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You are researching: Acrylates
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AUTHOR Schroeder, Thomas B. H. and Guha, Anirvan and Lamoureux, Aaron and VanRenterghem, Gloria and Sept, David and Shtein, Max and Yang, Jerry and Mayer, Michael
Title An electric-eel-inspired soft power source from stacked hydrogels [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Nature
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Abstract
Progress towards the integration of technology into livingo ganisms requires electrical power sources that are biocompatible, mechanically flexible, and able to harness the chemical energy available inside biological systems. Conventional batteries were not designed with these criteria in mind. The electric organ of the knifefish Electrophorus electricus (commonly known as the electric eel) is, however, an example of an electrical power source that operates within biological constraints while featuring power characteristics that include peak potential differences of 600 volts and currents of 1 ampere1,2. Here we introduce an electric eel-inspired power concept that uses gradients of ions between miniature polyacrylamide hydrogel compartments bounded by a repeating sequence of cation- and anion-selective hydrogel membranes. The system uses a scalable stacking or folding geometry that generates 110 volts at open circuit or 27 milliwatts per square metre per gel cell upon simultaneous, self-registered mechanical contact activation of thousands of gel compartments in series while circumventing power dissipation before contact. Unlike typical batteries, these systems are soft, flexible, transparent, and potentially biocompatible. These characteristics suggest that artificial electric organs could be used to power next-generation implant materials such as pacemakers, implantable sensors, or prosthetic devices in hybrids of living and non-living systems3–6.�
AUTHOR Zuoxin Zhou and Mario Samperi and Lea Santu and Glenieliz Dizon and Shereen Aboarkaba and David Limón and David Limón and Christopher Tuck and Lluïsa Pérez-García and Derek J. Irvine and David B. Amabilino and Ricky Wildman
Title An Imidazolium-Based Supramolecular Gelator Enhancing Interlayer Adhesion in 3D Printed Dual Network Hydrogels [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials & Design
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The variety of UV-curable monomers for 3D printing is limited by a requirement for rapid curing after each sweep depositing a layer. This study proposes to trigger supramolecular self-assembly during the process by a gemini imidazolium-based low-molecular-weight gelator, allowing printing of certain monomers. The as-printed hydrogel structures were supported by a gelator network immobilising monomer:water solutions. A thixotropic hydrogel was formed with a recovery time of < 50 seconds, storage modulus = 8.1 kPa and yield stress = 18 Pa, processable using material-extrusion 3D printing. Material-extrusion 3D printed objects are usually highly anisotropic, but in this case the gelator network improved the isotropy by subverting the usual layer-by-layer curing strategy. The monomer in all printed layers was cured simultaneously during post-processing to form a continuous polymeric network. The two networks then physically interpenetrate to enhance mechanical performance. The double-network hydrogels fabricated with layers cured simultaneously showed 62-147 % increases in tensile properties compared to layer-by-layer cured hydrogels. The results demonstrated excellent inter- and intra-layered coalescence. Consequently, the tensile properties of 3D printed hydrogels were close to mould cast objects. This study has demonstrated the benefits of using gelators to expand the variety of 3D printable monomers and shown improved isotropy to offer excellent mechanical performances.
AUTHOR Li, Huijun and Zheng, Han and Tan, Yu Jun and Tor, Shu Beng and Zhou, Kun
Title Development of an Ultrastretchable Double-Network Hydrogel for Flexible Strain Sensors [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
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The weak mechanical properties of hydrogels due to the inefficient dissipation of energy in the intrinsic structures limit their practical applications. Here, a double-network (DN) hydrogel has been developed by integrating an ionically cross-linked agar network, a covalently cross-linked acrylic acid (AAC) network, and the dynamic and reversible ionically cross-linked coordination between the AAC chains and Fe3+ ions. The proposed model reveals the mechanisms of the improved mechanical performances in the DN agar/AAC-Fe3+ hydrogel. The hydrogen-bond cross-linked double helices of agar and ionic-coordination interactions of AAC-Fe3+ can be temporarily sacrificed during large deformation to readily dissipate the energy, whereas the reversible AAC-Fe3+ interactions can be regenerated after stress relief, which greatly increases the material toughness. The developed DN hydrogel demonstrates a remarkable stretchability with a break strain up to 3174.3%, high strain sensitivity with the gauge factor being 0.83 under a strain of 1000%, and good 3D printability, making the material a desirable candidate for fabricating flexible strain sensors, electronic skin, and soft robots. The weak mechanical properties of hydrogels due to the inefficient dissipation of energy in the intrinsic structures limit their practical applications. Here, a double-network (DN) hydrogel has been developed by integrating an ionically cross-linked agar network, a covalently cross-linked acrylic acid (AAC) network, and the dynamic and reversible ionically cross-linked coordination between the AAC chains and Fe3+ ions. The proposed model reveals the mechanisms of the improved mechanical performances in the DN agar/AAC-Fe3+ hydrogel. The hydrogen-bond cross-linked double helices of agar and ionic-coordination interactions of AAC-Fe3+ can be temporarily sacrificed during large deformation to readily dissipate the energy, whereas the reversible AAC-Fe3+ interactions can be regenerated after stress relief, which greatly increases the material toughness. The developed DN hydrogel demonstrates a remarkable stretchability with a break strain up to 3174.3%, high strain sensitivity with the gauge factor being 0.83 under a strain of 1000%, and good 3D printability, making the material a desirable candidate for fabricating flexible strain sensors, electronic skin, and soft robots.
AUTHOR Creusen, Guido and Roshanasan, Ardeshir and Garcia Lopez, Javier and Peneva, Kalina and Walther, Andreas
Title Bottom-up design of model network elastomers and hydrogels from precise star polymers [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Polymer Chemistry
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We introduce a platform for the simultaneous design of model network hydrogels and bulk elastomers based on well-defined water-soluble star polymers with a low glass transition temperature (Tg). This platform is enabled via the development of a synthetic route to a new family of 4-arm star polymers based on water-soluble poly(triethylene glycol methyl ether acrylate) (p(mTEGA)){,} which after quantitative introduction of functional end-groups can serve as suitable building blocks for model network formation. We first describe in detail the synthesis of highly defined star polymers using light and Cu-wire mediated Cu-based reversible deactivation radical polymerization. The resulting polymers exhibit narrow dispersities and controlled arm length at very high molecular weights{,} and feature a desirable low Tg of −55 °C. Subsequently{,} we elucidate the rational design of the stiffness and elasticity in covalent model network elastomers and hydrogels formed by fast photo-crosslinking for different arm lengths{,} and construct thermally reversible model network hydrogels based on dynamic supramolecular bonds. In addition{,} we describe preliminary 3D-printing applications. This work provides a key alternative to commonly used star-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) for model hydrogel networks{,} and demonstrates access to new main and side chain chemistries{,} thus chain stiffnesses and entanglement molecular weight{,} and{,} critically{,} enables the simultaneous study of the mechanical behavior of bulk network elastomers and swollen hydrogels with the same network topology. In a wider perspective{,} this work also highlights the need for advancing precision polymer chemistry to allow for an understanding of architectural control for the rational design of functional mechanical network materials.
AUTHOR Tondera, Christoph and Akbar, Teuku Fawzul and Thomas, Alvin Kuriakose and Lin, Weilin and Werner, Carsten and Busskamp, Volker and Zhang, Yixin and Minev, Ivan R.
Title Highly Conductive, Stretchable, and Cell-Adhesive Hydrogel by Nanoclay Doping [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Small
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Abstract Electrically conductive materials that mimic physical and biological properties of tissues are urgently required for seamless brain–machine interfaces. Here, a multinetwork hydrogel combining electrical conductivity of 26 S m−1, stretchability of 800%, and tissue-like elastic modulus of 15 kPa with mimicry of the extracellular matrix is reported. Engineering this unique set of properties is enabled by a novel in-scaffold polymerization approach. Colloidal hydrogels of the nanoclay Laponite are employed as supports for the assembly of secondary polymer networks. Laponite dramatically increases the conductivity of in-scaffold polymerized poly(ethylene-3,4-diethoxy thiophene) in the absence of other dopants, while preserving excellent stretchability. The scaffold is coated with a layer containing adhesive peptide and polysaccharide dextran sulfate supporting the attachment, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells directly on the surface of conductive hydrogels. Due to its compatibility with simple extrusion printing, this material promises to enable tissue-mimetic neurostimulating electrodes.