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You are researching: Acrylates
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AUTHOR Schroeder, Thomas B. H. and Guha, Anirvan and Lamoureux, Aaron and VanRenterghem, Gloria and Sept, David and Shtein, Max and Yang, Jerry and Mayer, Michael
Title An electric-eel-inspired soft power source from stacked hydrogels [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Nature
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Progress towards the integration of technology into livingo ganisms requires electrical power sources that are biocompatible, mechanically flexible, and able to harness the chemical energy available inside biological systems. Conventional batteries were not designed with these criteria in mind. The electric organ of the knifefish Electrophorus electricus (commonly known as the electric eel) is, however, an example of an electrical power source that operates within biological constraints while featuring power characteristics that include peak potential differences of 600 volts and currents of 1 ampere1,2. Here we introduce an electric eel-inspired power concept that uses gradients of ions between miniature polyacrylamide hydrogel compartments bounded by a repeating sequence of cation- and anion-selective hydrogel membranes. The system uses a scalable stacking or folding geometry that generates 110 volts at open circuit or 27 milliwatts per square metre per gel cell upon simultaneous, self-registered mechanical contact activation of thousands of gel compartments in series while circumventing power dissipation before contact. Unlike typical batteries, these systems are soft, flexible, transparent, and potentially biocompatible. These characteristics suggest that artificial electric organs could be used to power next-generation implant materials such as pacemakers, implantable sensors, or prosthetic devices in hybrids of living and non-living systems3–6.�
AUTHOR Creusen, Guido and Roshanasan, Ardeshir and Garcia Lopez, Javier and Peneva, Kalina and Walther, Andreas
Title Bottom-up design of model network elastomers and hydrogels from precise star polymers [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Polymer Chemistry
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Abstract
We introduce a platform for the simultaneous design of model network hydrogels and bulk elastomers based on well-defined water-soluble star polymers with a low glass transition temperature (Tg). This platform is enabled via the development of a synthetic route to a new family of 4-arm star polymers based on water-soluble poly(triethylene glycol methyl ether acrylate) (p(mTEGA)){,} which after quantitative introduction of functional end-groups can serve as suitable building blocks for model network formation. We first describe in detail the synthesis of highly defined star polymers using light and Cu-wire mediated Cu-based reversible deactivation radical polymerization. The resulting polymers exhibit narrow dispersities and controlled arm length at very high molecular weights{,} and feature a desirable low Tg of −55 °C. Subsequently{,} we elucidate the rational design of the stiffness and elasticity in covalent model network elastomers and hydrogels formed by fast photo-crosslinking for different arm lengths{,} and construct thermally reversible model network hydrogels based on dynamic supramolecular bonds. In addition{,} we describe preliminary 3D-printing applications. This work provides a key alternative to commonly used star-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) for model hydrogel networks{,} and demonstrates access to new main and side chain chemistries{,} thus chain stiffnesses and entanglement molecular weight{,} and{,} critically{,} enables the simultaneous study of the mechanical behavior of bulk network elastomers and swollen hydrogels with the same network topology. In a wider perspective{,} this work also highlights the need for advancing precision polymer chemistry to allow for an understanding of architectural control for the rational design of functional mechanical network materials.
AUTHOR Tondera, Christoph and Akbar, Teuku Fawzul and Thomas, Alvin Kuriakose and Lin, Weilin and Werner, Carsten and Busskamp, Volker and Zhang, Yixin and Minev, Ivan R.
Title Highly Conductive, Stretchable, and Cell-Adhesive Hydrogel by Nanoclay Doping [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Small
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Electrically conductive materials that mimic physical and biological properties of tissues are urgently required for seamless brain–machine interfaces. Here, a multinetwork hydrogel combining electrical conductivity of 26 S m−1, stretchability of 800%, and tissue-like elastic modulus of 15 kPa with mimicry of the extracellular matrix is reported. Engineering this unique set of properties is enabled by a novel in-scaffold polymerization approach. Colloidal hydrogels of the nanoclay Laponite are employed as supports for the assembly of secondary polymer networks. Laponite dramatically increases the conductivity of in-scaffold polymerized poly(ethylene-3,4-diethoxy thiophene) in the absence of other dopants, while preserving excellent stretchability. The scaffold is coated with a layer containing adhesive peptide and polysaccharide dextran sulfate supporting the attachment, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells directly on the surface of conductive hydrogels. Due to its compatibility with simple extrusion printing, this material promises to enable tissue-mimetic neurostimulating electrodes.