonato, Angela and Tinguely, Yann and Tosoratti, Enrico and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title 3D Bioprinting of Macroporous Materials Based on Entangled Hydrogel Microstrands [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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Abstract Hydrogels are excellent mimetics of mammalian extracellular matrices and have found widespread use in tissue engineering. Nanoporosity of monolithic bulk hydrogels, however, limits mass transport of key biomolecules. Microgels used in 3D bioprinting achieve both custom shape and vastly improved permissivity to an array of cell functions, however spherical-microbead-based bioinks are challenging to upscale, are inherently isotropic, and require secondary crosslinking. Here, bioinks based on high-aspect-ratio hydrogel microstrands are introduced to overcome these limitations. Pre-crosslinked, bulk hydrogels are deconstructed into microstrands by sizing through a grid with apertures of 40–100 µm. The microstrands are moldable and form a porous, entangled structure, stable in aqueous medium without further crosslinking. Entangled microstrands have rheological properties characteristic of excellent bioinks for extrusion bioprinting. Furthermore, individual microstrands align during extrusion and facilitate the alignment of myotubes. Cells can be placed either inside or outside the hydrogel phase with >90% viability. Chondrocytes co-printed with the microstrands deposit abundant extracellular matrix, resulting in a modulus increase from 2.7 to 780.2 kPa after 6 weeks of culture. This powerful approach to deconstruct bulk hydrogels into advanced bioinks is both scalable and versatile, representing an important toolbox for 3D bioprinting of architected hydrogels.
AUTHOR Kokkinis, Dimitri and Bouville, Florian and Studart, André R.
Title 3D Printing of Materials with Tunable Failure via Bioinspired Mechanical Gradients [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Materials
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Abstract
Abstract Mechanical gradients are useful to reduce strain mismatches in heterogeneous materials and thus prevent premature failure of devices in a wide range of applications. While complex graded designs are a hallmark of biological materials, gradients in manmade materials are often limited to 1D profiles due to the lack of adequate fabrication tools. Here, a multimaterial 3D‐printing platform is developed to fabricate elastomer gradients spanning three orders of magnitude in elastic modulus and used to investigate the role of various bioinspired gradient designs on the local and global mechanical behavior of synthetic materials. The digital image correlation data and finite element modeling indicate that gradients can be effectively used to manipulate the stress state and thus circumvent the weakening effect of defect‐rich interfaces or program the failure behavior of heterogeneous materials. Implementing this concept in materials with bioinspired designs can potentially lead to defect‐tolerant structures and to materials whose tunable failure facilitates repair of biomedical implants, stretchable electronics, or soft robotics.
AUTHOR Solis, Daphene Marques and Czekanski, Aleksander
Title 3D and 4D additive manufacturing techniques for vascular-like structures – A review [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
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Abstract
The critical shortage in organ donors is a problem facing patients and health care systems worldwide. The most promising solution to this crisis is the artificial production of organs and tissues, known as tissue engineering. Significant advances in this field have led to the commercial production of artificial skin and cartilage, but limitations remain in the production of thicker tissues (i.e., >200 μm thickness). The challenge of producing thicker tissues relates to the inability to establish and maintain a vascular system, which is the basic requirement for artificially producing any vital organ. Given the importance of these structures, a major scientific effort is underway to better understand how to reproduce a vascular system. This review presents the most recent advances in the manufacturing of vascular-like structures, especially techniques involving additive manufacturing, or 3D and 4D printing. This review starts with a primer on the classification, composition, and mechanical proprieties of blood vessels, offering the reader a better understanding of the challenges involved in the artificial production of vessels. The review then discusses the methodologies, technologies, and materials used and available for the manufacturing of the vascular system.
AUTHOR Cao, Chuanliang and Huang, Pengren and Prasopthum, Aruna and Parsons, Andrew J. and Ai, Fanrong and Yang, Jing
Title Characterisation of bone regeneration in 3D printed ductile PCL/PEG/hydroxyapatite scaffolds with high ceramic microparticle concentrations [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biomater. Sci.
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Abstract
3D printed bioactive glass or bioceramic particle reinforced composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering currently suffer from low particle concentration (100% breaking strain) by adding poly(ethylene glycol) which is biocompatible and FDA approved. The scaffolds require no post-printing washing to remove hazardous components. More exposure of HA microparticles on strut surfaces is enabled by incorporating higher HA concentrations. Compared to scaffolds with 72 wt% HA{,} scaffolds with higher HA content (90 wt%) enhance matrix formation but not new bone volume after 12 weeks implantation in rat calvarial defects. Histological analyses demonstrate that bone regeneration within the 3D printed scaffolds is via intramembranous ossification and starts in the central region of pores. Fibrous tissue that resembles non-union tissue within bone fractures is formed within pores that do not have new bone. The amount of blood vessels is similar between scaffolds with mainly fibrous tissue and those with more bone tissue{,} suggesting vascularization is not a deciding factor for determining the type of tissues regenerated within the pores of 3D printed scaffolds. Multinucleated immune cells are commonly present in all scaffolds surrounding the struts{,} suggesting a role of managing inflammation in bone regeneration within 3D printed scaffolds.
AUTHOR Yan Li and Lijing Huang and Guangpin Tai and Feifei Yan and Lin Cai and Chenxing Xin and Shamoon {Al Islam}
Title Graphene Oxide-loaded magnetic nanoparticles within 3D hydrogel form High-performance scaffolds for bone regeneration and tumour treatment [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing
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The treatment of tumour-related bone defects should ideally combine bone regeneration with tumour treatment. Additive manufacturing (AM) could feasibly place functional bone-repair materials within composite materials with functional-grade structures, giving them bone repair and anti-tumour effects. Magnetothermal therapy is a promising non-invasive method of tumour treatment that has attracted increasing attention. In this study, we prepared novel hydrogel composite scaffolds of polyvinyl alcohol/sodium alginate/hydroxyapatite (PVA/SA/HA) at low temperature via AM. The scaffolds were loaded with various concentrations of magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) @Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The scaffolds were characterised by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), which showed that the scaffolds have good moulding qualities and strong hydrogen bonding between the MGO/PVA/SA/HA components. TGA analysis demonstrated the expected thermal stability of the MGO and scaffolds. Thermal effects can be adjusted by varying the contents of MGO and the strength of an external alternating magnetic field. The prepared MGO hydrogel composite scaffolds enhance biological functions and support bone mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in vitro. The scaffolds also show favourable anti-tumour characteristics with effective magnetothermal conversion in vivo.
AUTHOR Zhang, Xiao and Liu, Yang and Zuo, Qiang and Wang, Qingyun and Li, Zuxi and Yan, Kai and Yuan, Tao and Zhang, Yi and Shen, Kai and Xie, Rui and Fan, Weimin
Title 3D Bioprinting of Biomimetic Bilayered Scaffold Consisting of Decellularized Extracellular Matrix and Silk Fibroin for Osteochondral Repair [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Bioprinting; Vol 7, No 4 (2021)
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Abstract
Recently, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology is becoming an appealing approach for osteochondral repair. However, it is challenging to develop a bilayered scaffold with anisotropic structural properties to mimic a native osteochondral tissue. Herein, we developed a bioink consisting of decellularized extracellular matrix and silk fibroin to print the bilayered scaffold. The bilayered scaffold mimics the natural osteochondral tissue by controlling the composition, mechanical properties, and growth factor release in each layer of the scaffold. The in vitro results show that each layer of scaffolds had a suitable mechanical strength and degradation rate. Furthermore, the scaffolds encapsulating transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) can act as a controlled release system and promote directed differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Furthermore, the in vivo experiments suggested that the scaffolds loaded with growth factors promoted osteochondral regeneration in the rabbit knee joint model. Consequently, the biomimetic bilayered scaffold loaded with TGF-β and BMP-2 would be a promising strategy for osteochondral repair.
AUTHOR Nulty, Jessica and Freeman, Fiona E. and Browe, David C. and Burdis, Ross and Ahern, Daniel P. and Pitacco, Pierluca and Lee, Yu Bin and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D Bioprinting of prevascularised implants for the repair of critically-sized bone defects [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Abstract
For 3D bioprinted tissues to be scaled-up to clinically relevant sizes, effective prevascularisation strategies are required to provide the necessary nutrients for normal metabolism and to remove associated waste by-products. The aim of this study was to develop a bioprinting strategy to engineer prevascularised tissues in vitro and to investigate the capacity of such constructs to enhance the vascularisation and regeneration of large bone defects in vivo. From a screen of different bioinks, a fibrin-based hydrogel was found to best support human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) sprouting and the establishment of a microvessel network. When this bioink was combined with HUVECs and supporting human bone marrow stem/stromal cells (hBMSCs), these microvessel networks persisted in vitro. Furthermore, only bioprinted tissues containing both HUVECs and hBMSCs, that were first allowed to mature in vitro, supported robust blood vessel development in vivo. To assess the therapeutic utility of this bioprinting strategy, these bioinks were used to prevascularise 3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds, which were subsequently implanted into critically-sized femoral bone defects in rats. Microcomputed tomography (µCT) angiography revealed increased levels of vascularisation in vivo, which correlated with higher levels of new bone formation. Such prevascularised constructs could be used to enhance the vascularisation of a range of large tissue defects, forming the basis of multiple new bioprinted therapeutics. Statement of Significance This paper demonstrates a versatile 3D bioprinting technique to improve the vascularisation of tissue engineered constructs and further demonstrates how this method can be incorporated into a bone tissue engineering strategy to improve vascularisation in a rat femoral defect model.
AUTHOR Das,Sanskrita and Nam,Hyoryung and Jang,Jinah
Title 3D bioprinting of stem cell-laden cardiac patch: A promising alternative for myocardial repair
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings APL Bioengineering
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AUTHOR Zhang, Yi and Wang, Bin and Hu, Junchao and Yin, Tianyuan and Yue, Tao and Liu, Na and Liu, Yuanyuan
Title 3D Composite Bioprinting for Fabrication of Artificial Biological Tissues. [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International journal of bioprinting
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an important technology for fabricating artificial tissue. To effectively reconstruct the multiscale structure and multi-material gradient of natural tissues and organs, 3D bioprinting has been increasingly developed into multi-process composite mode. The current 3D composite bioprinting is a combination of two or more printing processes, and oftentimes, physical field regulation that can regulate filaments or cells during or after printing may be involved. Correspondingly, both path planning strategy and process control all become more complex. Hence, the computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system that is traditionally used in 3D printing system is now facing challenges. Thus, the scale information that cannot be modeled in the CAD process should be considered in the design of CAM by adding a process management module in the traditional CAD/CAM system and add more information reflecting component gradient in the path planning strategy.
AUTHOR Francesca Cestari and Mauro Petretta and Yuejiao Yang and Antonella Motta and Brunella Grigolo and Vincenzo M. Sglavo
Title 3D printing of PCL/nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds derived from biogenic sources for bone tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Sustainable Materials and Technologies
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Bioactive composites made of ∽85 wt% poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and ∽15 wt% nanometric hydroxyapatite (HA) produced from biogenic sources were 3D printed by an extrusion-based process to obtain porous scaffolds suitable for bone regeneration. Three different composite formulations were considered by using HA synthesized from three distinct natural sources, which were collected as food wastes: cuttlefish bones, mussel shells and chicken eggshells. Composition and thermal properties of the materials were analysed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray spectroscopy (XRD), while the morphological and mechanical properties of the 3D scaffolds were studied by means of electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Bioactivity was tested by seeding human osteoblast cell line (MG63) onto the scaffolds which were analysed by confocal microscopy and Alamar Blue and PicoGreen® tests after 1 to 7 culture days. The elastic modulus (177–316 MPa) is found to be within the range reported for typical trabecular bones being increased by the presence of the bio-HA particles. Moreover, cells adhesion, viability and proliferation are largely promoted in the scaffolds containing nanometric HA with respect to pure PCL, the best results being revealed when mussel shell-derived HA is used. Indeed, different biological sources result in different cell proliferation rates, pointing that the biological origin has an impact on the cells-scaffold interaction. In general, the results show that PCL/bio-HA scaffolds possess improved mechanical properties and enhanced bioactivity when compared with pure PCL ones.
AUTHOR Vyas, Cian and Zhang, Jun and Øvrebø, Øystein and Huang, Boyang and Roberts, Iwan and Setty, Mohan and Allardyce, Benjamin and Haugen, Håvard and Rajkhowa, Rangam and Bartolo, Paulo
Title 3D printing of silk microparticle reinforced polycaprolactone scaffolds for tissue engineering applications [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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Abstract
Polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds have been widely investigated for tissue engineering applications, however, they exhibit poor cell adhesion and mechanical properties. Subsequently, PCL composites have been produced to improve the material properties. This study utilises a natural material, Bombyx mori silk microparticles (SMP) prepared by milling silk fibre, to produce a composite to enhance the scaffolds properties. Silk is biocompatible and biodegradable with excellent mechanical properties. However, there are no studies using SMPs as a reinforcing agent in a 3D printed thermoplastic polymer scaffold. PCL/SMP (10, 20, 30 wt%) composites were prepared by melt blending. Rheological analysis showed that SMP loading increased the shear thinning and storage modulus of the material. Scaffolds were fabricated using a screw-assisted extrusion-based additive manufacturing system. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography was used to determine scaffold morphology. The scaffolds had high interconnectivity with regular printed fibres and pore morphologies within the designed parameters. Compressive mechanical testing showed that the addition of SMP significantly improved the compressive Young's modulus of the scaffolds. The scaffolds were more hydrophobic with the inclusion of SMP which was linked to a decrease in total protein adsorption. Cell behaviour was assessed using human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells. A cytotoxic effect was observed at higher particle loading (30 wt%) after 7 days of culture. By day 21, 10 wt% loading showed significantly higher cell metabolic activity and proliferation, high cell viability, and cell migration throughout the scaffold. Calcium mineral deposition was observed on the scaffolds during cell culture. Large calcium mineral deposits were observed at 30 wt% and smaller calcium deposits were observed at 10 wt%. This study demonstrates that SMPs incorporated into a PCL scaffold provided effective mechanical reinforcement, improved the rate of degradation, and increased cell proliferation, demonstrating potential suitability for bone tissue engineering applications.
AUTHOR Golafshan, Nasim and Willemsen, Koen and Kadumudi, Firoz Babu and Vorndran, Elke and Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza and Weinans, Harrie and van der Wal, Bart C. H. and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel
Title 3D-Printed Regenerative Magnesium Phosphate Implant Ensures Stability and Restoration of Hip Dysplasia [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract Osteoarthritis of the hip is a painful and debilitating condition commonly occurring in humans and dogs. One of the main causes that leads to hip osteoarthritis is hip dysplasia. Although the current surgical methods to correct dysplasia work satisfactorily in many circumstances, these are associated with serious complications, tissue resorption, and degeneration. In this study, a one-step fabrication of a regenerative hip implant with a patient-specific design and load-bearing properties is reported. The regenerative hip implant is fabricated based on patient imaging files and by an extrusion assisted 3D printing process using a flexible, bone-inducing biomaterial. The novel implant can be fixed with metallic screws to host bone and can be loaded up to physiological loads without signs of critical permanent deformation or failure. Moreover, after exposing the hip implant to accelerated in vitro degradation, it is confirmed that it is still able to support physiological loads even after losing ≈40% of its initial mass. In addition, the osteopromotive properties of the novel hip implant is demonstrated as shown by an increased expression of osteonectin and osteocalcin by cultured human mesenchymal stem cells after 21 days. Overall, the proposed hip implant provides an innovative regenerative and mechanically stable solution for hip dysplasia treatment.
AUTHOR Chelsea Twohig and Mari Helsinga and Amin Mansoorifar and Avathamsa Athirasala and Anthony Tahayeri and Cristiane Miranda França and Silvia Amaya Pajares and Reyan Abdelmoniem and Susanne Scherrer and Stéphane Durual and Jack Ferracane and Luiz E. Bertassoni
Title A dual-ink 3D printing strategy to engineer pre-vascularized bone scaffolds in-vitro [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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Abstract
A functional vascular supply is a key component of any large-scale tissue, providing support for the metabolic needs of tissue-remodeling cells. Although well-studied strategies exist to fabricate biomimetic scaffolds for bone regeneration, success rates for regeneration in larger defects can be improved by engineering microvascular capillaries within the scaffolds to enhance oxygen and nutrient supply to the core of the engineered tissue as it grows. Even though the role of calcium and phosphate has been well understood to enhance osteogenesis, it remains unclear whether calcium and phosphate may have a detrimental effect on the vasculogenic and angiogenic potential of endothelial cells cultured on 3D printed bone scaffolds. In this study, we presented a novel dual-ink bioprinting method to create vasculature interwoven inside CaP bone constructs. In this method, strands of a CaP ink and a sacrificial template material was used to form scaffolds containing CaP fibers and microchannels seeded with vascular endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within a photo-crosslinkable gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel material. Our results show similar morphology of growing vessels in the presence of CaP bioink, and no significant difference in endothelial cell sprouting was found. Furthermore, our initial results showed the differentiation of hMSCs into pericytes in the presence of CaP ink. These results indicate the feasibility of creating vascularized bone scaffolds, which can be used for enhancing vascular formation in the core of bone scaffolds.
AUTHOR Bin Wang and Pedro J. Díaz-Payno and David C. Browe and Fiona E. Freeman and Jessica Nulty and Ross Burdis and Daniel J. Kelly
Title Affinity-bound growth factor within sulfated interpenetrate network bioinks for bioprinting cartilaginous tissues [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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3D bioprinting has emerged as a promising technology in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to its ability to create anatomically complex tissue substitutes. However, it still remains challenging to develop bioactive bioinks that provide appropriate and permissive environments to instruct and guide the regenerative process in vitro and in vivo. In this study alginate sulfate, a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) mimic, was used to functionalize an alginate-gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) interpenetrating network (IPN) bioink to enable the bioprinting of cartilaginous tissues. The inclusion of alginate sulfate had a limited influence on the viscosity, shear-thinning and thixotropic properties of the IPN bioink, enabling high-fidelity bioprinting and supporting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) viability post-printing. The stiffness of printed IPN constructs greatly exceeded that achieved by printing alginate or GelMA alone, while maintaining resilience and toughness. Furthermore, given the high affinity of alginate sulfate to heparin-binding growth factors, the sulfated IPN bioink supported the sustained release of transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3), providing an environment that supported robust chondrogenesis in vitro, with little evidence of hypertrophy or mineralization over extended culture periods. Such bioprinted constructs also supported chondrogenesis in vivo, with the controlled release of TGF-β3 promoting significantly higher levels of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix deposition. Altogether, these results demonstrate the potential of bioprinting sulfated bioinks as part of a ‘single-stage’ or ‘point-of-care’ strategy for regenerating cartilaginous tissues. Statement of Significance: This study highlights the potential of using sulfated interpenetrating network (IPN) bioink to support the regeneration of phenotypically stable articular cartilage. Construction of interpenetrate networks in the bioink enables unique high-fidelity bioprinting and unique synergistic mechanical properties. The presence of alginate sulfate provided the capacity of high affinity-binding of TGF-β3, which promoted robust chondrogenesis.
AUTHOR Rachel Cadle and Dan Rogozea and Leni Moldovan and Patricia Parsons-Wingerter and Nicanor I. Moldovan
Title An image analysis-based workflow for 3D bioprinting of anatomically realistic retinal vascular patterns [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
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Abstract
There is an enduring need for vascularization of bioprinted constructs with vascular networks optimized for distribution of nutrient-containing fluids, both for in vitro applications and in vivo implantation. However, most of the efforts in this field were directed so far towards generation of simple linear channels, often lined with endothelial cells only, and thus lacking the anatomical details of real vascular networks. To start addressing this need, here we explored the possibility of using actual vascular patterns derived from human ocular fundus for instructing the 3D printing activity. In order to assign to these patterns the organ-specific topology, and eventually vessel branch-defined cellular composition, we describe the use of the branching analysis program VESGEN 2D for planning a workflow that links the primary vascular images with their 3D printing with bioinks. To this end, we show how to process flat vascular images and, for an even more realistic representation, how to retro-engineer concave retinal patterns from flat images and to print them in a supporting hydrogel. This work opens the possibility of bioprinting more anatomically realistic vascular networks, and thus to eventually improve the vascularization of living tissue-engineered constructs.
AUTHOR Yuanhao Wu and Gabriele Maria Fortunato and Babatunde O Okesola and Francesco Luigi Pellerej di Brocchetti and Ratima Suntornnond and John Connelly and Carmelo De Maria and Jose Carlos Rodriguez-Cabello and Giovanni Vozzi and Wen Wang and Alvaro Mata
Title An interfacial self-assembling bioink for the manufacturing of capillary-like structures with tuneable and anisotropic permeability [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Abstract
Self-assembling bioinks offer the possibility to biofabricate with molecular precision, hierarchical control, and biofunctionality. For this to become a reality with widespread impact, it is essential to engineer these ink systems ensuring reproducibility and providing suitable standardization. We have reported a self-assembling bioink based on disorder-to-order transitions of an elastin-like recombinamer (ELR) to co-assemble with graphene oxide (GO). Here, we establish reproducible processes, optimize printing parameters for its use as a bioink, describe new advantages that the self-assembling bioink can provide, and demonstrate how to fabricate novel structures with physiological relevance. We fabricate capillary-like structures with resolutions down to ∼10 µm in diameter and ∼2 µm thick tube walls and use both experimental and finite element analysis to characterize the printing conditions, underlying interfacial diffusion-reaction mechanism of assembly, printing fidelity, and material porosity and permeability. We demonstrate the capacity to modulate the pore size and tune the permeability of the resulting structures with and without human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. Finally, the potential of the ELR-GO bioink to enable supramolecular fabrication of biomimetic structures was demonstrated by printing tubes exhibiting walls with progressively different structure and permeability.
AUTHOR Otto, I. A. and Capendale, P. E. and Garcia, J. P. and de Ruijter, M. and van Doremalen, R. F. M. and Castilho, M. and Lawson, T. and Grinstaff, M. W. and Breugem, C. C. and Kon, M. and Levato, R. and Malda, J.
Title Biofabrication of a shape-stable auricular structure for the reconstruction of ear deformities [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Today Bio
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Abstract
Bioengineering of the human auricle remains a significant challenge, where the complex and unique shape, the generation of high-quality neocartilage, and shape preservation are key factors. Future regenerative medicine–based approaches for auricular cartilage reconstruction will benefit from a smart combination of various strategies. Our approach to fabrication of an ear-shaped construct uses hybrid bioprinting techniques, a recently identified progenitor cell population, previously validated biomaterials, and a smart scaffold design. Specifically, we generated a 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold via fused deposition modeling, photocrosslinked a human auricular cartilage progenitor cell–laden gelatin methacryloyl (gelMA) hydrogel within the scaffold, and cultured the bioengineered structure in vitro in chondrogenic media for 30 days. Our results show that the fabrication process maintains the viability and chondrogenic phenotype of the cells, that the compressive properties of the combined PCL and gelMA hybrid auricular constructs are similar to native auricular cartilage, and that biofabricated hybrid auricular structures exhibit excellent shape fidelity compared with the 3D digital model along with deposition of cartilage-like matrix in both peripheral and central areas of the auricular structure. Our strategy affords an anatomically enhanced auricular structure with appropriate mechanical properties, ensures adequate preservation of the auricular shape during a dynamic in vitro culture period, and enables chondrogenically potent progenitor cells to produce abundant cartilage-like matrix throughout the auricular construct. The combination of smart scaffold design with 3D bioprinting and cartilage progenitor cells holds promise for the development of clinically translatable regenerative medicine strategies for auricular reconstruction.
AUTHOR Nulty, Jessica and Burdis, Ross and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Biofabrication of Prevascularised Hypertrophic Cartilage Microtissues for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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Abstract
Bone tissue engineering (TE) has the potential to transform the treatment of challenging musculoskeletal pathologies. To date, clinical translation of many traditional TE strategies has been impaired by poor vascularisation of the implant. Addressing such challenges has motivated research into developmentally inspired TE strategies, whereby implants mimicking earlier stages of a tissue’s development are engineered in vitro and then implanted in vivo to fully mature into the adult tissue. The goal of this study was to engineer in vitro tissues mimicking the immediate developmental precursor to long bones, specifically a vascularised hypertrophic cartilage template, and to then assess the capacity of such a construct to support endochondral bone formation in vivo. To this end, we first developed a method for the generation of large numbers of hypertrophic cartilage microtissues using a microwell system, and encapsulated these microtissues into a fibrin-based hydrogel capable of supporting vasculogenesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The microwells supported the formation of bone marrow derived stem/stromal cell (BMSC) aggregates and their differentiation toward a hypertrophic cartilage phenotype over 5 weeks of cultivation, as evident by the development of a matrix rich in sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG), collagen types I, II, and X, and calcium. Prevascularisation of these microtissues, undertaken in vitro 1 week prior to implantation, enhanced their capacity to mineralise, with significantly higher levels of mineralised tissue observed within such implants after 4 weeks in vivo within an ectopic murine model for bone formation. It is also possible to integrate such microtissues into 3D bioprinting systems, thereby enabling the bioprinting of scaled-up, patient-specific prevascularised implants. Taken together, these results demonstrate the development of an effective strategy for prevascularising a tissue engineered construct comprised of multiple individual microtissue “building blocks,” which could potentially be used in the treatment of challenging bone defects.
AUTHOR Falcones, Bryan and Sanz-Fraile, Héctor and Marhuenda, Esther and Mendizábal, Irene and Cabrera-Aguilera, Ignacio and Malandain, Nanthilde and Uriarte, Juan J. and Almendros, Isaac and Navajas, Daniel and Weiss, Daniel J. and Farré, Ramon and Otero, Jorge
Title Bioprintable Lung Extracellular Matrix Hydrogel Scaffolds for 3D Culture of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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Abstract
Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based cell therapy in acute respiratory diseases is based on MSC secretion of paracrine factors. Several strategies have proposed to improve this are being explored including pre-conditioning the MSCs prior to administration. We here propose a strategy for improving the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs based on cell preconditioning by growing them in native extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from the lung. To this end, a bioink with tunable stiffness based on decellularized porcine lung ECM hydrogels was developed and characterized. The bioink was suitable for 3D culturing of lung-resident MSCs without the need for additional chemical or physical crosslinking. MSCs showed good viability, and contraction assays showed the existence of cell–matrix interactions in the bioprinted scaffolds. Adhesion capacity and length of the focal adhesions formed were increased for the cells cultured within the lung hydrogel scaffolds. Also, there was more than a 20-fold increase of the expression of the CXCR4 receptor in the 3D-cultured cells compared to the cells cultured in plastic. Secretion of cytokines when cultured in an in vitro model of lung injury showed a decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators for the cells cultured in the 3D scaffolds. Moreover, the morphology of the harvested cells was markedly different with respect to conventionally (2D) cultured MSCs. In conclusion, the developed bioink can be used to bioprint structures aimed to improve preconditioning MSCs for therapeutic purposes.
AUTHOR Fisch, Philipp and Broguiere, Nicolas and Finkielsztein, Sergio and Linder, Thomas and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Bioprinting of Cartilaginous Auricular Constructs Utilizing an Enzymatically Crosslinkable Bioink [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Functional Materials
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Abstract
Abstract Bioprinting of functional tissues could overcome tissue shortages and allow a more rapid response for treatments. However, despite recent progress in bioprinting, and its outstanding ability to position cells and biomaterials in a precise 3D manner, its success has been limited, due to insufficient maturation of constructs into functional tissue. Here, a novel calcium-triggered enzymatic crosslinking (CTEC) mechanism for bioinks based on the activation cascade of Factor XIII is presented and utilized for the biofabrication of cartilaginous constructs. Hyaluronan transglutaminase (HA-TG), an enzymatically crosslinkable material, has shown excellent characteristics for chondrogenesis and builds the basis of the CTEC bioink. The bioink supports tissue maturation with neocartilage formation and stiffening of constructs up to 400 kPa. Bioprinted constructs remain stable in vivo for 24 weeks and bioprinted auricular constructs transform into cartilaginous grafts. A major limitation of the current study is the deposition of collagen I, indicating the maturation toward fibrocartilage rather than elastic cartilage. Shifting the maturation process toward elastic cartilage will therefore be essential in order for the developed bioinks to offer a novel tissue engineered treatment for microtia patients. CTEC bioprinting furthermore opens up use of enzymatically crosslinkable biopolymers and their modularity to support a multitude of tissues.
AUTHOR Bagnol, Romain and Sprecher, Christoph and Peroglio, Marianna and Chevalier, Jerome and Mahou, Redouan and Büchler, Philippe and Richards, Geoff and Eglin, David
Title Coaxial micro-extrusion of a calcium phosphate ink with aqueous solvents improves printing stability, structure fidelity and mechanical properties [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Abstract
Micro-extrusion-based 3D printing of complex geometrical and porous calcium phosphate (CaP) can improve treatment of bone defects through the production of personalized bone substitutes. However, achieving printing and post-printing shape stabilities for the efficient fabrication and application of rapid hardening protocol are still challenging. In this work, the coaxial printing of a self-setting CaP cement with water and ethanol mixtures aiming to increase the ink yield stress upon extrusion and the stability of fabricated structures was explored. Printing height of overhang structure was doubled when aqueous solvents were used and a 2 log increase of the stiffness was achieved post-printing. A standard and fast steam sterilization protocol applied as hardening step on the coaxial printed CaP cement (CPC) ink resulted in constructs with 4 to 5 times higher compressive moduli in comparison to extrusion process in the absence of solvent. This improved mechanical performance is likely due to rapid CPC setting, preventing cracks formation during hardening process. Thus, coaxial micro-extrusion-based 3D printing of a CPC ink with aqueous solvent enhances printability and allows the use of the widespread steam sterilization cycle as a standalone post-processing technique for production of 3D printed personalized CaP bone substitutes. Statement of Significance Coaxial micro-extrusion-based 3D printing of a self-setting CaP cement with water:ethanol mixtures increased the ink yield stress upon extrusion and the stability of fabricated structures. Printing height of overhang structure was doubled when aqueous solvents were used, and a 2 orders of magnitude log increase of the stiffness was achieved post-printing. A fast hardening step consisting of a standard steam sterilization was applied. Four to 5 times higher compressive moduli was obtained for hardened coaxially printed constructs. This improved mechanical performance is likely due to rapid CPC setting in the coaxial printing, preventing cracks formation during hardening process.
AUTHOR Fenelon, Mathilde and Etchebarne, Marion and Siadous, Robin and Grémare, Agathe and Durand, Marlène and Sentilhes, Loic and Catros, Sylvain and Gindraux, Florelle and L'Heureux, Nicolas and Fricain, Jean-Christophe
Title Comparison of amniotic membrane versus the induced membrane for bone regeneration in long bone segmental defects using calcium phosphate cement loaded with BMP-2 [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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Abstract
Thanks to its biological properties, the human amniotic membrane (HAM) combined with a bone substitute could be a single-step surgical alternative to the two-step Masquelet induced membrane (IM) technique for regeneration of critical bone defects. However, no study has directly compared these two membranes. We first designed a 3D-printed scaffold using calcium phosphate cement (CPC). We assessed its suitability in vitro to support human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) attachment and osteodifferentiation. We then performed a rat femoral critical size defect to compare the two-step IM technique with a single-step approach using the HAM. Five conditions were compared. Group 1 was left empty. Group 2 received the CPC scaffold loaded with rh-BMP2 (CPC/BMP2). Group 3 and 4 received the CPC/BMP2 scaffold covered with lyophilized or decellularized/lyophilized HAM. Group 5 underwent a two- step induced membrane procedure with insertion of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spacer followed by, after 4 weeks, its replacement with the CPC/BMP2 scaffold wrapped in the IM. Micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis were performed after six weeks. Results showed that the CPC scaffold supported the proliferation and osteodifferentiation of hBMSCs in vitro. In vivo, the CPC/BMP2 scaffold very efficiently induced bone formation and led to satisfactory healing of the femoral defect, in a single-step, without autograft or the need for any membrane covering. In this study, there was no difference between the two-step induced membrane procedure and a single step approach. However, the results indicated that none of the tested membranes further enhanced bone healing compared to the CPC/BMP2 group.
AUTHOR Petretta, Mauro and Gambardella, Alessandro and Boi, Marco and Berni, Matteo and Cavallo, Carola and Marchiori, Gregorio and Maltarello, Maria Cristina and Bellucci, Devis and Fini, Milena and Baldini, Nicola and Grigolo, Brunella and Cannillo, Valeria
Title Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration Based on PCL and Mg-Containing Bioactive Glasses [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Biology
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Abstract
Polycaprolactone (PCL) is widely used in additive manufacturing for the construction of scaffolds for tissue engineering because of its good bioresorbability, biocompatibility, and processability. Nevertheless, its use is limited by its inadequate mechanical support, slow degradation rate and the lack of bioactivity and ability to induce cell adhesion and, thus, bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we fabricated 3D PCL scaffolds reinforced with a novel Mg-doped bioactive glass (Mg-BG) characterized by good mechanical properties and biological reactivity. An optimization of the printing parameters and scaffold fabrication was performed; furthermore, an extensive microtopography characterization by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy was carried out. Nano-indentation tests accounted for the mechanical properties of the scaffolds, whereas SBF tests and cytotoxicity tests using human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were performed to evaluate the bioactivity and in vitro viability. Our results showed that a 50/50 wt% of the polymer-to-glass ratio provides scaffolds with a dense and homogeneous distribution of Mg-BG particles at the surface and roughness twice that of pure PCL scaffolds. Compared to pure PCL (hardness H = 35 ± 2 MPa and Young’s elastic modulus E = 0.80 ± 0.05 GPa), the 50/50 wt% formulation showed H = 52 ± 11 MPa and E = 2.0 ± 0.2 GPa, hence, it was close to those of trabecular bone. The high level of biocompatibility, bioactivity, and cell adhesion encourages the use of the composite PCL/Mg-BG scaffolds in promoting cell viability and supporting mechanical loading in the host trabecular bone.
AUTHOR Zhang, Xiao and Liu, Yang and Luo, Chunyang and Zhai, Chenjun and Li, Zuxi and Zhang, Yi and Yuan, Tao and Dong, Shilei and Zhang, Jiyong and Fan, Weimin
Title Crosslinker-free silk/decellularized extracellular matrix porous bioink for 3D bioprinting-based cartilage tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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Abstract
As cartilage tissue lacks the innate ability to mount an adequate regeneration response, damage to it is detrimental to the quality of life of the subject. The emergence of three-dimensional bioprinting (3DBP) technology presents an opportunity to repair articular cartilage defects. However, widespread adoption of this technique has been impeded by difficulty in preparing a suitable bioink and the toxicity inherent in the chemical crosslinking process of most bioinks. Our objective was to develop a crosslinker-free bioink with the same biological activity as the original cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) and good mechanical strength. We prepared bioinks containing different concentrations of silk fibroin and decellularized extracellular matrix (SF-dECM bioinks) mixed with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for 3D bioprinting. SF and dECM interconnect with each other through physical crosslinking and entanglement. A porous structure was formed by removing the polyethylene glycol from the SF-dECM bioink. The results showed the SF-dECM construct had a suitable mechanical strength and degradation rate, and the expression of chondrogenesis-specific genes was found to be higher than that of the SF control construct group. Finally, we confirmed that a SF-dECM construct that was designed to release TGF-β3 had the ability to promote chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs and provided a good cartilage repair environment, suggesting it is an ideal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Puertas-Bartolomé, María and Włodarczyk-Biegun, Małgorzata K. and del Campo, Aránzazu and Vázquez-Lasa, Blanca and San Román, Julio
Title Development of bioactive catechol functionalized nanoparticles applicable for 3D bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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Abstract
Efficient wound treatments to target specific events in the healing process of chronic wounds constitute a significant aim in regenerative medicine. In this sense, nanomedicine can offer new opportunities to improve the effectiveness of existing wound therapies. The aim of this study was to develop catechol bearing polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) and to evaluate their potential in the field of wound healing. Thus, NPs wound healing promoting activities, potential for drug encapsulation and controlled release, and further incorporation in a hydrogel bioink formulation to fabricate cell-laden 3D scaffolds are studied. NPs with 2 and 29 M % catechol contents (named NP2 and NP29) were obtained by nanoprecipitation and presented hydrodynamic diameters of 100 and 75 nm respectively. These nanocarriers encapsulated the hydrophobic compound coumarin-6 with 70% encapsulation efficiency values. In cell culture studies, the NPs had a protective effect in RAW 264.7 macrophages against oxidative stress damage induced by radical oxygen species (ROS). They also presented a regulatory effect on the inflammatory response of stimulated macrophages and promoted upregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. In particular, NP29 were used in a hydrogel bioink formulation using carboxymethyl chitosan and hyaluronic acid as polymeric matrices. Using a reactive mixing bioprinting approach, NP-loaded hydrogel scaffolds with good structural integrity, shape fidelity and homogeneous NPs dispersion, were obtained. The in vitro catechol NPs release profile of the printed scaffolds revealed a sustained delivery. The bioprinted scaffolds supported viability and proliferation of encapsulated L929 fibroblasts over 14 days. We envision that the catechol functionalized NPs and resulting bioactive bioink presented in this work offer promising advantages for wound healing applications, as they: 1) support controlled release of bioactive catechol NPs to the wound site; 2) can incorporate additional therapeutic functions by co-encapsulating drugs; 3) can be printed into 3D scaffolds with tailored geometries based on patient requirements.
AUTHOR Kamdem Tamo, Arnaud and Doench, Ingo and Walter, Lukas and Montembault, Alexandra and Sudre, Guillaume and David, Laurent and Morales-Helguera, Aliuska and Selig, Mischa and Rolauffs, Bernd and Bernstein, Anke and Hoenders, Daniel and Walther, Andreas and Osorio-Madrazo, Anayancy
Title Development of Bioinspired Functional Chitosan/Cellulose Nanofiber 3D Hydrogel Constructs by 3D Printing for Application in the Engineering of Mechanically Demanding Tissues [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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Soft tissues are commonly fiber-reinforced hydrogel composite structures, distinguishable from hard tissues by their low mineral and high water content. In this work, we proposed the development of 3D printed hydrogel constructs of the biopolymers chitosan (CHI) and cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), both without any chemical modification, which processing did not incorporate any chemical crosslinking. The unique mechanical properties of native cellulose nanofibers offer new strategies for the design of environmentally friendly high mechanical performance composites. In the here proposed 3D printed bioinspired CNF-filled CHI hydrogel biomaterials, the chitosan serves as a biocompatible matrix promoting cell growth with balanced hydrophilic properties, while the CNFs provide mechanical reinforcement to the CHI-based hydrogel. By means of extrusion-based printing (EBB), the design and development of 3D functional hydrogel scaffolds was achieved by using low concentrations of chitosan (2.0–3.0% (w/v)) and cellulose nanofibers (0.2–0.4% (w/v)). CHI/CNF printed hydrogels with good mechanical performance (Young’s modulus 3.0 MPa, stress at break 1.5 MPa, and strain at break 75%), anisotropic microstructure and suitable biological response, were achieved. The CHI/CNF composition and processing parameters were optimized in terms of 3D printability, resolution, and quality of the constructs (microstructure and mechanical properties), resulting in good cell viability. This work allows expanding the library of the so far used biopolymer compositions for 3D printing of mechanically performant hydrogel constructs, purely based in the natural polymers chitosan and cellulose, offering new perspectives in the engineering of mechanically demanding hydrogel tissues like intervertebral disc (IVD), cartilage, meniscus, among others.
AUTHOR Kjar, Andrew and McFarland, Bailey and Mecham, Keetch and Harward, Nathan and Huang, Yu
Title Engineering of tissue constructs using coaxial bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Bioactive Materials
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Abstract
Bioprinting is a rapidly developing technology for the precise design and manufacture of tissues in various biological systems or organs. Coaxial extrusion bioprinting, an emergent branch, has demonstrated a strong potential to enhance bioprinting's engineering versatility. Coaxial bioprinting assists in the fabrication of complex tissue constructs, by enabling concentric deposition of biomaterials. The fabricated tissue constructs started with simple, tubular vasculature but have been substantially developed to integrate complex cell composition and self-assembly, ECM patterning, controlled release, and multi-material gradient profiles. This review article begins with a brief overview of coaxial printing history, followed by an introduction of crucial engineering components. Afterward, we review the recent progress and untapped potential in each specific organ or biological system, and demonstrate how coaxial bioprinting facilitates the creation of tissue constructs. Ultimately, we conclude that this growing technology will contribute significantly to capabilities in the fields of in vitro modeling, pharmaceutical development, and clinical regenerative medicine.
AUTHOR Firipis, Kate and Nisbet, David R. and Franks, Stephanie J. and Kapsa, Robert M. I. and Pirogova, Elena and Williams, Richard J. and Quigley, Anita
Title Enhancing Peptide Biomaterials for Biofabrication [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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Biofabrication using well-matched cell/materials systems provides unprecedented opportunities for dealing with human health issues where disease or injury overtake the body’s native regenerative abilities. Such opportunities can be enhanced through the development of biomaterials with cues that appropriately influence embedded cells into forming functional tissues and organs. In this context, biomaterials’ reliance on rigid biofabrication techniques needs to support the incorporation of a hierarchical mimicry of local and bulk biological cues that mimic the key functional components of native extracellular matrix. Advances in synthetic self-assembling peptide biomaterials promise to produce reproducible mimics of tissue-specific structures and may go some way in overcoming batch inconsistency issues of naturally sourced materials. Recent work in this area has demonstrated biofabrication with self-assembling peptide biomaterials with unique biofabrication technologies to support structural fidelity upon 3D patterning. The use of synthetic self-assembling peptide biomaterials is a growing field that has demonstrated applicability in dermal, intestinal, muscle, cancer and stem cell tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Oliveira, Hugo and Médina, Chantal and Stachowicz, Marie-Laure and Paiva dos Santos, Bruno and Chagot, Lise and Dusserre, Nathalie and Fricain, Jean-Christophe
Title Extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived bioinks designed to foster vasculogenesis and neurite outgrowth: Characterization and bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
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The field of bioprinting has shown a tremendous development in recent years, focusing on the development of advanced in vitro models and on regeneration approaches. In this scope, the lack of suitable biomaterials that can be efficiently formulated as printable bioinks, while supporting specific cellular events, is currently considered as one of the main limitations in the field. Indeed, extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived biomaterials formulated to enable printability and support cellular response, for instance via integrin binding, are eagerly awaited in the field of bioprinting. Several bioactive laminin sequences, including peptides such as YIGSR and IKVAV, have been identified to promote endothelial cell attachment and/or neurite outgrowth and guidance, respectively. Here, we show the development of two distinct bioinks, designed to foster vasculogenesis or neurogenesis, based on methacrylated collagen and hyaluronic acid (CollMA and HAMA, respectively), both relevant ECM-derived polymers, and on their combination with cysteine-flanked laminin-derived peptides. Using this strategy, it was possible to optimize the bioink printability, by tuning CollMA and HAMA concentration and ratio, and modulate their bioactivity, through adjustments in the cell-active peptide sequence spatial density, without compromising cell viability. We demonstrated that cell-specific bioinks could be customized for the bioprinting of both human umbilical vein cord endothelial cells (HUVECs) or adult rat sensory neurons from the dorsal root ganglia, and could stimulate both vasculogenesis and neurite outgrowth, respectively. This approach holds great potential as it can be tailored to other cellular models, due to its inherent capacity to accommodate different peptide compositions and to generate complex peptide mixtures and/or gradients.
AUTHOR Tarun Agarwal and Marco Costantini and Tapas Kumar Maiti
Title Extrusion 3D printing with Pectin-based ink formulations: Recent trends in tissue engineering and food manufacturing [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Biomedical Engineering Advances
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3D printing technologies are rapidly revolutionizing all manufacturing sectors due to their ability to create objects with complex geometries in a reproducible and automated manner using material/cell-based formulations, precisely termed printing inks. In this regard, pectin, a naturally occurring plant polysaccharide, has been proposed as a potential component of ink formulations. In this mini-review, we would overview the most recent advances made with pectin-based inks in the fields of tissue engineering and food manufacturing. We also discuss various strategies used to formulate 3D printable pectin inks. Finally, various challenges and prospects for future development are discussed.
AUTHOR Götz, Lisa-Marie and Holeczek, Katharina and Groll, Jürgen and Jüngst, Tomasz and Gbureck, Uwe
Title Extrusion-Based 3D Printing of Calcium Magnesium Phosphate Cement Pastes for Degradable Bone Implants [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials
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This study aimed to develop printable calcium magnesium phosphate pastes that harden by immersion in ammonium phosphate solution post-printing. Besides the main mineral compound, biocompatible ceramic, magnesium oxide and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) were the crucial components. Two pastes with different powder to liquid ratios of 1.35 g/mL and 1.93 g/mL were characterized regarding their rheological properties. Here, ageing over the course of 24 h showed an increase in viscosity and extrusion force, which was attributed to structural changes in HPMC as well as the formation of magnesium hydroxide by hydration of MgO. The pastes enabled printing of porous scaffolds with good dimensional stability and enabled a setting reaction to struvite when immersed in ammonium phosphate solution. Mechanical performance under compression was approx. 8–20 MPa as a monolithic structure and 1.6–3.0 MPa for printed macroporous scaffolds, depending on parameters such as powder to liquid ratio, ageing time, strand thickness and distance.
AUTHOR Paulo Roberto {Lopes Nalesso} and Weiguang Wang and Yanhao Hou and Leonardo Bagne and Amanda Tavares Pereira and Julia Venturini Helaehil and Thiago Antônio {Moretti de Andrade} and Gabriela Bortolança Chiarotto and Paulo Bártolo and Guilherme Ferreira Caetano
Title In vivo investigation of 3D printed polycaprolactone/graphene electro-active bone scaffolds [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
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Additive manufactured scaffolds are widely used as 3D support structures for tissue engineering. This paper investigates the mechanisms behind bone regeneration due to the combined use of 3D printed poly (ϵ-caprolactone)/graphene (PCL/G) electro-active scaffolds and electrical stimulation. A comprehensive in vivo study was conducted to assess the proposed approach, using a rat model. Results show that the combined use of electro-active scaffolds and electrical stimulation therapy accelerates the bone regeneration process and the formation of more organized new bone, through fast angiogenesis, and a rapid transition to the mineralization and bone remodelling phase. The mechanism is investigated and explained.
AUTHOR e Silva, Edney P. and Huang, Boyang and Helaehil, Júlia V. and Nalesso, Paulo R. L. and Bagne, Leonardo and de Oliveira, Maraiara A. and Albiazetti, Gabriela C. C. and Aldalbahi, Ali and El-Newehy, Mohamed and Santamaria-Jr, Milton and Mendonça, Fernanda A. S. and Bártolo, Paulo and Caetano, Guilherme F.
Title In vivo study of conductive 3D printed PCL/MWCNTs scaffolds with electrical stimulation for bone tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Bio-Design and Manufacturing
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Critical bone defects are considered one of the major clinical challenges in reconstructive bone surgery. The combination of 3D printed conductive scaffolds and exogenous electrical stimulation (ES) is a potential favorable approach for bone tissue repair. In this study, 3D conductive scaffolds made with biocompatible and biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were produced using the extrusion-based additive manufacturing to treat large calvary bone defects in rats. Histology results show that the use of PCL/MWCNTs scaffolds and ES contributes to thicker and increased bone tissue formation within the bone defect. Angiogenesis and mineralization are also significantly promoted using high concentration of MWCNTs (3 wt%) and ES. Moreover, scaffolds favor the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive cell formation, while the addition of MWCNTs seems to inhibit the osteoclastogenesis but present limited effects on the osteoclast functionalities (receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expressions). The use of ES promotes the osteoclastogenesis and RANKL expressions, showing a dominant effect in the bone remodeling process. These results indicate that the combination of 3D printed conductive PCL/MWCNTs scaffold and ES is a promising strategy to treat critical bone defects and provide a cue to establish an optimal protocol to use conductive scaffolds and ES for bone tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Zamani, Yasaman and Amoabediny, Ghassem and Mohammadi, Javad and Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz and Klein-Nulend, Jenneke and Helder, Marco N.
Title Increased Osteogenic Potential of Pre-Osteoblasts on Three-Dimensional Printed Scaffolds Compared to Porous Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Iranian Biomedical Journal
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Background: One of the main challenges with conventional scaffold fabrication methods is the inability to control scaffold architecture. Recently, scaffolds with controlled shape and architecture have been fabricated using three-dimensional printing (3DP). Herein, we aimed to determine whether the much tighter control of microstructure of 3DP poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid/β-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) scaffolds is more effective in promoting osteogenesis than porous scaffolds produced by solvent casting/porogen leaching. Methods: Physical and mechanical properties of porous and 3DP scaffolds were studied. The response of pre-osteoblasts to the scaffolds was analyzed after 14 days. Results: The 3DP scaffolds had a smoother surface (Ra: 22 ± 3 µm) relative to the highly rough surface of porous scaffolds (Ra: 110 ± 15 µm). Water contact angle was 112 ± 4° on porous and 76 ± 6° on 3DP scaffolds. Porous and 3DP scaffolds had the pore size of 408 ± 90 and 315 ± 17 µm and porosity of 85 ± 5% and 39 ± 7%, respectively. Compressive strength of 3DP scaffolds (4.0 ± 0.3 MPa) was higher than porous scaffolds (1.7 ± 0.2 MPa). Collagenous matrix deposition was similar on both scaffolds. Cells proliferated from day 1 to day 14 by fourfold in porous and by 3.8-fold in 3DP scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was 21-fold higher in 3DP scaffolds than porous scaffolds. Conclusion: The 3DP scaffolds show enhanced mechanical properties and ALP activity compared to porous scaffolds in vitro, suggesting that 3DP PLGA/β-TCP scaffolds are possibly more favorable for bone formation.
AUTHOR Daskalakis, Evangelos and Liu, Fengyuan and Huang, Boyang and Acar, Anil A. and Cooper, Glen and Weightman, Andrew and Blunn, Gordon and Koç, Bahattin and Bartolo, Paulo
Title Investigating the Influence of Architecture and Material Composition of 3D Printed Anatomical Design Scaffolds for Large Bone Defects [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Bioprinting; Vol 7, No 2 (2021)
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There is a significant unmet clinical need to prevent amputations due to large bone loss injuries. We are addressing this problem by developing a novel, cost-effective osseointegrated prosthetic solution based on the use of modular pieces, bone bricks, made with biocompatible and biodegradable materials that fit together in a Lego-like way to form the prosthesis. This paper investigates the anatomical designed bone bricks with different architectures, pore size gradients, and material compositions. Polymer and polymer-composite 3D printed bone bricks are extensively morphological, mechanical, and biological characterized. Composite bone bricks were produced by mixing polycaprolactone (PCL) with different levels of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tri-calcium phosphate (TCP). Results allowed to establish a correlation between bone bricks architecture and material composition and bone bricks performance. Reinforced bone bricks showed improved mechanical and biological results. Best mechanical properties were obtained with PCL/TCP bone bricks with 38 double zig-zag filaments and 14 spiral-like pattern filaments, while the best biological results were obtained with PCL/HA bone bricks based on 25 double zig-zag filaments and 14 spiral-like pattern filaments.
AUTHOR Wang, Weiguang and Chen, Jun-Xiang and Hou, Yanhao and Bartolo, Paulo and Chiang, Wei-Hung
Title Investigations of Graphene and Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Enhanced Polycaprolactone 3D Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Nanomaterials
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Scaffolds play a key role in tissue engineering applications. In the case of bone tissue engineering, scaffolds are expected to provide both sufficient mechanical properties to withstand the physiological loads, and appropriate bioactivity to stimulate cell growth. In order to further enhance cell–cell signaling and cell–material interaction, electro-active scaffolds have been developed based on the use of electrically conductive biomaterials or blending electrically conductive fillers to non-conductive biomaterials. Graphene has been widely used as functioning filler for the fabrication of electro-active bone tissue engineering scaffolds, due to its high electrical conductivity and potential to enhance both mechanical and biological properties. Nitrogen-doped graphene, a unique form of graphene-derived nanomaterials, presents significantly higher electrical conductivity than pristine graphene, and better surface hydrophilicity while maintaining a similar mechanical property. This paper investigates the synthesis and use of high-performance nitrogen-doped graphene as a functional filler of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds enabling to develop the next generation of electro-active scaffolds. Compared to PCL scaffolds and PCL/graphene scaffolds, these novel scaffolds present improved in vitro biological performance.
AUTHOR Trucco, Diego and Sharma, Aarushi and Manferdini, Cristina and Gabusi, Elena and Petretta, Mauro and Desando, Giovanna and Ricotti, Leonardo and Chakraborty, Juhi and Ghosh, Sourabh and Lisignoli, Gina
Title Modeling and Fabrication of Silk Fibroin-Gelatin-Based Constructs Using Extrusion-Based Three-Dimensional Bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng.
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Robotic dispensing-based 3D bioprinting represents one of the most powerful technologies to develop hydrogel-based 3D constructs with enormous potential in the field of regenerative medicine. The optimization of hydrogel printing parameters, proper geometry and internal architecture of the constructs, and good cell viability during the bioprinting process are the essential requirements. In this paper, an analytical model based on the hydrogel rheological properties was developed to predict the extruded filament width in order to maximize the printed structure’s fidelity to the design. Viscosity data of two natural hydrogels were imputed to a power-law model to extrapolate the filament width. Further, the model data were validated by monitoring the obtained filament width as the output. Shear stress values occurring during the bioprinting process were also estimated. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were encapsulated in the silk fibroin-gelatin (G)-based hydrogel, and a 3D bioprinting process was performed to produce cell-laden constructs. Live and dead assay allowed estimating the impact of needle shear stress on cell viability after the bioprinting process. Finally, we tested the potential of hMSCs to undergo chondrogenic differentiation by evaluating the cartilaginous extracellular matrix production through immunohistochemical analyses. Overall, the use of the proposed analytical model enables defining the optimal printing parameters to maximize the fabricated constructs’ fidelity to design parameters before the process execution, enabling to achieve more controlled and standardized products than classical trial-and-error approaches in the biofabrication of engineered constructs. Employing modeling systems exploiting the rheological properties of the hydrogels might be a valid tool in the future for guaranteeing high cell viability and for optimizing tissue engineering approaches in regenerative medicine applications. Robotic dispensing-based 3D bioprinting represents one of the most powerful technologies to develop hydrogel-based 3D constructs with enormous potential in the field of regenerative medicine. The optimization of hydrogel printing parameters, proper geometry and internal architecture of the constructs, and good cell viability during the bioprinting process are the essential requirements. In this paper, an analytical model based on the hydrogel rheological properties was developed to predict the extruded filament width in order to maximize the printed structure’s fidelity to the design. Viscosity data of two natural hydrogels were imputed to a power-law model to extrapolate the filament width. Further, the model data were validated by monitoring the obtained filament width as the output. Shear stress values occurring during the bioprinting process were also estimated. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were encapsulated in the silk fibroin-gelatin (G)-based hydrogel, and a 3D bioprinting process was performed to produce cell-laden constructs. Live and dead assay allowed estimating the impact of needle shear stress on cell viability after the bioprinting process. Finally, we tested the potential of hMSCs to undergo chondrogenic differentiation by evaluating the cartilaginous extracellular matrix production through immunohistochemical analyses. Overall, the use of the proposed analytical model enables defining the optimal printing parameters to maximize the fabricated constructs’ fidelity to design parameters before the process execution, enabling to achieve more controlled and standardized products than classical trial-and-error approaches in the biofabrication of engineered constructs. Employing modeling systems exploiting the rheological properties of the hydrogels might be a valid tool in the future for guaranteeing high cell viability and for optimizing tissue engineering approaches in regenerative medicine applications.
AUTHOR Petretta, Mauro and Gambardella, Alessandro and Desando, Giovanna and Cavallo, Carola and Bartolotti, Isabella and Shelyakova, Tatiana and Goranov, Vitaly and Brucale, Marco and Dediu, Valentin Alek and Fini, Milena and Grigolo, Brunella
Title Multifunctional 3D-Printed Magnetic Polycaprolactone/Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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Multifunctional and resistant 3D structures represent a great promise and a great challenge in bone tissue engineering. This study addresses this problem by employing polycaprolactone (PCL)-based scaffolds added with hydroxyapatite (HAp) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION), able to drive on demand the necessary cells and other bioagents for a high healing efficiency. PCL-HAp-SPION scaffolds with different concentrations of the superparamagnetic component were developed through the 3D-printing technology and the specific topographical features were detected by Atomic Force and Magnetic Force Microscopy (AFM-MFM). AFM-MFM measurements confirmed a homogenous distribution of HAp and SPION throughout the surface. The magnetically assisted seeding of cells in the scaffold resulted most efficient for the 1% SPION concentration, providing good cell entrapment and adhesion rates. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) seeded onto PCL-HAp-1% SPION showed a good cell proliferation and intrinsic osteogenic potential, indicating no toxic effects of the employed scaffold materials. The performed characterizations and the collected set of data point on the inherent osteogenic potential of the newly developed PCL-HAp-1% SPION scaffolds, endorsing them towards next steps of in vitro and in vivo studies and validations.
AUTHOR Korpershoek, Jasmijn V. and Ruijter, Mylène de and Terhaard, Bastiaan F. and Hagmeijer, Michella H. and Saris, Daniël B.F. and Castilho, Miguel and Malda, Jos and Vonk, Lucienne A.
Title Potential of Melt Electrowritten Scaffolds Seeded with Meniscus Cells and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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Meniscus injury and meniscectomy are strongly related to osteoarthritis, thus there is a clinical need for meniscus replacement. The purpose of this study is to create a meniscus scaffold with micro-scale circumferential and radial fibres suitable for a one-stage cell-based treatment. Poly-caprolactone-based scaffolds with three different architectures were made using melt electrowriting (MEW) technology and their in vitro performance was compared with scaffolds made using fused-deposition modelling (FDM) and with the clinically used Collagen Meniscus Implants® (CMI®). The scaffolds were seeded with meniscus and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in fibrin gel and cultured for 28 d. A basal level of proteoglycan production was demonstrated in MEW scaffolds, the CMI®, and fibrin gel control, yet within the FDM scaffolds less proteoglycan production was observed. Compressive properties were assessed under uniaxial confined compression after 1 and 28 d of culture. The MEW scaffolds showed a higher Young’s modulus when compared to the CMI® scaffolds and a higher yield point compared to FDM scaffolds. This study demonstrates the feasibility of creating a wedge-shaped meniscus scaffold with MEW using medical-grade materials and seeding the scaffold with a clinically-feasible cell number and -type for potential translation as a one-stage treatment.
AUTHOR Lotz, Benedict and Bothe, Friederike and Deubel, Anne-Kathrin and Hesse, Eliane and Renz, Yvonne and Werner, Carsten and Schäfer, Simone and Böck, Thomas and Groll, Jürgen and von Rechenberg, Brigitte and Richter, Wiltrud and Hagmann, Sebastien
Title Preclinical Testing of New Hydrogel Materials for Cartilage Repair: Overcoming Fixation Issues in a Large Animal Model [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Biomaterials
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Abstract
Reinforced hydrogels represent a promising strategy for tissue engineering of articular cartilage. They can recreate mechanical and biological characteristics of native articular cartilage and promote cartilage regeneration in combination with mesenchymal stromal cells. One of the limitations of in vivo models for testing the outcome of tissue engineering approaches is implant fixation. The high mechanical stress within the knee joint, as well as the concave and convex cartilage surfaces, makes fixation of reinforced hydrogel challenging. Methods. Different fixation methods for full-thickness chondral defects in minipigs such as fibrin glue, BioGlue®, covering, and direct suturing of nonenforced and enforced constructs were compared. Because of insufficient fixation in chondral defects, superficial osteochondral defects in the femoral trochlea, as well as the femoral condyle, were examined using press-fit fixation. Two different hydrogels (starPEG and PAGE) were compared by 3D-micro-CT (μCT) analysis as well as histological analysis. Results. Our results showed fixation of below 50% for all methods in chondral defects. A superficial osteochondral defect of 1 mm depth was necessary for long-term fixation of a polycaprolactone (PCL)-reinforced hydrogel construct. Press-fit fixation seems to be adapted for a reliable fixation of 95% without confounding effects of glue or suture material. Despite the good integration of our constructs, especially in the starPEG group, visible bone lysis was detected in micro-CT analysis. There was no significant difference between the two hydrogels (starPEG and PAGE) and empty control defects regarding regeneration tissue and cell integration. However, in the starPEG group, more cell-containing hydrogel fragments were found within the defect area. Conclusion. Press-fit fixation in a superficial osteochondral defect in the medial trochlear groove of adult minipigs is a promising fixation method for reinforced hydrogels. To avoid bone lysis, future approaches should focus on multilayered constructs recreating the zonal cartilage as well as the calcified cartilage and the subchondral bone plate.
AUTHOR Iria Seoane-Viaño and Patricija Januskaite and Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo and Abdul W. Basit and Alvaro Goyanes
Title Semi-solid extrusion 3D printing in drug delivery and biomedicine: Personalised solutions for healthcare challenges [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Controlled Release
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an innovative additive manufacturing technology, capable of fabricating unique structures in a layer-by-layer manner. Semi-solid extrusion (SSE) is a subset of material extrusion 3D printing, and through the sequential deposition of layers of gel or paste creates objects of any desired size and shape. In comparison to other extrusion-based technologies, SSE 3D printing employs low printing temperatures which makes it suitable for drug delivery and biomedical applications, and the use of disposable syringes provides benefits in meeting critical quality requirements for pharmaceutical use. Besides pharmaceutical manufacturing, SSE 3D printing has attracted increasing attention in the field of bioelectronics, particularly in the manufacture of biosensors capable of measuring physiological parameters or as a means to trigger drug release from medical devices. This review begins by highlighting the major printing process parameters and material properties that influence the feasibility of transforming a 3D design into a 3D object, and follows with a discussion on the current SSE 3D printing developments and their applications in the fields of pharmaceutics, bioprinting and bioelectronics. Finally, the advantages and limitations of this technology are explored, before focusing on its potential clinical applications and suitability for preparing personalised medicines.
AUTHOR Chawla, Shikha and Desando, Giovanna and Gabusi, Elena and Sharma, Aarushi and Trucco, Diego and Chakraborty, Juhi and Manferdini, Cristina and Petretta, Mauro and Lisignoli, Gina and Ghosh, Sourabh
Title The effect of silk-gelatin bioink and TGF-β3 on mesenchymal stromal cells in 3D bioprinted chondrogenic constructs: A proteomic study [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Materials Research
Reftype Chawla2021
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Abstract
Major limitation of 3D bioprinting is the poor understanding of the role of bioink in modulating molecular signaling pathways. Phenotypically stable engineered articular cartilage was fabricated using silk fibroin-gelatin (SF-G) bioink and progenitor cells or mature articular chondrocytes. In the current study, role of SF-G bioink in modulating in vitro chondrogenic signaling pathways in human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hMSCs) is elucidated. The interaction between SF-G bioink and hMSCs augmented several chondrogenic pathways, including Wnt, HIF-1, and Notch. We explored the debatable role of TGF-β signaling, by assessing the differential protein expression by hMSCs-laden bioprinted constructs in the presence and absence of TGF-β3. hMSCs-laden bioprinted constructs contained a large percentage of collagen type II and Filamin-B, typical to the native articular cartilage. Hypertrophy markers were not identified following TGF-β3 addition. This is first detailed proteomics analysis to identify articular cartilage-specific pathways in SF-G-based 3D bioprinted construct.
AUTHOR Park, Wonbin and Gao, Ge and Cho, Dong-Woo
Title Tissue-Specific Decellularized Extracellular Matrix Bioinks for Musculoskeletal Tissue Regeneration and Modeling Using 3D Bioprinting Technology [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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Abstract
The musculoskeletal system is a vital body system that protects internal organs, supports locomotion, and maintains homeostatic function. Unfortunately, musculoskeletal disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide. Although implant surgeries using autografts, allografts, and xenografts have been conducted, several adverse effects, including donor site morbidity and immunoreaction, exist. To overcome these limitations, various biomedical engineering approaches have been proposed based on an understanding of the complexity of human musculoskeletal tissue. In this review, the leading edge of musculoskeletal tissue engineering using 3D bioprinting technology and musculoskeletal tissue-derived decellularized extracellular matrix bioink is described. In particular, studies on in vivo regeneration and in vitro modeling of musculoskeletal tissue have been focused on. Lastly, the current breakthroughs, limitations, and future perspectives are described.
AUTHOR De Moor, Lise and Minne, Mendy and Tytgat, Liesbeth and Vercruysse, Chris and Dubruel, Peter and Van Vlierberghe, Sandra and Declercq, Heidi
Title Tuning the Phenotype of Cartilage Tissue Mimics by Varying Spheroid Maturation and Methacrylamide-Modified Gelatin Hydrogel Characteristics [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Macromolecular Bioscience
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