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AUTHOR Asulin, Masha and Michael, Idan and Shapira, Assaf and Dvir, Tal
Title One-Step 3D Printing of Heart Patches with Built-In Electronics for Performance Regulation [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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Abstract Three dimensional (3D) printing of heart patches usually provides the ability to precisely control cell location in 3D space. Here, one-step 3D printing of cardiac patches with built-in soft and stretchable electronics is reported. The tissue is simultaneously printed using three distinct bioinks for the cells, for the conducting parts of the electronics and for the dielectric components. It is shown that the hybrid system can withstand continuous physical deformations as those taking place in the contracting myocardium. The electronic patch is flexible, stretchable, and soft, and the electrodes within the printed patch are able to monitor the function of the engineered tissue by providing extracellular potentials. Furthermore, the system allowed controlling tissue function by providing electrical stimulation for pacing. It is envisioned that such transplantable patches may regain heart contractility and allow the physician to monitor the implant function as well as to efficiently intervene from afar when needed.
AUTHOR Madiedo-Podvrsan, Sabrina and Belaïdi, Jean-Philippe and Desbouis, Stephanie and Simonetti, Lucie and Ben-Khalifa, Youcef and Soeur, Jérémie and Rielland, Maïté
Title Utilization of patterned bioprinting for heterogeneous and physiologically representative reconstructed epidermal skin models [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Scientific Reports
Reftype Madiedo-Podvrsan2021
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Organotypic skin tissue models have decades of use for basic research applications, the treatment of burns, and for efficacy/safety evaluation studies. The complex and heterogeneous nature of native human skin however creates difficulties for the construction of physiologically comparable organotypic models. Within the present study, we utilized bioprinting technology for the controlled deposition of separate keratinocyte subpopulations to create a reconstructed epidermis with two distinct halves in a single insert, each comprised of a different keratinocyte sub-population, in order to better model heterogonous skin and reduce inter-sample variability. As an initial proof-of-concept, we created a patterned epidermal skin model using GPF positive and negative keratinocyte subpopulations, both printed into 2 halves of a reconstructed skin insert, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. We then demonstrated the physiological relevance of this bioprinting technique by generating a heterogeneous model comprised of dual keratinocyte population with either normal or low filaggrin expression. The resultant model exhibited a well-organized epidermal structure with each half possessing the phenotypic characteristics of its constituent cells, indicative of a successful and stable tissue reconstruction. This patterned skin model aims to mimic the edge of lesions as seen in atopic dermatitis or ichthyosis vulgaris, while the use of two populations within a single insert allows for paired statistics in evaluation studies, likely increasing study statistical power and reducing the number of models required per study. This is the first report of human patterned epidermal model using a predefined bioprinted designs, and demonstrates the relevance of bioprinting to faithfully reproduce human skin microanatomy.
AUTHOR Monferrer, Ezequiel and Martín-Vañó, Susana and Carretero, Aitor and García-Lizarribar, Andrea and Burgos-Panadero, Rebeca and Navarro, Samuel and Samitier, Josep and Noguera, Rosa
Title A three-dimensional bioprinted model to evaluate the effect of stiffness on neuroblastoma cell cluster dynamics and behavior [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Scientific Reports
Reftype Monferrer2020
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Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted culture systems allow to accurately control microenvironment components and analyze their effects at cellular and tissue levels. The main objective of this study was to identify, quantify and localize the effects of physical-chemical communication signals between tumor cells and the surrounding biomaterial stiffness over time, defining how aggressiveness increases in SK-N-BE(2) neuroblastoma (NB) cell line. Biomimetic hydrogels with SK-N-BE(2) cells, methacrylated gelatin and increasing concentrations of methacrylated alginate (AlgMA 0%, 1% and 2%) were used. Young’s modulus was used to define the stiffness of bioprinted hydrogels and NB tumors. Stained sections of paraffin-embedded hydrogels were digitally quantified. Human NB and 1% AlgMA hydrogels presented similar Young´s modulus mean, and orthotopic NB mice tumors were equally similar to 0% and 1% AlgMA hydrogels. Porosity increased over time; cell cluster density decreased over time and with stiffness, and cell cluster occupancy generally increased with time and decreased with stiffness. In addition, cell proliferation, mRNA metabolism and antiapoptotic activity advanced over time and with stiffness. Together, this rheological, optical and digital data show the potential of the 3D in vitro cell model described herein to infer how intercellular space stiffness patterns drive the clinical behavior associated with NB patients.
AUTHOR Benmeridja, Lara and De Moor, Lise and De Maere, Elisabeth and Vanlauwe, Florian and Ryx, Michelle and Tytgat, Liesbeth and Vercruysse, Chris and Dubruel, Peter and Van Vlierberghe, Sandra and Blondeel, Phillip and Declercq, Heidi
Title High-throughput fabrication of vascularized adipose microtissues for 3D bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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Abstract For patients with soft tissue defects, repair with autologous in vitro engineered adipose tissue could be a promising alternative to current surgical therapies. A volume-persistent engineered adipose tissue construct under in vivo conditions can only be achieved by early vascularization after transplantation. The combination of 3D bioprinting technology with self-assembling microvascularized units as building blocks can potentially answer the need for a microvascular network. In the present study, co-culture spheroids combining adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were created with an ideal geometry for bioprinting. When applying the favourable seeding technique and condition, compact viable spheroids were obtained, demonstrating high adipogenic differentiation and capillary-like network formation after 7 and 14 days of culture, as shown by live/dead analysis, immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. Moreover, we were able to successfully 3D bioprint the encapsulated spheroids, resulting in compact viable spheroids presenting capillary-like structures, lipid droplets and spheroid outgrowth after 14 days of culture. This is the first study that generates viable high-throughput (pre-)vascularized adipose microtissues as building blocks for bioprinting applications using a novel ASC/HUVEC co-culture spheroid model, which enables both adipogenic differentiation while simultaneously supporting the formation of prevascular-like structures within engineered tissues in vitro.
AUTHOR Dubey, Nileshkumar and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Daghrery, Arwa and Aytac, Zeynep and Malda, Jos and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Highly Tunable Bioactive Fiber-Reinforced Hydrogel for Guided Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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One of the most damaging pathologies that affects the health of both soft and hard tissues around the tooth is periodontitis. Clinically, periodontal tissue destruction has been managed by an integrated approach involving elimination of injured tissues followed by regenerative strategies with bone substitutes and/or barrier membranes. Regrettably, a barrier membrane with predictable mechanical integrity and multifunctional therapeutic features has yet to be established. Herein, we report a fiber-reinforced hydrogel with unprecedented tunability in terms of mechanical competence and therapeutic features by integration of highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) fibrous mesh(es) with well-controlled 3D architecture into bioactive amorphous magnesium phosphate-laden gelatin methacryloyl hydrogels. The presence of amorphous magnesium phosphate and PCL mesh in the hydrogel can control the mechanical properties and improve the osteogenic ability, opening a tremendous opportunity in guided bone regeneration (GBR). Results demonstrate that the presence of PCL meshes fabricated via melt electrowriting can delay hydrogel degradation preventing soft tissue invasion and providing the mechanical barrier to allow time for slower migrating progenitor cells to participate in bone regeneration due to their ability to differentiate into bone-forming cells. Altogether, our approach offers a platform technology for the development of the next-generation of GBR membranes with tunable mechanical and therapeutic properties to amplify bone regeneration in compromised sites.
AUTHOR Peiffer, Quentin C. and de Ruijter, Mylène and van Duijn, Joost and Crottet, Denis and Dominic, Ernst and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel
Title Melt electrowriting onto anatomically relevant biodegradable substrates: Resurfacing a diarthrodial joint [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials & Design
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Three-dimensional printed hydrogel constructs with well-organized melt electrowritten (MEW) fibre-reinforcing scaffolds have been demonstrated as a promising regenerative approach to treat small cartilage defects. Here, we investige how to translate the fabrication of small fibre-reinforced structures on flat surfaces to anatomically relevant structures. In particular, the accurate deposition of MEW-fibres onto curved surfaces of conductive and non-conductive regenerative biomaterials is studied. This study reveals that clinically relevant materials with low conductivities are compatible with resurfacing with organized MEW fibres. Importantly, accurate patterning on non-flat surfaces was successfully shown, provided that a constant electrical field strength and an electrical force normal to the substrate material is maintained. Furthermore, the application of resurfacing the geometry of the medial human femoral condyle is confirmed by the fabrication of a personalised osteochondral implant. The implant composed of an articular cartilage-resident chondroprogenitor cells (ACPCs)-laden hydrogel reinforced with a well-organized MEW scaffold retained its personalised shape, improved its compressive properties and supported neocartilage formation after 28 days in vitro culture. Overall, this study establishes the groundwork for translating MEW from planar and non-resorbable material substrates to anatomically relevant geometries and regenerative materials that the regenerative medicine field aims to create.
AUTHOR Wei, Zhengxi and Liu, Xue and Ooka, Masato and Zhang, Li and Song, Min Jae and Huang, Ruili and Kleinstreuer, Nicole C. and Simeonov, Anton and Xia, Menghang and Ferrer, Marc
Title Two-Dimensional Cellular and Three-Dimensional Bio-Printed Skin Models to Screen Topical-Use Compounds for Irritation Potential [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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Assessing skin irritation potential is critical for the safety evaluation of topical drugs and other consumer products such as cosmetics. The use of advanced cellular models, as an alternative to replace animal testing in the safety evaluation for both consumer products and ingredients, is already mandated by law in the European Union (EU) and other countries. However, there has not yet been a large-scale comparison of the effects of topical-use compounds in different cellular skin models. This study assesses the irritation potential of topical-use compounds in different cellular models of the skin that are compatible with high throughput screening (HTS) platforms. A set of 451 topical-use compounds were first tested for cytotoxic effects using two-dimensional (2D) monolayer models of primary neonatal keratinocytes and immortalized human keratinocytes. Forty-six toxic compounds identified from the initial screen with the monolayer culture systems were further tested for skin irritation potential on reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) and full thickness skin (FTS) three-dimensional (3D) tissue model constructs. Skin irritation potential of the compounds was assessed by measuring tissue viability, trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), and secretion of cytokines interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α) and interleukin 18 (IL-18). Among known irritants, high concentrations of methyl violet and methylrosaniline decreased viability, lowered TEER, and increased IL-1α secretion in both RhE and FTS models, consistent with irritant properties. However, at low concentrations, these two compounds increased IL-18 secretion without affecting levels of secreted IL-1α, and did not reduce tissue viability and TEER, in either RhE or FTS models. This result suggests that at low concentrations, methyl violet and methylrosaniline have an allergic potential without causing irritation. Using both HTS-compatible 2D cellular and 3D tissue skin models, together with irritation relevant activity endpoints, we obtained data to help assess the irritation effects of topical-use compounds and identify potential dermal hazards.
AUTHOR Noor, Nadav and Shapira, Assaf and Edri, Reuven and Gal, Idan and Wertheim, Lior and Dvir, Tal
Title 3D Printing of Personalized Thick and Perfusable Cardiac Patches and Hearts [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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Abstract Generation of thick vascularized tissues that fully match the patient still remains an unmet challenge in cardiac tissue engineering. Here, a simple approach to 3D-print thick, vascularized, and perfusable cardiac patches that completely match the immunological, cellular, biochemical, and anatomical properties of the patient is reported. To this end, a biopsy of an omental tissue is taken from patients. While the cells are reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cells, and differentiated to cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, the extracellular matrix is processed into a personalized hydrogel. Following, the two cell types are separately combined with hydrogels to form bioinks for the parenchymal cardiac tissue and blood vessels. The ability to print functional vascularized patches according to the patient's anatomy is demonstrated. Blood vessel architecture is further improved by mathematical modeling of oxygen transfer. The structure and function of the patches are studied in vitro, and cardiac cell morphology is assessed after transplantation, revealing elongated cardiomyocytes with massive actinin striation. Finally, as a proof of concept, cellularized human hearts with a natural architecture are printed. These results demonstrate the potential of the approach for engineering personalized tissues and organs, or for drug screening in an appropriate anatomical structure and patient-specific biochemical microenvironment.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Biofabrication of spatially organised tissues by directing the growth of cellular spheroids within 3D printed polymeric microchambers [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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Successful tissue engineering requires the generation of human scale implants that mimic the structure, composition and mechanical properties of native tissues. Here, we report a novel biofabrication strategy that enables the engineering of structurally organised tissues by guiding the growth of cellular spheroids within arrays of 3D printed polymeric microchambers. With the goal of engineering stratified articular cartilage, inkjet bioprinting was used to deposit defined numbers of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes into pre-printed microchambers. These jetted cell suspensions rapidly underwent condensation within the hydrophobic microchambers, leading to the formation of organised arrays of cellular spheroids. The microchambers were also designed to provide boundary conditions to these spheroids, guiding their growth and eventual fusion, leading to the development of stratified cartilage tissue with a depth-dependant collagen fiber architecture that mimicked the structure of native articular cartilage. Furthermore, the composition and biomechanical properties of the bioprinted cartilage was also comparable to the native tissue. Using multi-tool biofabrication, we were also able to engineer anatomically accurate, human scale, osteochondral templates by printing this microchamber system on top of a hypertrophic cartilage region designed to support endochondral bone formation and then maintaining the entire construct in long-term bioreactor culture to enhance tissue development. This bioprinting strategy provides a versatile and scalable approach to engineer structurally organised cartilage tissues for joint resurfacing applications.
AUTHOR Derr, Kristy and Zou, Jinyun and Luo, Keren and Song, Min Jae and Sittampalam, G. Sitta and Zhou, Chao and Michael, Samuel and Ferrer, Marc and Derr, Paige
Title Fully 3D Bioprinted Skin Equivalent Constructs with Validated Morphology and Barrier Function [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods
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Development of high throughput, reproducible, three-dimensional bioprinted skin equivalents that are morphologically and functionally comparable to native skin tissue is advancing research in skin diseases, and providing a physiologically relevant platform for the development of therapeutics, transplants for regenerative medicine, and testing of skin products like cosmetics. Current protocols for the production of engineered skin rafts are limited in their ability to control three dimensional geometry of the structure and contraction leading to variability of skin function between constructs. Here we describe a method for the biofabrication of skin equivalents that are fully bioprinted using an open market bioprinter, made with commercially available primary cells and natural hydrogels. The unique hydrogel formulation allows for the production of a human-like skin equivalent with minimal lateral tissue contraction in a multiwell plate format, thus making them suitable for high throughput bioprinting in a single print with fast print and relatively short incubation times. The morphology and barrier function of the fully three-dimensional bioprinted skin equivalents are validated by immunohistochemistry staining, optical coherence tomography, and permeation assays.
AUTHOR Gonzalez-Fernandez, T. and Rathan, S. and Hobbs, C. and Pitacco, P. and Freeman, F. E. and Cunniffe, G. M. and Dunne, N. J. and McCarthy, H. O. and Nicolosi, V. and O'Brien, F. J. and Kelly, D. J.
Title Pore-forming bioinks to enable Spatio-temporally defined gene delivery in bioprinted tissues [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Controlled Release
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The regeneration of complex tissues and organs remains a major clinical challenge. With a view towards bioprinting such tissues, we developed a new class of pore-forming bioink to spatially and temporally control the presentation of therapeutic genes within bioprinted tissues. By blending sacrificial and stable hydrogels, we were able to produce bioinks whose porosity increased with time following printing. When combined with amphipathic peptide-based plasmid DNA delivery, these bioinks supported enhanced non-viral gene transfer to stem cells in vitro. By modulating the porosity of these bioinks, it was possible to direct either rapid and transient (pore-forming bioinks), or slower and more sustained (solid bioinks) transfection of host or transplanted cells in vivo. To demonstrate the utility of these bioinks for the bioprinting of spatially complex tissues, they were next used to zonally position stem cells and plasmids encoding for either osteogenic (BMP2) or chondrogenic (combination of TGF-β3, BMP2 and SOX9) genes within networks of 3D printed thermoplastic fibers to produce mechanically reinforced, gene activated constructs. In vivo, these bioprinted tissues supported the development of a vascularised, bony tissue overlaid by a layer of stable cartilage. When combined with multiple-tool biofabrication strategies, these gene activated bioinks can enable the bioprinting of a wide range of spatially complex tissues.
AUTHOR Laternser, Sandra and Keller, Hansjoerg and Leupin, Olivier and Rausch, Martin and Graf-Hausner, Ursula and Rimann, Markus
Title A Novel Microplate 3D Bioprinting Platform for the Engineering of Muscle and Tendon Tissues [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings SLAS TECHNOLOGY: Translating Life Sciences Innovation
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Two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures do not reflect the in vivo situation, and thus it is important to develop predictive three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models with enhanced reliability and robustness for drug screening applications. Treatments against muscle-related diseases are becoming more prominent due to the growth of the aging population worldwide. In this study, we describe a novel drug screening platform with automated production of 3D musculoskeletal-tendon-like tissues. With 3D bioprinting, alternating layers of photo-polymerized gelatin-methacryloyl-based bioink and cell suspension tissue models were produced in a dumbbell shape onto novel postholder cell culture inserts in 24-well plates. Monocultures of human primary skeletal muscle cells and rat tenocytes were printed around and between the posts. The cells showed high viability in culture and good tissue differentiation, based on marker gene and protein expressions. Different printing patterns of bioink and cells were explored and calcium signaling with Fluo4-loaded cells while electrically stimulated was shown. Finally, controlled co-printing of tenocytes and myoblasts around and between the posts, respectively, was demonstrated followed by co-culture and co-differentiation. This screening platform combining 3D bioprinting with a novel microplate represents a promising tool to address musculoskeletal diseases.
AUTHOR de Ruijter, Mylène and Ribeiro, Alexandre and Dokter, Inge and Castilho, Miguel and Malda, Jos
Title Simultaneous Micropatterning of Fibrous Meshes and Bioinks for the Fabrication of Living Tissue Constructs [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract Fabrication of biomimetic tissues holds much promise for the regeneration of cells or organs that are lost or damaged due to injury or disease. To enable the generation of complex, multicellular tissues on demand, the ability to design and incorporate different materials and cell types needs to be improved. Two techniques are combined: extrusion-based bioprinting, which enables printing of cell-encapsulated hydrogels; and melt electrowriting (MEW), which enables fabrication of aligned (sub)-micrometer fibers into a single-step biofabrication process. Composite structures generated by infusion of MEW fiber structures with hydrogels have resulted in mechanically and biologically competent constructs; however, their preparation involves a two-step fabrication procedure that limits freedom of design of microfiber architectures and the use of multiple materials and cell types. How convergence of MEW and extrusion-based bioprinting allows fabrication of mechanically stable constructs with the spatial distributions of different cell types without compromising cell viability and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells is demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this converged printing approach improves freedom of design of the MEW fibers, enabling 3D fiber deposition. This is an important step toward biofabrication of voluminous and complex hierarchical structures that can better resemble the characteristics of functional biological tissues.
AUTHOR Cunniffe, Gráinne and Gonzalez-Fernandez, Tomas and Daly, Andrew and Nelson Sathy, Binulal and Jeon, Oju and Alsberg, Eben and J. Kelly, Daniel
Title Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Polycaprolactone Reinforced Gene Activated Bioinks for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part A
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Regeneration of complex bone defects remains a significant clinical challenge. Multi-tool biofabrication has permitted the combination of various biomaterials to create multifaceted composites with tailorable mechanical properties and spatially controlled biological function. In this study we sought to use bioprinting to engineer nonviral gene activated constructs reinforced by polymeric micro-filaments. A gene activated bioink was developed using RGD-g-irradiated alginate and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) complexed to plasmid DNA (pDNA). This ink was combined with bonemarrow-derived mesenchymal stemcells (MSCs) and then co-printed with a polycaprolactone supporting mesh to provide mechanical stability to the construct. Reporter genes were first used to demonstrate successful cell transfection using this system, with sustained expression of the transgene detected over 14 days postbioprinting. Delivery of a combination of therapeutic genes encoding for bone morphogenic protein and transforming growth factor promoted robust osteogenesis of encapsulated MSCs in vitro, with enhanced levels of matrix deposition and mineralization observed following the incorporation of therapeutic pDNA. Gene activated MSC-laden constructs were then implanted subcutaneously, directly postfabrication, and were found to support superior levels of vascularization andmineralization compared to cell-free controls. These results validate the use of a gene activated bioink to impart biological functionality to three-dimensional bioprinted constructs.
AUTHOR Freeman, Fiona E. and Pitacco, Pierluca and van Dommelen, Lieke H. A. and Nulty, Jessica and Browe, David C. and Shin, Jung-Youn and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D bioprinting spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors to tightly control tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Science Advances
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Therapeutic growth factor delivery typically requires supraphysiological dosages, which can cause undesirable off-target effects. The aim of this study was to 3D bioprint implants containing spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors optimized for coupled angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Using nanoparticle functionalized bioinks, it was possible to print implants with distinct growth factor patterns and release profiles spanning from days to weeks. The extent of angiogenesis in vivo depended on the spatial presentation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Higher levels of vessel invasion were observed in implants containing a spatial gradient of VEGF compared to those homogenously loaded with the same total amount of protein. Printed implants containing a gradient of VEGF, coupled with spatially defined BMP-2 localization and release kinetics, accelerated large bone defect healing with little heterotopic bone formation. This demonstrates the potential of growth factor printing, a putative point of care therapy, for tightly controlled tissue regeneration.
AUTHOR Lee, Ji Seung and Park, Hae Sang and Jung, Harry and Lee, Hanna and Hong, Heesun and Lee, Young Jin and Suh, Ye Ji and Lee, Ok Joo and Kim, Soon Hee and Park, Chan Hum
Title 3D-printable photocurable bioink for cartilage regeneration of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Additive Manufacturing
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Cartilage regeneration is challenging because of the poor intrinsic self-repair capacity of avascular tissue. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has gained significant attention in the field of tissue engineering and is a promising technology to overcome current difficulties in cartilage regeneration. Although bioink is an essential component of bioprinting technology, several challenges remain in satisfying different requirements for ideal bioink, including biocompatibility and printability based on specific biological requirements. Gelatin and hyaluronic acid (HA) have been shown to be ideal biomimetic hydrogel sources for cartilage regeneration. However, controlling their structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and degradation rate for cartilage repair remains a challenge. Here, we show a photocurable bioink created by hybridization of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and glycidyl-methacrylated HA (GMHA) for material extrusion 3D bioprinting in cartilage regeneration. GelMA and GMHA were mixed in various ratios, and the mixture of 7% GelMA and 5% GMHA bioink (G7H5) demonstrated the most reliable mechanical properties, rheological properties, and printability. This G7H5 bioink allowed us to build a highly complex larynx structure, including the hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, arytenoid cartilage, and cervical trachea. This bioink also provided an excellent microenvironment for chondrogenesis of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) in vitro and in vivo. In summary, this study presents the ideal formulation of GelMA/GMHA hybrid bioink to generate a well-suited photocurable bioink for cartilage regeneration of TMSCs using a material extrusion bioprinter, and could be applied to cartilage tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Liu, Xue and Michael, Samuel and Bharti, Kapil and Ferrer, Marc and Song, Min Jae
Title A biofabricated vascularized skin model of atopic dermatitis for preclinical studies [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Three-dimensional (3D) biofabrication techniques enable the production of multicellular tissue models as assay platforms for drug screening. The increased cellular and physiological complexity in these 3D tissue models should recapitulate the relevant biological environment found in the body. Here we describe the use of 3D bioprinting techniques to fabricate skin equivalent tissues of varying physiological complexity, including human epidermis, non-vascularized and vascularized full-thickness skin tissue equivalents, in a multi-well platform to enable drug screening. Human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and pericytes, and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived endothelial cells were used in the biofabrication process to produce the varying complexity. The skin equivalents exhibit the correct structural markers of dermis and epidermis stratification, with physiological functions of the skin barrier. The robustness, versatility and reproducibility of the biofabrication techniques are further highlighted by the generation of atopic dermatitis (AD)-disease like tissues. These AD models demonstrate several clinical hallmarks of the disease, including: (i) spongiosis and hyperplasia; (ii) early and terminal expression of differentiation proteins; and (iii) increases in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We show the pre-clinical relevance of the biofabricated AD tissue models to correct disease phenotype by testing the effects of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, and three Janus Kinase inhibitors from clinical trials for AD. This study demonstrates the development of a versatile and reproducible bioprinting approach to create human skin equivalents with a range of cellular complexity for disease modelling. In addition, we establish several assay readouts that are quantifiable, robust, AD relevant, and can be scaled up for compound screening. The results show that the cellular complexity of the tissues develops a more physiologically relevant AD disease model. Thus, the skin models in this study offer an in vitro approach for the rapid understanding of pathological mechanisms, and testing for efficacy of action and toxic effects of drugs.
AUTHOR Colle, Julien and Blondeel, Phillip and De Bruyne, Axelle and Bochar, Silke and Tytgat, Liesbeth and Vercruysse, Chris and Van Vlierberghe, Sandra and Dubruel, Peter and Declercq, Heidi
Title Bioprinting predifferentiated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell spheroids with methacrylated gelatin ink for adipose tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine
Reftype Colle2020
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Abstract
The increasing number of mastectomies results in a greater demand for breast reconstruction characterized by simplicity and a low complication profile. Reconstructive surgeons are investigating tissue engineering (TE) strategies to overcome the current surgical drawbacks. 3D bioprinting is the rising technique for the fabrication of large tissue constructs which provides a potential solution for unmet clinical needs in breast reconstruction building on decades of experience in autologous fat grafting, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ASC) biology and TE. A scaffold was bioprinted using encapsulated ASC spheroids in methacrylated gelatin ink (GelMA). Uniform ASC spheroids with an ideal geometry and diameter for bioprinting were formed, using a high-throughput non-adhesive agarose microwell system. ASC spheroids in adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM) were evaluated through live/dead staining, histology (HE, Oil Red O), TEM and RT-qPCR. Viable spheroids were obtained for up to 14 days post-printing and showed multilocular microvacuoles and successful differentiation toward mature adipocytes shown by gene expression analysis. Moreover, spheroids were able to assemble at random in GelMA, creating a macrotissue. Combining the advantage of microtissues to self-assemble and the controlled organization by bioprinting technologies, these ASC spheroids can be useful as building blocks for the engineering of soft tissue implants.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Pitacco, Pierluca and Nulty, Jessica and Cunniffe, Gráinne M. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D printed microchannel networks to direct vascularisation during endochondral bone repair [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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Bone tissue engineering strategies that recapitulate the developmental process of endochondral ossification offer a promising route to bone repair. Clinical translation of such endochondral tissue engineering strategies will require overcoming a number of challenges, including the engineering of large and often anatomically complex cartilage grafts, as well as the persistence of core regions of avascular cartilage following their implantation into large bone defects. Here 3D printing technology is utilized to develop a versatile and scalable approach to guide vascularisation during endochondral bone repair. First, a sacrificial pluronic ink was used to 3D print interconnected microchannel networks in a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) laden gelatin-methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel. These constructs (with and without microchannels) were next chondrogenically primed in vitro and then implanted into critically sized femoral bone defects in rats. The solid and microchanneled cartilage templates enhanced bone repair compared to untreated controls, with the solid cartilage templates (without microchannels) supporting the highest levels of total bone formation. However, the inclusion of 3D printed microchannels was found to promote osteoclast/immune cell invasion, hydrogel degradation, and vascularisation following implantation. In addition, the endochondral bone tissue engineering strategy was found to support comparable levels of bone healing to BMP-2 delivery, whilst promoting lower levels of heterotopic bone formation, with the microchanneled templates supporting the lowest levels of heterotopic bone formation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 3D printed hypertrophic cartilage grafts represent a promising approach for the repair of complex bone fractures, particularly for larger defects where vascularisation will be a key challenge.
AUTHOR Ng, Wei Long and Qi, Jovina Tan Zhi and Yeong, Wai Yee and Naing, May Win
Title Proof-of-concept: 3D bioprinting of pigmented human skin constructs [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Three-dimensional (3D) pigmented human skin constructs have been fabricated using a 3D bioprinting approach. The 3D pigmented human skin constructs are obtained from using three different types of skin cells (keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts from three different skin donors) and they exhibit similar constitutive pigmentation (pale pigmentation) as the skin donors. A two-step drop-on-demand bioprinting strategy facilitates the deposition of cell droplets to emulate the epidermal melanin units (pre-defined patterning of keratinocytes and melanocytes at the desired positions) and manipulation of the microenvironment to fabricate 3D biomimetic hierarchical porous structures found in native skin tissue. The 3D bioprinted pigmented skin constructs are compared to the pigmented skin constructs fabricated by conventional a manual-casting approach; in-depth characterization of both the 3D pigmented skin constructs has indicated that the 3D bioprinted skin constructs have a higher degree of resemblance to native skin tissue in term of the presence of well-developed stratified epidermal layers and the presence of a continuous layer of basement membrane proteins as compared to the manually-cast samples. The 3D bioprinting approach facilitates the development of 3D in vitro pigmented human skin constructs for potential toxicology testing and fundamental cell biology research.
AUTHOR Kessel, Benjamin and Lee, Mihyun and Bonato, Angela and Tinguely, Yann and Tosoratti, Enrico and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title 3D Bioprinting of Macroporous Materials Based on Entangled Hydrogel Microstrands [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Science
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Abstract
Abstract Hydrogels are excellent mimetics of mammalian extracellular matrices and have found widespread use in tissue engineering. Nanoporosity of monolithic bulk hydrogels, however, limits mass transport of key biomolecules. Microgels used in 3D bioprinting achieve both custom shape and vastly improved permissivity to an array of cell functions, however spherical-microbead-based bioinks are challenging to upscale, are inherently isotropic, and require secondary crosslinking. Here, bioinks based on high-aspect-ratio hydrogel microstrands are introduced to overcome these limitations. Pre-crosslinked, bulk hydrogels are deconstructed into microstrands by sizing through a grid with apertures of 40–100 µm. The microstrands are moldable and form a porous, entangled structure, stable in aqueous medium without further crosslinking. Entangled microstrands have rheological properties characteristic of excellent bioinks for extrusion bioprinting. Furthermore, individual microstrands align during extrusion and facilitate the alignment of myotubes. Cells can be placed either inside or outside the hydrogel phase with >90% viability. Chondrocytes co-printed with the microstrands deposit abundant extracellular matrix, resulting in a modulus increase from 2.7 to 780.2 kPa after 6 weeks of culture. This powerful approach to deconstruct bulk hydrogels into advanced bioinks is both scalable and versatile, representing an important toolbox for 3D bioprinting of architected hydrogels.
AUTHOR Azim, N. and Hart, C. and Sommerhage, F. and Aubin, M. and Hickman, J. J. and Rajaraman, S.
Title Precision Plating of Human Electrogenic Cells on Microelectrodes Enhanced With Precision Electrodeposited Nano-Porous Platinum for Cell-Based Biosensing Applications [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
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Abstract
Microelectrode Arrays are established platforms for biosensing applications; however, limitations in electrode impedance and cell-electrode coupling still exist. In this paper, the SNR of 25 μm diameter gold (Au) microelectrodes was improved by decreasing the impedance with precision electrodeposition. SEM determined that N-P Pt. microelectrodes had nanoporous structures that filled the insulation cylinders. EIS, CV, and RMS noise measurements concluded that the optimized electrodeposition of N-P Pt. led to a lowered impedance of 18.36 kΩ ± 2.6 kΩ at 1 kHz, a larger double layer capacitance of 73 nF, and lowered RMS noise of 2.08±0.16 μV as compared to the values for Au of 159 kΩ ± 28 kΩ at 1 kHz, 17nF, and 3.14 ± 0.42 μV, respectively. Human motoneurons and human cardiomyocytes were cultured on N-P Pt. devices to assess their biocompatibility and signal quality. In order to improve the cell-electrode coupling, a precision plating technique was used. Both cell types were electrically active on devices for up to 10 weeks, demonstrated improved SNR, and expected responses to precision chemical and electrical stimulation. The modification of Au microelectrodes with nanomaterials in combination with precision culturing of human cell types provides cost effective, highly sensitive, well coupled and relevant biosensing platforms for medical and pharmaceutical research.
AUTHOR Schaffner, Manuel and R{"u}hs, Patrick A. and Coulter, Fergal and Kilcher, Samuel and Studart, Andr{'e} R.
Title 3D printing of bacteria into functional complex materials [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Science Advances
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Abstract
Despite recent advances to control the spatial composition and dynamic functionalities of bacteria embedded in materials, bacterial localization into complex three-dimensional (3D) geometries remains a major challenge. We demonstrate a 3D printing approach to create bacteria-derived functional materials by combining the natural diverse metabolism of bacteria with the shape design freedom of additive manufacturing. To achieve this, we embedded bacteria in a biocompatible and functionalized 3D printing ink and printed two types of {textquotedblleft}living materials{textquotedblright} capable of degrading pollutants and of producing medically relevant bacterial cellulose. With this versatile bacteria-printing platform, complex materials displaying spatially specific compositions, geometry, and properties not accessed by standard technologies can be assembled from bottom up for new biotechnological and biomedical applications.
AUTHOR Nulty, Jessica and Freeman, Fiona E. and Browe, David C. and Burdis, Ross and Ahern, Daniel P. and Pitacco, Pierluca and Lee, Yu Bin and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D Bioprinting of prevascularised implants for the repair of critically-sized bone defects [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Abstract
For 3D bioprinted tissues to be scaled-up to clinically relevant sizes, effective prevascularisation strategies are required to provide the necessary nutrients for normal metabolism and to remove associated waste by-products. The aim of this study was to develop a bioprinting strategy to engineer prevascularised tissues in vitro and to investigate the capacity of such constructs to enhance the vascularisation and regeneration of large bone defects in vivo. From a screen of different bioinks, a fibrin-based hydrogel was found to best support human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) sprouting and the establishment of a microvessel network. When this bioink was combined with HUVECs and supporting human bone marrow stem/stromal cells (hBMSCs), these microvessel networks persisted in vitro. Furthermore, only bioprinted tissues containing both HUVECs and hBMSCs, that were first allowed to mature in vitro, supported robust blood vessel development in vivo. To assess the therapeutic utility of this bioprinting strategy, these bioinks were used to prevascularise 3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds, which were subsequently implanted into critically-sized femoral bone defects in rats. Microcomputed tomography (µCT) angiography revealed increased levels of vascularisation in vivo, which correlated with higher levels of new bone formation. Such prevascularised constructs could be used to enhance the vascularisation of a range of large tissue defects, forming the basis of multiple new bioprinted therapeutics. Statement of Significance This paper demonstrates a versatile 3D bioprinting technique to improve the vascularisation of tissue engineered constructs and further demonstrates how this method can be incorporated into a bone tissue engineering strategy to improve vascularisation in a rat femoral defect model.
AUTHOR Vyas, Cian and Zhang, Jun and Øvrebø, Øystein and Huang, Boyang and Roberts, Iwan and Setty, Mohan and Allardyce, Benjamin and Haugen, Håvard and Rajkhowa, Rangam and Bartolo, Paulo
Title 3D printing of silk microparticle reinforced polycaprolactone scaffolds for tissue engineering applications [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds have been widely investigated for tissue engineering applications, however, they exhibit poor cell adhesion and mechanical properties. Subsequently, PCL composites have been produced to improve the material properties. This study utilises a natural material, Bombyx mori silk microparticles (SMP) prepared by milling silk fibre, to produce a composite to enhance the scaffolds properties. Silk is biocompatible and biodegradable with excellent mechanical properties. However, there are no studies using SMPs as a reinforcing agent in a 3D printed thermoplastic polymer scaffold. PCL/SMP (10, 20, 30 wt%) composites were prepared by melt blending. Rheological analysis showed that SMP loading increased the shear thinning and storage modulus of the material. Scaffolds were fabricated using a screw-assisted extrusion-based additive manufacturing system. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography was used to determine scaffold morphology. The scaffolds had high interconnectivity with regular printed fibres and pore morphologies within the designed parameters. Compressive mechanical testing showed that the addition of SMP significantly improved the compressive Young's modulus of the scaffolds. The scaffolds were more hydrophobic with the inclusion of SMP which was linked to a decrease in total protein adsorption. Cell behaviour was assessed using human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells. A cytotoxic effect was observed at higher particle loading (30 wt%) after 7 days of culture. By day 21, 10 wt% loading showed significantly higher cell metabolic activity and proliferation, high cell viability, and cell migration throughout the scaffold. Calcium mineral deposition was observed on the scaffolds during cell culture. Large calcium mineral deposits were observed at 30 wt% and smaller calcium deposits were observed at 10 wt%. This study demonstrates that SMPs incorporated into a PCL scaffold provided effective mechanical reinforcement, improved the rate of degradation, and increased cell proliferation, demonstrating potential suitability for bone tissue engineering applications.
AUTHOR Chelsea Twohig and Mari Helsinga and Amin Mansoorifar and Avathamsa Athirasala and Anthony Tahayeri and Cristiane Miranda França and Silvia Amaya Pajares and Reyan Abdelmoniem and Susanne Scherrer and Stéphane Durual and Jack Ferracane and Luiz E. Bertassoni
Title A dual-ink 3D printing strategy to engineer pre-vascularized bone scaffolds in-vitro [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
A functional vascular supply is a key component of any large-scale tissue, providing support for the metabolic needs of tissue-remodeling cells. Although well-studied strategies exist to fabricate biomimetic scaffolds for bone regeneration, success rates for regeneration in larger defects can be improved by engineering microvascular capillaries within the scaffolds to enhance oxygen and nutrient supply to the core of the engineered tissue as it grows. Even though the role of calcium and phosphate has been well understood to enhance osteogenesis, it remains unclear whether calcium and phosphate may have a detrimental effect on the vasculogenic and angiogenic potential of endothelial cells cultured on 3D printed bone scaffolds. In this study, we presented a novel dual-ink bioprinting method to create vasculature interwoven inside CaP bone constructs. In this method, strands of a CaP ink and a sacrificial template material was used to form scaffolds containing CaP fibers and microchannels seeded with vascular endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within a photo-crosslinkable gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel material. Our results show similar morphology of growing vessels in the presence of CaP bioink, and no significant difference in endothelial cell sprouting was found. Furthermore, our initial results showed the differentiation of hMSCs into pericytes in the presence of CaP ink. These results indicate the feasibility of creating vascularized bone scaffolds, which can be used for enhancing vascular formation in the core of bone scaffolds.
AUTHOR Bin Wang and Pedro J. Díaz-Payno and David C. Browe and Fiona E. Freeman and Jessica Nulty and Ross Burdis and Daniel J. Kelly
Title Affinity-bound growth factor within sulfated interpenetrate network bioinks for bioprinting cartilaginous tissues [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Abstract
3D bioprinting has emerged as a promising technology in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to its ability to create anatomically complex tissue substitutes. However, it still remains challenging to develop bioactive bioinks that provide appropriate and permissive environments to instruct and guide the regenerative process in vitro and in vivo. In this study alginate sulfate, a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) mimic, was used to functionalize an alginate-gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) interpenetrating network (IPN) bioink to enable the bioprinting of cartilaginous tissues. The inclusion of alginate sulfate had a limited influence on the viscosity, shear-thinning and thixotropic properties of the IPN bioink, enabling high-fidelity bioprinting and supporting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) viability post-printing. The stiffness of printed IPN constructs greatly exceeded that achieved by printing alginate or GelMA alone, while maintaining resilience and toughness. Furthermore, given the high affinity of alginate sulfate to heparin-binding growth factors, the sulfated IPN bioink supported the sustained release of transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3), providing an environment that supported robust chondrogenesis in vitro, with little evidence of hypertrophy or mineralization over extended culture periods. Such bioprinted constructs also supported chondrogenesis in vivo, with the controlled release of TGF-β3 promoting significantly higher levels of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix deposition. Altogether, these results demonstrate the potential of bioprinting sulfated bioinks as part of a ‘single-stage’ or ‘point-of-care’ strategy for regenerating cartilaginous tissues. Statement of Significance: This study highlights the potential of using sulfated interpenetrating network (IPN) bioink to support the regeneration of phenotypically stable articular cartilage. Construction of interpenetrate networks in the bioink enables unique high-fidelity bioprinting and unique synergistic mechanical properties. The presence of alginate sulfate provided the capacity of high affinity-binding of TGF-β3, which promoted robust chondrogenesis.
AUTHOR Otto, I. A. and Capendale, P. E. and Garcia, J. P. and de Ruijter, M. and van Doremalen, R. F. M. and Castilho, M. and Lawson, T. and Grinstaff, M. W. and Breugem, C. C. and Kon, M. and Levato, R. and Malda, J.
Title Biofabrication of a shape-stable auricular structure for the reconstruction of ear deformities [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Today Bio
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Abstract
Bioengineering of the human auricle remains a significant challenge, where the complex and unique shape, the generation of high-quality neocartilage, and shape preservation are key factors. Future regenerative medicine–based approaches for auricular cartilage reconstruction will benefit from a smart combination of various strategies. Our approach to fabrication of an ear-shaped construct uses hybrid bioprinting techniques, a recently identified progenitor cell population, previously validated biomaterials, and a smart scaffold design. Specifically, we generated a 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold via fused deposition modeling, photocrosslinked a human auricular cartilage progenitor cell–laden gelatin methacryloyl (gelMA) hydrogel within the scaffold, and cultured the bioengineered structure in vitro in chondrogenic media for 30 days. Our results show that the fabrication process maintains the viability and chondrogenic phenotype of the cells, that the compressive properties of the combined PCL and gelMA hybrid auricular constructs are similar to native auricular cartilage, and that biofabricated hybrid auricular structures exhibit excellent shape fidelity compared with the 3D digital model along with deposition of cartilage-like matrix in both peripheral and central areas of the auricular structure. Our strategy affords an anatomically enhanced auricular structure with appropriate mechanical properties, ensures adequate preservation of the auricular shape during a dynamic in vitro culture period, and enables chondrogenically potent progenitor cells to produce abundant cartilage-like matrix throughout the auricular construct. The combination of smart scaffold design with 3D bioprinting and cartilage progenitor cells holds promise for the development of clinically translatable regenerative medicine strategies for auricular reconstruction.
AUTHOR Fisch, Philipp and Broguiere, Nicolas and Finkielsztein, Sergio and Linder, Thomas and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Bioprinting of Cartilaginous Auricular Constructs Utilizing an Enzymatically Crosslinkable Bioink [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Functional Materials
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Abstract Bioprinting of functional tissues could overcome tissue shortages and allow a more rapid response for treatments. However, despite recent progress in bioprinting, and its outstanding ability to position cells and biomaterials in a precise 3D manner, its success has been limited, due to insufficient maturation of constructs into functional tissue. Here, a novel calcium-triggered enzymatic crosslinking (CTEC) mechanism for bioinks based on the activation cascade of Factor XIII is presented and utilized for the biofabrication of cartilaginous constructs. Hyaluronan transglutaminase (HA-TG), an enzymatically crosslinkable material, has shown excellent characteristics for chondrogenesis and builds the basis of the CTEC bioink. The bioink supports tissue maturation with neocartilage formation and stiffening of constructs up to 400 kPa. Bioprinted constructs remain stable in vivo for 24 weeks and bioprinted auricular constructs transform into cartilaginous grafts. A major limitation of the current study is the deposition of collagen I, indicating the maturation toward fibrocartilage rather than elastic cartilage. Shifting the maturation process toward elastic cartilage will therefore be essential in order for the developed bioinks to offer a novel tissue engineered treatment for microtia patients. CTEC bioprinting furthermore opens up use of enzymatically crosslinkable biopolymers and their modularity to support a multitude of tissues.
AUTHOR Fenelon, Mathilde and Etchebarne, Marion and Siadous, Robin and Grémare, Agathe and Durand, Marlène and Sentilhes, Loic and Catros, Sylvain and Gindraux, Florelle and L'Heureux, Nicolas and Fricain, Jean-Christophe
Title Comparison of amniotic membrane versus the induced membrane for bone regeneration in long bone segmental defects using calcium phosphate cement loaded with BMP-2 [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
Thanks to its biological properties, the human amniotic membrane (HAM) combined with a bone substitute could be a single-step surgical alternative to the two-step Masquelet induced membrane (IM) technique for regeneration of critical bone defects. However, no study has directly compared these two membranes. We first designed a 3D-printed scaffold using calcium phosphate cement (CPC). We assessed its suitability in vitro to support human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) attachment and osteodifferentiation. We then performed a rat femoral critical size defect to compare the two-step IM technique with a single-step approach using the HAM. Five conditions were compared. Group 1 was left empty. Group 2 received the CPC scaffold loaded with rh-BMP2 (CPC/BMP2). Group 3 and 4 received the CPC/BMP2 scaffold covered with lyophilized or decellularized/lyophilized HAM. Group 5 underwent a two- step induced membrane procedure with insertion of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spacer followed by, after 4 weeks, its replacement with the CPC/BMP2 scaffold wrapped in the IM. Micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis were performed after six weeks. Results showed that the CPC scaffold supported the proliferation and osteodifferentiation of hBMSCs in vitro. In vivo, the CPC/BMP2 scaffold very efficiently induced bone formation and led to satisfactory healing of the femoral defect, in a single-step, without autograft or the need for any membrane covering. In this study, there was no difference between the two-step induced membrane procedure and a single step approach. However, the results indicated that none of the tested membranes further enhanced bone healing compared to the CPC/BMP2 group.
AUTHOR Zhang, Xiao and Liu, Yang and Luo, Chunyang and Zhai, Chenjun and Li, Zuxi and Zhang, Yi and Yuan, Tao and Dong, Shilei and Zhang, Jiyong and Fan, Weimin
Title Crosslinker-free silk/decellularized extracellular matrix porous bioink for 3D bioprinting-based cartilage tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
As cartilage tissue lacks the innate ability to mount an adequate regeneration response, damage to it is detrimental to the quality of life of the subject. The emergence of three-dimensional bioprinting (3DBP) technology presents an opportunity to repair articular cartilage defects. However, widespread adoption of this technique has been impeded by difficulty in preparing a suitable bioink and the toxicity inherent in the chemical crosslinking process of most bioinks. Our objective was to develop a crosslinker-free bioink with the same biological activity as the original cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) and good mechanical strength. We prepared bioinks containing different concentrations of silk fibroin and decellularized extracellular matrix (SF-dECM bioinks) mixed with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for 3D bioprinting. SF and dECM interconnect with each other through physical crosslinking and entanglement. A porous structure was formed by removing the polyethylene glycol from the SF-dECM bioink. The results showed the SF-dECM construct had a suitable mechanical strength and degradation rate, and the expression of chondrogenesis-specific genes was found to be higher than that of the SF control construct group. Finally, we confirmed that a SF-dECM construct that was designed to release TGF-β3 had the ability to promote chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs and provided a good cartilage repair environment, suggesting it is an ideal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Oliveira, Hugo and Médina, Chantal and Stachowicz, Marie-Laure and Paiva dos Santos, Bruno and Chagot, Lise and Dusserre, Nathalie and Fricain, Jean-Christophe
Title Extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived bioinks designed to foster vasculogenesis and neurite outgrowth: Characterization and bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
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Abstract
The field of bioprinting has shown a tremendous development in recent years, focusing on the development of advanced in vitro models and on regeneration approaches. In this scope, the lack of suitable biomaterials that can be efficiently formulated as printable bioinks, while supporting specific cellular events, is currently considered as one of the main limitations in the field. Indeed, extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived biomaterials formulated to enable printability and support cellular response, for instance via integrin binding, are eagerly awaited in the field of bioprinting. Several bioactive laminin sequences, including peptides such as YIGSR and IKVAV, have been identified to promote endothelial cell attachment and/or neurite outgrowth and guidance, respectively. Here, we show the development of two distinct bioinks, designed to foster vasculogenesis or neurogenesis, based on methacrylated collagen and hyaluronic acid (CollMA and HAMA, respectively), both relevant ECM-derived polymers, and on their combination with cysteine-flanked laminin-derived peptides. Using this strategy, it was possible to optimize the bioink printability, by tuning CollMA and HAMA concentration and ratio, and modulate their bioactivity, through adjustments in the cell-active peptide sequence spatial density, without compromising cell viability. We demonstrated that cell-specific bioinks could be customized for the bioprinting of both human umbilical vein cord endothelial cells (HUVECs) or adult rat sensory neurons from the dorsal root ganglia, and could stimulate both vasculogenesis and neurite outgrowth, respectively. This approach holds great potential as it can be tailored to other cellular models, due to its inherent capacity to accommodate different peptide compositions and to generate complex peptide mixtures and/or gradients.
AUTHOR Tan, Edgar Y. S. and Suntornnond, Ratima and Yeong, Wai Yee
Title High-Resolution Novel Indirect Bioprinting of Low-Viscosity Cell-Laden Hydrogels via Model-Support Bioink Interaction [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing
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Abstract
Abstract Bioprinting of unmodified soft extracellular matrix into complex 3D structures has remained challenging to fabricate. Herein, we established a novel process for the printing of low-viscosity hydrogel by using a unique support technique to retain the structural integrity of the support structure. We demonstrated that this process of printing could be used for different types of hydrogel, ranging from fast crosslinking gelatin methacrylate to slow crosslinking collagen type I. In addition, we evaluated the biocompatibility of the process by observing the effects of the cytotoxicity of L929 and the functionality of the human umbilical vein endothelium primary cells after printing. The results show that the bioprinted construct provided excellent biocompatibility as well as supported cell growth and differentiation. Thus, this is a novel technique that can be potentially used to enhance the resolution of the extrusion-based bioprinter.
AUTHOR e Silva, Edney P. and Huang, Boyang and Helaehil, Júlia V. and Nalesso, Paulo R. L. and Bagne, Leonardo and de Oliveira, Maraiara A. and Albiazetti, Gabriela C. C. and Aldalbahi, Ali and El-Newehy, Mohamed and Santamaria-Jr, Milton and Mendonça, Fernanda A. S. and Bártolo, Paulo and Caetano, Guilherme F.
Title In vivo study of conductive 3D printed PCL/MWCNTs scaffolds with electrical stimulation for bone tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Bio-Design and Manufacturing
Reftype e Silva2021
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Critical bone defects are considered one of the major clinical challenges in reconstructive bone surgery. The combination of 3D printed conductive scaffolds and exogenous electrical stimulation (ES) is a potential favorable approach for bone tissue repair. In this study, 3D conductive scaffolds made with biocompatible and biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were produced using the extrusion-based additive manufacturing to treat large calvary bone defects in rats. Histology results show that the use of PCL/MWCNTs scaffolds and ES contributes to thicker and increased bone tissue formation within the bone defect. Angiogenesis and mineralization are also significantly promoted using high concentration of MWCNTs (3 wt%) and ES. Moreover, scaffolds favor the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive cell formation, while the addition of MWCNTs seems to inhibit the osteoclastogenesis but present limited effects on the osteoclast functionalities (receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expressions). The use of ES promotes the osteoclastogenesis and RANKL expressions, showing a dominant effect in the bone remodeling process. These results indicate that the combination of 3D printed conductive PCL/MWCNTs scaffold and ES is a promising strategy to treat critical bone defects and provide a cue to establish an optimal protocol to use conductive scaffolds and ES for bone tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Zamani, Yasaman and Amoabediny, Ghassem and Mohammadi, Javad and Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz and Klein-Nulend, Jenneke and Helder, Marco N.
Title Increased Osteogenic Potential of Pre-Osteoblasts on Three-Dimensional Printed Scaffolds Compared to Porous Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Iranian Biomedical Journal
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Abstract
Background: One of the main challenges with conventional scaffold fabrication methods is the inability to control scaffold architecture. Recently, scaffolds with controlled shape and architecture have been fabricated using three-dimensional printing (3DP). Herein, we aimed to determine whether the much tighter control of microstructure of 3DP poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid/β-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) scaffolds is more effective in promoting osteogenesis than porous scaffolds produced by solvent casting/porogen leaching. Methods: Physical and mechanical properties of porous and 3DP scaffolds were studied. The response of pre-osteoblasts to the scaffolds was analyzed after 14 days. Results: The 3DP scaffolds had a smoother surface (Ra: 22 ± 3 µm) relative to the highly rough surface of porous scaffolds (Ra: 110 ± 15 µm). Water contact angle was 112 ± 4° on porous and 76 ± 6° on 3DP scaffolds. Porous and 3DP scaffolds had the pore size of 408 ± 90 and 315 ± 17 µm and porosity of 85 ± 5% and 39 ± 7%, respectively. Compressive strength of 3DP scaffolds (4.0 ± 0.3 MPa) was higher than porous scaffolds (1.7 ± 0.2 MPa). Collagenous matrix deposition was similar on both scaffolds. Cells proliferated from day 1 to day 14 by fourfold in porous and by 3.8-fold in 3DP scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was 21-fold higher in 3DP scaffolds than porous scaffolds. Conclusion: The 3DP scaffolds show enhanced mechanical properties and ALP activity compared to porous scaffolds in vitro, suggesting that 3DP PLGA/β-TCP scaffolds are possibly more favorable for bone formation.
AUTHOR Daskalakis, Evangelos and Liu, Fengyuan and Huang, Boyang and Acar, Anil A. and Cooper, Glen and Weightman, Andrew and Blunn, Gordon and Koç, Bahattin and Bartolo, Paulo
Title Investigating the Influence of Architecture and Material Composition of 3D Printed Anatomical Design Scaffolds for Large Bone Defects [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Bioprinting; Vol 7, No 2 (2021)
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Abstract
There is a significant unmet clinical need to prevent amputations due to large bone loss injuries. We are addressing this problem by developing a novel, cost-effective osseointegrated prosthetic solution based on the use of modular pieces, bone bricks, made with biocompatible and biodegradable materials that fit together in a Lego-like way to form the prosthesis. This paper investigates the anatomical designed bone bricks with different architectures, pore size gradients, and material compositions. Polymer and polymer-composite 3D printed bone bricks are extensively morphological, mechanical, and biological characterized. Composite bone bricks were produced by mixing polycaprolactone (PCL) with different levels of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tri-calcium phosphate (TCP). Results allowed to establish a correlation between bone bricks architecture and material composition and bone bricks performance. Reinforced bone bricks showed improved mechanical and biological results. Best mechanical properties were obtained with PCL/TCP bone bricks with 38 double zig-zag filaments and 14 spiral-like pattern filaments, while the best biological results were obtained with PCL/HA bone bricks based on 25 double zig-zag filaments and 14 spiral-like pattern filaments.
AUTHOR Wang, Weiguang and Chen, Jun-Xiang and Hou, Yanhao and Bartolo, Paulo and Chiang, Wei-Hung
Title Investigations of Graphene and Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Enhanced Polycaprolactone 3D Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Nanomaterials
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Abstract
Scaffolds play a key role in tissue engineering applications. In the case of bone tissue engineering, scaffolds are expected to provide both sufficient mechanical properties to withstand the physiological loads, and appropriate bioactivity to stimulate cell growth. In order to further enhance cell–cell signaling and cell–material interaction, electro-active scaffolds have been developed based on the use of electrically conductive biomaterials or blending electrically conductive fillers to non-conductive biomaterials. Graphene has been widely used as functioning filler for the fabrication of electro-active bone tissue engineering scaffolds, due to its high electrical conductivity and potential to enhance both mechanical and biological properties. Nitrogen-doped graphene, a unique form of graphene-derived nanomaterials, presents significantly higher electrical conductivity than pristine graphene, and better surface hydrophilicity while maintaining a similar mechanical property. This paper investigates the synthesis and use of high-performance nitrogen-doped graphene as a functional filler of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds enabling to develop the next generation of electro-active scaffolds. Compared to PCL scaffolds and PCL/graphene scaffolds, these novel scaffolds present improved in vitro biological performance.
AUTHOR De Moor, Lise and Minne, Mendy and Tytgat, Liesbeth and Vercruysse, Chris and Dubruel, Peter and Van Vlierberghe, Sandra and Declercq, Heidi
Title Tuning the Phenotype of Cartilage Tissue Mimics by Varying Spheroid Maturation and Methacrylamide-Modified Gelatin Hydrogel Characteristics [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Macromolecular Bioscience
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Abstract
Abstract In hybrid bioprinting of cartilage tissue constructs, spheroids are used as cellular building blocks and combined with biomaterials for dispensing. However, biomaterial intrinsic cues can deeply affect cell fate and to date, the influence of hydrogel encapsulation on spheroid viability and phenotype has received limited attention. This study assesses this need and unravels 1) how the phenotype of spheroid-laden constructs can be tuned through adjusting the hydrogel physico–chemical properties and 2) if the spheroid maturation stage prior to encapsulation is a determining factor for the construct phenotype. Articular chondrocyte spheroids with a cartilage specific extracellular matrix (ECM) are generated and different maturation stages, early-, mid-, and late-stage (3, 7, and 14 days, respectively), are harvested and encapsulated in 10, 15, or 20 w/v% methacrylamide-modified gelatin (gelMA) for 14 days. The encapsulation of immature spheroids do not lead to a cartilage-like ECM production but when more mature mid- or late-stage spheroids are combined with a certain concentration of gelMA, a fibrocartilage-like as well as a hyaline cartilage-like phenotype can be induced. As a proof of concept, late-stage spheroids are bioprinted using a 10 w/v% gelMA–Irgacure 2959 solution with the aim to test the processing potential of the spheroid-laden bioink.
AUTHOR Hamid, Omar A. and Eltaher, Hoda M. and Sottile, Virginie and Yang, Jing
Title 3D bioprinting of a stem cell-laden, multi-material tubular composite: An approach for spinal cord repair [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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Abstract
Development of a biomimetic tubular scaffold capable of recreating developmental neurogenesis using pluripotent stem cells offers a novel strategy for the repair of spinal cord tissues. Recent advances in 3D printing technology have facilitated biofabrication of complex biomimetic environments by precisely controlling the 3D arrangement of various acellular and cellular components (biomaterials, cells and growth factors). Here, we present a 3D printing method to fabricate a complex, patterned and embryoid body (EB)-laden tubular scaffold composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydrogel (alginate or gelatine methacrylate (GelMA)). Our results revealed 3D printing of a strong, macro-porous PCL/hydrogel tubular scaffold with a high capacity to control the porosity of the PCL scaffold, wherein the maximum porosity in the PCL wall was 15%. The method was equally employed to create spatiotemporal protein concentration within the scaffold, demonstrating its ability to generate linear and opposite gradients of model molecules (fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and rhodamine). 3D bioprinting of EBs-laden GelMA was introduced as a novel 3D printing strategy to incorporate EBs in a hydrogel matrix. Cell viability and proliferation were measured post-printing. Following the bioprinting of EBs-laden 5% GelMA hydrogel, neural differentiation of EBs was induced using 1 μM retinoic acid (RA). The differentiated EBs contained βIII-tubulin positive neurons displaying axonal extensions and cells migration. Finally, 3D bioprinting of EBs-laden PCL/GelMA tubular scaffold successfully supported EBs neural differentiation and patterning in response to co-printing with 1 μM RA. 3D printing of a complex heterogeneous tubular scaffold that can encapsulate EBs, spatially controlled protein concentration and promote neuronal patterning will help in developing more biomimetic scaffolds capable of replicating the neural patterning which occurs during neural tube development.
AUTHOR Chen, Shengyang and Jang, Tae-Sik and Pan, Houwen Matthew and Jung, Hyun-Do and Sia, Ming Wei and Xie, Shuying and Hang, Yao and Chong, Seow and Wong, Dongan
Title 3D Freeform Printing of Nanocomposite Hydrogels through in situ Precipitation in Reactive Viscous Fluid
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Bioprinting
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AUTHOR Lin, Che-Wei and Su, Yu-Feng and Lee, Chih-Yun and Kang, Lin and Wang, Yan-Hsiung and Lin, Sung-Yen and Wang, Chih-Kuang
Title 3D printed bioceramics fabricated using negative thermoresponsive hydrogels and silicone oil sealing to promote bone formation in calvarial defects [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Ceramics International
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Abstract
The purpose of the present work was to investigate the potential for application and the effectiveness of osteoconductive scaffolds with bicontinuous phases of 3D printed bioceramics (3DP-BCs) based on reverse negative thermoresponsive hydrogels (poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(methacrylic acid)]; p(NiPAAm-MAA)). 3DP-BCs have bioceramic objects and microchannel pores when created using robotic deposition additive manufacturing. We evaluated the benefits of silicone oil sealing on the 3DP-BC green body during the sintering process in terms of densification and structural stability. The shrinkage, density, porosity, element composition, phase structure and microstructural analyses and compression strength measurements of sintered 3DP-BC objects are presented and discussed in this study. In addition, the results of cell viability assays and bone healing analyses of the calvarial bone defects in a rabbit model were used to evaluate 3DP-BC performance. The main results indicated that these 3DP-BC scaffolds have optimal continuous pores and adequate compressive strength, which can enable the protection of calvarial defects and provide an environment for cell growth. Therefore, 3DP-BC scaffolds have better new bone regeneration efficiency in rabbit calvarial bone defect models than empty scaffolds and mold-forming bioceramic scaffolds (MF-BCs).
AUTHOR Critchley, Susan and Sheehy, Eamon J. and Cunniffe, Gráinne and Diaz-Payno, Pedro and Carroll, Simon F. and Jeon, Oju and Alsberg, Eben and Brama, Pieter A. J. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D printing of fibre-reinforced cartilaginous templates for the regeneration of osteochondral defects [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Abstract
Successful osteochondral defect repair requires regenerating the subchondral bone whilst simultaneously promoting the development of an overlying layer of articular cartilage that is resistant to vascularization and endochondral ossification. During skeletal development articular cartilage also functions as a surface growth plate, which postnatally is replaced by a more spatially complex bone-cartilage interface. Motivated by this developmental process, the hypothesis of this study is that bi-phasic, fibre-reinforced cartilaginous templates can regenerate both the articular cartilage and subchondral bone within osteochondral defects created in caprine joints. To engineer mechanically competent implants, we first compared a range of 3D printed fibre networks (PCL, PLA and PLGA) for their capacity to mechanically reinforce alginate hydrogels whilst simultaneously supporting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis in vitro. These mechanically reinforced, MSC-laden alginate hydrogels were then used to engineer the endochondral bone forming phase of bi-phasic osteochondral constructs, with the overlying chondral phase consisting of cartilage tissue engineered using a co-culture of infrapatellar fat pad derived stem/stromal cells (FPSCs) and chondrocytes. Following chondrogenic priming and subcutaneous implantation in nude mice, these bi-phasic cartilaginous constructs were found to support the development of vascularised endochondral bone overlaid by phenotypically stable cartilage. These fibre-reinforced, bi-phasic cartilaginous templates were then evaluated in clinically relevant, large animal (caprine) model of osteochondral defect repair. Although the quality of repair was variable from animal-to-animal, in general more hyaline-like cartilage repair was observed after 6 months in animals treated with bi-phasic constructs compared to animals treated with commercial control scaffolds. This variability in the quality of repair points to the need for further improvements in the design of 3D bioprinted implants for joint regeneration. Statement of Significance Successful osteochondral defect repair requires regenerating the subchondral bone whilst simultaneously promoting the development of an overlying layer of articular cartilage. In this study, we hypothesised that bi-phasic, fibre-reinforced cartilaginous templates could be leveraged to regenerate both the articular cartilage and subchondral bone within osteochondral defects. To this end we used 3D printed fibre networks to mechanically reinforce engineered transient cartilage, which also contained an overlying layer of phenotypically stable cartilage engineered using a co-culture of chondrocytes and stem cells. When chondrogenically primed and implanted into caprine osteochondral defects, these fibre-reinforced bi-phasic cartilaginous grafts were shown to spatially direct tissue development during joint repair. Such developmentally inspired tissue engineering strategies, enabled by advances in biofabrication and 3D printing, could form the basis of new classes of regenerative implants in orthopaedic medicine.
AUTHOR Wibowo, Arie and Vyas, Cian and Cooper, Glen and Qulub, Fitriyatul and Suratman, Rochim and Mahyuddin, Andi Isra and Dirgantara, Tatacipta and Bartolo, Paulo
Title 3D Printing of Polycaprolactone-Polyaniline Electroactive Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering. [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials
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Abstract
Electrostimulation and electroactive scaffolds can positively influence and guide cellular behaviour and thus has been garnering interest as a key tissue engineering strategy. The development of conducting polymers such as polyaniline enables the fabrication of conductive polymeric composite scaffolds. In this study, we report on the initial development of a polycaprolactone scaffold incorporating different weight loadings of a polyaniline microparticle filler. The scaffolds are fabricated using screw-assisted extrusion-based 3D printing and are characterised for their morphological, mechanical, conductivity, and preliminary biological properties. The conductivity of the polycaprolactone scaffolds increases with the inclusion of polyaniline. The in vitro cytocompatibility of the scaffolds was assessed using human adipose-derived stem cells to determine cell viability and proliferation up to 21 days. A cytotoxicity threshold was reached at 1% wt. polyaniline loading. Scaffolds with 0.1% wt. polyaniline showed suitable compressive strength (6.45 ± 0.16 MPa) and conductivity (2.46 ± 0.65 × 10(-4) S/cm) for bone tissue engineering applications and demonstrated the highest cell viability at day 1 (88%) with cytocompatibility for up to 21 days in cell culture.
AUTHOR García-Astrain, Clara and Lenzi, Elisa and Jimenez de Aberasturi, Dorleta and Henriksen-Lacey, Malou and Binelli, Marco R. and Liz-Marzán, Luis M.
Title 3D-Printed Biocompatible Scaffolds with Built-In Nanoplasmonic Sensors [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Functional Materials
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Abstract 3D printing strategies have acquired great relevance toward the design of 3D scaffolds with precise macroporous structures, for supported mammalian cell growth. Despite advances in 3D model designs, there is still a shortage of detection tools to precisely monitor in situ cell behavior in 3D, thereby allowing a better understanding of the progression of diseases or to test the efficacy of drugs in a more realistic microenvironment. Even if the number of available inks has exponentially increased, they do not necessarily offer the required functionalities to be used as internal sensors. Herein the potential of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy for the detection of biorelevant analytes within a plasmonic hydrogel-based, 3D-printed scaffold is demonstrated. Such SERS-active scaffolds allow for the 3D detection of model molecules, such as 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. Flexibility in the choice of plasmonic nanoparticles is demonstrated through the use of gold nanoparticles with different morphologies, gold nanorods showing the best balance between SERS enhancement and scaffold transparency. Detection of the biomarker adenosine is also demonstrated as a proof-of-concept toward the use of these plasmonic scaffolds for SERS sensing of cell-secreted molecules over extended periods of time.
AUTHOR Browning, James R. and Derr, Paige and Derr, Kristy and Doudican, Nicole and Michael, Sam and Lish, Samantha R. and Taylor, Nicholas A. and Krueger, James G. and Ferrer, Marc and Carucci, John A. and Gareau, Daniel S.
Title A 3D biofabricated cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma tissue model with multi-channel confocal microscopy imaging biomarkers to quantify antitumor effects of chemotherapeutics in tissue [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Oncotarget; Vol 11, No 27
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Abstract
// James R. Browning 1 , Paige Derr 2 , Kristy Derr 2 , Nicole Doudican 3 , Sam Michael 2 , Samantha R. Lish 1 , Nicholas A. Taylor 3 , James G. Krueger 1 , Marc Ferrer 2 , John A. Carucci 3 and Daniel S. Gareau 1 1 Laboratory for Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA 2 National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, USA 3 The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA Correspondence to: Daniel S. Gareau, email: dgareau@rockefeller.edu Keywords: squamous cell carcinoma; screening; 3D printing; in vitro model; confocal microscopy Received: January 05, 2020     Accepted: April 03, 2020     Published: July 07, 2020 ABSTRACT Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) causes approximately 10,000 deaths annually in the U. S. Current therapies are largely ineffective against metastatic and locally advanced cSCC. There is a need to identify novel, effective, and less toxic small molecule cSCC therapeutics. We developed a 3-dimensional bioprinted skin (3DBPS) model of cSCC tumors together with a microscopy assay to test chemotherapeutic effects in tissue. The full thickness SCC tissue model was validated using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical histological staining, confocal microscopy, and cDNA microarray analysis. A nondestructive, 3D fluorescence confocal imaging assay with tdTomato-labeled A431 SCC and ZsGreen-labeled keratinocytes was developed to test efficacy and general toxicity of chemotherapeutics. Fluorescence-derived imaging biomarkers indicated that 50% of cancer cells were killed in the tissue after 1?M 5-Fluorouracil 48-hour treatment, compared to a baseline of 12% for untreated controls. The imaging biomarkers also showed that normal keratinocytes were less affected by treatment (11% killed) than the untreated tissue, which had no significant killing effect. Data showed that 5-Fluorouracil selectively killed cSCC cells more than keratinocytes. Our 3DBPS assay platform provides cellular-level measurement of cell viability and can be adapted to achieve nondestructive high-throughput screening (HTS) in bio-fabricated tissues.
AUTHOR Mancini, I. A. D. and Schmidt, S. and Brommer, H. and Pouran, B. and Schäfer, S. and Tessmar, J. and Mensinga, A. and van Rijen, M. H. P. and Groll, J. and Blunk, T. and Levato, R. and Malda, J. and van Weeren, P. R.
Title A composite hydrogel-3D printed thermoplast osteochondral anchor as example for a zonal approach to cartilage repair: in vivo performance in a long-term equine model [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Abstract
Recent research has been focusing on the generation of living personalized osteochondral constructs for joint repair. Native articular cartilage has a zonal structure, which is not reflected in current constructs and which may be a cause of the frequent failure of these repair attempts. Therefore, we investigated the performance of a composite implant that further reflects the zonal distribution of cellular component both in vitro and in vivo in a long-term equine model. Constructs constituted of a 3D-printed poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) bone anchor from which reinforcing fibers protruded into the chondral part of the construct over which two layers of a thiol-ene cross-linkable hyaluronic acid/poly(glycidol) hybrid hydrogel (HA-SH/P(AGE-co-G)) were fabricated. The top layer contained Articular Cartilage Progenitor Cells (ACPCs) derived from the superficial layer of native cartilage tissue, the bottom layer contained mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The chondral part of control constructs were homogeneously filled with MSCs. After six months in vivo, microtomography revealed significant bone growth into the anchor. Histologically, there was only limited production of cartilage-like tissue (despite persistency of hydrogel) both in zonal and non-zonal constructs. There were no differences in histological scoring; however, the repair tissue was significantly stiffer in defects repaired with zonal constructs. The sub-optimal quality of the repair tissue may be related to several factors, including early loss of implanted cells, or inappropriate degradation rate of the hydrogel. Nonetheless, this approach may be promising and research into further tailoring of biomaterials and of construct characteristics seems warranted.
AUTHOR Wang, Zehao and Hui, Aiping and Zhao, Hongbin and Ye, Xiaohan and Zhang, Chao and Wang, Aiqin and Zhang, Changqing
Title A Novel 3D-bioprinted Porous Nano Attapulgite Scaffolds with Good Performance for Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Nanomedicine
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BACKGROUND: Natural clay nanomaterials are an emerging class of biomaterial with great potential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications, most notably for osteogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein, for the first time, novel tissue engineering scaffolds were prepared by 3D bioprinter using nontoxic and bioactive natural attapulgite (ATP) nanorods as starting materials, with polyvinyl alcohol as binder, and then sintered to obtain final scaffolds. The microscopic morphology and structure of ATP particles and scaffolds were observed by transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. In vitro biocompatibility and osteogenesis with osteogenic precursor cell (hBMSCs) were assayed using MTT method, Live/Dead cell staining, alizarin red staining and RT-PCR. In vivo bone regeneration was evaluated with micro-CT and histology analysis in rat cranium defect model. RESULTS: We successfully printed a novel porous nano-ATP scaffold designed with inner channels with a dimension of 500 µm and wall structures with a thickness of 330 µm. The porosity of current 3D-printed scaffolds ranges from 75% to 82% and the longitudinal compressive strength was up to 4.32±0.52 MPa. We found firstly that nano-ATP scaffolds with excellent biocompatibility for hBMSCscould upregulate the expression of osteogenesis-related genes bmp2 and runx2 and calcium deposits in vitro. Interestingly, micro-CT and histology analysis revealed abundant newly formed bone was observed along the defect margin, even above and within the 3D bioprinted porous ATP scaffolds in a rat cranial defect model. Furthermore, histology analysis demonstrated that bone was formed directly following a process similar to membranous ossification without any intermediate cartilage formation and that many newly formed blood vessels are within the pores of 3D-printed scaffolds at four and eight weeks. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the 3D-printed porous nano-ATP scaffolds are promising candidates for bone tissue engineering by osteogenesis and angiogenesis.
AUTHOR Moxon, Sam and Ferreira, Miguel and Santos, Patricia and Popa, Bogdan and Gloria, Antonio and Katsarava, Ramaz and Tugushi, David and Serra, Armenio and Hooper, Nigel and Kimber, Susan and Fonseca, Ana and Domingos, Marco
Title A Preliminary Evaluation of the Pro-Chondrogenic Potential of 3D-Bioprinted Poly(ester Urea) Scaffolds
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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AUTHOR Li, Zuxi and Zhang, Xiao and Yuan, Tao and Zhang, Yi and Luo, Chunyang and Zhang, Jiyong and Liu, Yang and Fan, Weimin
Title Addition of Platelet-Rich Plasma to Silk Fibroin Hydrogel Bioprinting for Cartilage Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part A
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The recent advent of 3D bioprinting of biopolymers provides a novel method for fabrication of tissue-engineered scaffolds and also offers a potentially promising avenue in cartilage regeneration. Silk fibroin (SF) is one of the most popular biopolymers used for 3D bioprinting, but further application of SF is hindered by its limited biological activities. Incorporation of growth factors (GFs) has been identified as a solution to improve biological function. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous resource of GFs, which has been widely used in clinic. In this study, we have developed SF-based bioinks incorporated with different concentrations of PRP (12.5%, 25%, and 50%; vol/vol). Release kinetic studies show that SF-PRP bioinks could achieve controlled release of GFs. Subsequently, SF-PRP bioinks were successfully fabricated into scaffolds by bioprinting. Our results revealed that SF-PRP scaffolds possessed proper internal pore structure, good biomechanical properties, and a suitable degradation rate for cartilage regeneration. Live/dead staining showed that 3D, printed SF-PRP scaffolds were biocompatible. Moreover, in vitro studies revealed that tissue-engineered cartilage from the SF-PRP group exhibited improved qualities compared with the pure SF controls, according to histological and immunohistochemical findings. Biochemical evaluations confirmed that SF-PRP (50% PRP, v/v) scaffolds allowed the largest increases in collagen and glycosaminoglycan concentrations, when compared with the pure SF group. These findings suggest that 3D, printed SF-PRP scaffolds could be potential candidates for cartilage tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Huang, Boyang and Vyas, Cian and Byun, Jae Jong and El-Newehy, Mohamed and Huang, Zhucheng and Bártolo, Paulo
Title Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes with nanohydroxyapatite in a 3D printed polycaprolactone scaffold stimulates osteogenic differentiation [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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The development of highly biomimetic scaffolds in terms of composition and structures, to repair or replace damaged bone tissues, is particularly relevant for tissue engineering. This paper investigates a 3D printed porous scaffold containing aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA), mimicking the natural bone tissue from the nanoscale to macroscale level. MWCNTs with similar dimensions as collagen fibres are coupled with nHA and mixed within a polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix to produce scaffolds using a screw-assisted extrusion-based additive manufacturing system. Scaffolds with different material compositions were extensively characterised from morphological, mechanical and biological points of views. Transmission electron microscopy and polarised Raman spectroscopy confirm the presence of aligned MWCNTs within the printed filaments. The PCL/HA/MWCNTs scaffold are similar to the nanostructure of native bone and shows overall increased mechanical properties, cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and scaffold mineralisation, indicating a promising approach for bone tissue regeneration.
AUTHOR Estermann, Manuela and Bisig, Christoph and Septiadi, Dedy and Petri-Fink, Alke and Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara
Title Bioprinting for Human Respiratory and Gastrointestinal In Vitro Models [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings
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Increasing ethical and biological concerns require a paradigm shift toward animal-free testing strategies for drug testing and hazard assessments. To this end, the application of bioprinting technology in the field of biomedicine is driving a rapid progress in tissue engineering. In particular, standardized and reproducible in vitro models produced by three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technique represent a possible alternative to animal models, enabling in vitro studies relevant to in vivo conditions. The innovative approach of 3D bioprinting allows a spatially controlled deposition of cells and biomaterial in a layer-by-layer fashion providing a platform for engineering reproducible models. However, despite the promising and revolutionizing character of 3D bioprinting technology, standardized protocols providing detailed instructions are lacking. Here, we provide a protocol for the automatized printing of simple alveolar, bronchial, and intestine epithelial cell layers as the basis for more complex respiratory and gastrointestinal tissue models. Such systems will be useful for high-throughput toxicity screening and drug efficacy evaluation.
AUTHOR Zamani, Yasaman and Mohammadi, Javad and Amoabediny, Ghassem and Helder, Marco N. and Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz and Klein-Nulend, Jenneke
Title Bioprinting of Alginate-Encapsulated Pre-osteoblasts in PLGA/β-TCP Scaffolds Enhances Cell Retention but Impairs Osteogenic Differentiation Compared to Cell Seeding after 3D-Printing [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Regenerative Engineering and Translational Medicine
Reftype Zamani2020
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In tissue engineering, cellularization of scaffolds has typically been performed by seeding the cells after scaffold fabrication. 3D-printing technology now allows bioprinting of cells encapsulated in a hydrogel simultaneously with the scaffold material. Here, we aimed to investigate whether bioprinting or cell seeding post-printing is more effective in enhancing responses of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line derived from mouse calvaria.
AUTHOR Huang, Yen-Lin and Liang, Ching-Yeu and Ritz, Danilo and Coelho, Ricardo and Septiadi, Dedy and Estermann, Manuela and Cumin, Cécile and Rimmer, Natalie and Schötzau, Andreas and Núñez López, Mónica and Fedier, André and Konantz, Martina and Vlajnic, Tatjana and Calabrese, Diego and Lengerke, Claudia and David, Leonor and Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara and Jacob, Francis and Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola
Title Collagen-rich omentum is a premetastatic niche for integrin α2-mediated peritoneal metastasis [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings eLife
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The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays critical roles in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the contribution of ECM proteins to early metastatic onset in the peritoneal cavity remains unexplored. Here, we suggest a new route of metastasis through the interaction of integrin alpha 2 (ITGA2) with collagens enriched in the tumor coinciding with poor outcome in patients with ovarian cancer. Using multiple gene-edited cell lines and patient-derived samples, we demonstrate that ITGA2 triggers cancer cell adhesion to collagen, promotes cell migration, anoikis resistance, mesothelial clearance, and peritoneal metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, phosphoproteomics identify an ITGA2-dependent phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway leading to enhanced oncogenic properties. Consequently, specific inhibition of ITGA2-mediated cancer cell-collagen interaction or targeting focal adhesion signaling may present an opportunity for therapeutic intervention of metastatic spread in ovarian cancer.
AUTHOR Diloksumpan, Paweena and de Ruijter, Myl{`{e}}ne and Castilho, Miguel and Gbureck, Uwe and Vermonden, Tina and van Weeren, P. Ren{'{e}} and Malda, Jos and Levato, Riccardo
Title Combining multi-scale 3D printing technologies to engineer reinforced hydrogel-ceramic interfaces [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Abstract
Multi-material 3D printing technologies that resolve features at different lengths down to the microscale open new avenues for regenerative medicine, particularly in the engineering of tissue interfaces. Herein, extrusion printing of a bone-biomimetic ceramic ink and melt electrowriting (MEW) of spatially organized polymeric microfibres are integrated for the biofabrication of an osteochondral plug, with a mechanically reinforced bone-to-cartilage interface. A printable physiological temperature-setting bioceramic, based on α-tricalcium phosphate, nanohydroxyapatite and a custom-synthesized biodegradable and crosslinkable poloxamer, was developed as bone support. The mild setting reaction of the bone ink enabled us to print directly within melt electrowritten polycaprolactone meshes, preserving their micro-architecture. Ceramic-integrated MEW meshes protruded into the cartilage region of the composite plug, and were embedded with mechanically soft gelatin-based hydrogels, laden with articular cartilage chondroprogenitor cells. Such interlocking design enhanced the hydrogel-to-ceramic adhesion strength >6.5-fold, compared with non-interlocking fibre architectures, enabling structural stability during handling and surgical implantation in osteochondral defects ex vivo. Furthermore, the MEW meshes endowed the chondral compartment with compressive properties approaching those of native cartilage (20-fold reinforcement versus pristine hydrogel). The osteal and chondral compartment supported osteogenesis and cartilage matrix deposition in vitro, and the neo-synthesized cartilage matrix further contributed to the mechanical reinforcement at the ceramic-hydrogel interface. This multi-material, multi-scale 3D printing approach provides a promising strategy for engineering advanced composite constructs for the regeneration of musculoskeletal and connective tissue interfaces.
AUTHOR Müller, Michael and Fisch, Philipp and Molnar, Marc and Eggert, Sebastian and Binelli, Marco and Maniura-Weber, Katharina and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Development and thorough characterization of the processing steps of an ink for 3D printing for bone tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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Achieving reproducibility in the 3D printing of biomaterials requires a robust polymer synthesis method to reduce batch-to-batch variation as well as methods to assure a thorough characterization throughout the manufacturing process. Particularly biomaterial inks containing large solid fractions such as ceramic particles, often required for bone tissue engineering applications, are prone to inhomogeneity originating from inadequate mixing or particle aggregation which can lead to inconsistent printing results. The production of such an ink for bone tissue engineering consisting of gellan gum methacrylate (GG-MA), hyaluronic acid methacrylate and hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles was therefore optimized in terms of GG-MA synthesis and ink preparation process, and the ink's printability was thoroughly characterized to assure homogeneous and reproducible printing results. A new buffer mediated synthesis method for GG-MA resulted in consistent degrees of substitution which allowed the creation of large 5 g batches. We found that both the new synthesis as well as cryomilling of the polymer components of the ink resulted in a decrease in viscosity from 113 kPa·s to 11.3 kPa·s at a shear rate of 0.1 s−1 but increased ink homogeneity. The ink homogeneity was assessed through thermogravimetric analysis and a newly developed extrusion force measurement setup. The ink displayed strong inter-layer adhesion between two printed ink layers as well as between a layer of ink with and a layer without HAp. The large polymer batch production along with the characterization of the ink during the manufacturing process allows ink production in the gram scale and could be used in applications such as the printing of osteochondral grafts.
AUTHOR Zhang, Hua and Cong, Yang and Osi, Amarachi Rosemary and Zhou, Yang and Huang, Fangcheng and Zaccaria, Remo P. and Chen, Jing and Wang, Rong and Fu, Jun
Title Direct 3D Printed Biomimetic Scaffolds Based on Hydrogel Microparticles for Cell Spheroid Growth [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Functional Materials
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Abstract Biocompatible hydrogel inks with shear-thinning, appropriate yield strength, and fast self-healing are desired for 3D bioprinting. However, the lack of ideal 3D bioprinting inks with outstanding printability and high structural fidelity, as well as cell-compatibility, has hindered the progress of extrusion-based 3D bioprinting for tissue engineering. In this study, novel self-healable pre-cross-linked hydrogel microparticles (pcHμPs) of chitosan methacrylate (CHMA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hybrid hydrogels are developed and used as bioinks for extrusion-based 3D printing of scaffolds with high fidelity and biocompatibility. The pcHμPs display excellent shear thinning when injected through a syringe and subsequently self-heal into gels as shear forces are removed. Numerical simulations indicate that the pcHμPs experience a plug flow in the nozzle with minimal disturbance, which favors a steady and continuous printing. Moreover, the pcHμPs show a self-supportive yield strength (540 Pa), which is critical for the fidelity of printed constructs. A series of biomimetic constructs with very high aspect ratio and delicate fine structures are directly printed by using the pcHμP ink. The 3D printed scaffolds support the growth of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and formation of cell spheroids, which are most important for tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Huang, Boyang and Aslan, Enes and Jiang, Zhengyi and Daskalakis, Evangelos and Jiao, Mohan and Aldalbahi, Ali and Vyas, Cian and Bártolo, Paulo
Title Engineered dual-scale poly (ε-caprolactone) scaffolds using 3D printing and rotational electrospinning for bone tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Additive Manufacturing
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Abstract
Large bone defects due to trauma or disease present a significant clinical challenge with limited efficacy of current therapies. A key aim is to develop biomimetic scaffolds that reflect the native tissue structure with 3D printing being an important enabling technology. However, the incorporation of multiple length scales and anisotropic features, mimicking the native architecture, is difficult with current processes. In this study, we propose a simple and versatile hybrid printing process using a screw-assisted additive manufacturing technique combined with rotational electrospinning to fabricate dual-scale anisotropic scaffolds. 3D microscale porous polycaprolactone (PCL) structures with highly aligned nanoscale fibres were successfully produced layer-by-layer. The scaffolds were morphological, mechanical and biological characterised. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) were seeded on the hybrid scaffold to evaluate the effects of structural and anisotropic topographic cues on cell attachment, proliferation and osteogenesis differentiation. Results show that the 3D printed microscale structures have uniform and well-defined geometries and the alignment of nanoscale electrospun fibres increases by increasing the electrospinning rotational velocity. Mechanical results show that there is no significant difference between 3D printed scaffolds with or without electrospun meshes. In vitro results show higher cell seeding efficiency and proliferation in dual-scale scaffolds with high density electrospun meshes. A more stretched and elongated cell morphology was observed in aligned nanofibre scaffolds showing higher anisotropic cytoskeletal organization than 3D printed PCL scaffolds without electrospun meshes. The dual-scale scaffolds present improved overall osteogenic markers expressions (COL-1, ALP and OCN). However, no statistical difference between normalised osteogenic marker expressions were observed between dual-scale scaffolds and 3D printed scaffolds. This might be attributed to the poor bioactivity of the substrate material, PCL, suggesting topographical cues might not be sufficient to stimulate cell fate towards to an osteogenic linage. The results suggest that the proposed fabrication strategy is a promising approach for the design of novel bone scaffolds to modulate cell fates by integrating the topographic cue reported in this paper with biochemical cues associated to the use of more bioactive materials.
AUTHOR Lee, Jia Min and Yeong, Wai Yee
Title Engineering macroscale cell alignment through coordinated toolpath design using support-assisted 3D bioprinting [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of The Royal Society Interface
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Abstract
Aligned cells provide direction-dependent mechanical properties that influence biological and mechanical function in native tissues. Alignment techniques such as casting and uniaxial stretching cannot fully replicate the complex fibre orientation of native tissue such as the heart. In this study, bioprinting is used to direct the orientation of cell alignment. A 0°–90° grid structure was printed to assess the robustness of the support-assisted bioprinting technique. The variation in the angles of the grid pattern is designed to mimic the differences in fibril orientation of native tissues, where angles of cell alignment vary across the different layers. Through bioprinting of a cell–hydrogel mixture, C2C12 cells displayed directed alignment along the longitudinal axis of printed struts. Cell alignment is induced through firstly establishing structurally stable constructs (i.e. distinct 0°–90° structures) and secondly, allowing cells to dynamically remodel the bioprinted construct. Herein reports a method of inducing a macroscale level of controlled cell alignment with angle variation. This was not achievable both in terms of methods (i.e. conventional alignment techniques such as stretching and electrical stimulation) and magnitude (i.e. hydrogel features with less than 100 µm features).
AUTHOR Song, Jie-Liang and Fu, Xin-Ye and Raza, Ali and Shen, Nai-An and Xue, Ya-Qi and Wang, Hua-Jie and Wang, Jin-Ye
Title Enhancement of mechanical strength of TCP-alginate based bioprinted constructs [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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Abstract
To overcome the mechanical drawback of bioink, we proposed a supporter model to enhance the mechanical strength of bioprinted 3D constructs, in which a unit-assembly idea was involved. Based on Computed Tomography images of critical-sized rabbit bone defect, the 3D re-construction was accomplished by a sequenced process using Mimics 17.0, BioCAM and BioCAD software. 3D constructs were bioprinted using polycaprolactone (PCL) ink for the outer supporter under extrusion mode, and cell-laden tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/alginate bioink for the inner filler under air pressure dispensing mode. The relationship of viscosity of bioinks, 3D bioprinting pressure, TCP/alginate ratio and cell survival were investigated by the shear viscosities analysis, live/dead cell test and cell-counting kit 8 measurement. The viscosity of bioinks at 1.0 s−1-shear rate could be adjusted within the range of 1.75 ± 0.29 Pa·s to 155.65 ± 10.86 Pa·s by changing alginate concentration, corresponding to 10 kPa–130 kPa of printing pressure. This design with PCL supporter could significantly enhance the compressive strength and compressive modulus of standardized 3D mechanical testing specimens up to 2.15 ± 0.14 MPa to 2.58 ± 0.09 MPa, and 42.83 ± 4.75 MPa to 53.12 ± 1.19 MPa, respectively. Cells could maintain the high viability (over 80%) under the given printing pressure but cell viability declined with the increase of TCP content. Cell survival after experiencing 7 days of cell culture could be achieved when the ratio of TCP/alginate was 1 : 4. All data supported the feasibility of the supporter and unit-assembly model to enhance mechanical properties of bioprinted 3D constructs.
AUTHOR Dubey, Nileshkumar and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Malda, Jos and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Extracellular Matrix/Amorphous Magnesium Phosphate Bioink for 3D Bioprinting of Craniomaxillofacial Bone Tissue [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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Abstract
Bioprinting, a promising field in regenerative medicine, holds great potential to create three-dimensional, defect-specific vascularized bones with tremendous opportunities to address unmet craniomaxillofacial reconstructive challenges. A cytocompatible bioink is a critical prerequisite to successfully regenerate functional bone tissue. Synthetic self-assembling peptides have a nanofibrous structure resembling the native extracellular matrix (ECM), making them an excellent bioink component. Amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) have shown greater levels of resorption while maintaining high biocompatibility, osteoinductivity, and low inflammatory response, as compared to their calcium phosphate counterparts. Here, we have established a novel bioink formulation (ECM/AMP) that combines an ECM-based hydrogel containing 2% octapeptide FEFEFKFK and 98% water with AMP particles to realize high cell function with desirable bioprintability. We analyzed the osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) encapsulated in the bioink, as well as in vivo bone regeneration, to define the potential of the formulated bioink as a growth factor-free bone-forming strategy. Cell-laden AMP-modified bioprinted constructs showed an improved cell morphology but similar cell viability (∼90%) compared to their AMP-free counterpart. In functional assays, the cell-laden bioprinted constructs modified with AMP exhibited a high level of mineralization and osteogenic gene expression without the use of growth factors, thus suggesting that the presence of AMP-triggered DPSCs’ osteogenic differentiation. Cell-free ECM-based bioprinted constructs were implanted in vivo. In comparison with the ECM group, bone volume per total volume for ECM/1.0AMP was approximately 1.7- and 1.4-fold higher at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Further, a significant increase in the bone density was observed in ECM/1.0AMP from 4 to 8 weeks. These results demonstrate that the presence of AMP in the bioink significantly increased bone formation, thus showing promise for in situ bioprinting strategies. We foresee significant potential in translating this innovative bioink toward the regeneration of patient-specific bone tissue for regenerative dentistry. Bioprinting, a promising field in regenerative medicine, holds great potential to create three-dimensional, defect-specific vascularized bones with tremendous opportunities to address unmet craniomaxillofacial reconstructive challenges. A cytocompatible bioink is a critical prerequisite to successfully regenerate functional bone tissue. Synthetic self-assembling peptides have a nanofibrous structure resembling the native extracellular matrix (ECM), making them an excellent bioink component. Amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) have shown greater levels of resorption while maintaining high biocompatibility, osteoinductivity, and low inflammatory response, as compared to their calcium phosphate counterparts. Here, we have established a novel bioink formulation (ECM/AMP) that combines an ECM-based hydrogel containing 2% octapeptide FEFEFKFK and 98% water with AMP particles to realize high cell function with desirable bioprintability. We analyzed the osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) encapsulated in the bioink, as well as in vivo bone regeneration, to define the potential of the formulated bioink as a growth factor-free bone-forming strategy. Cell-laden AMP-modified bioprinted constructs showed an improved cell morphology but similar cell viability (∼90%) compared to their AMP-free counterpart. In functional assays, the cell-laden bioprinted constructs modified with AMP exhibited a high level of mineralization and osteogenic gene expression without the use of growth factors, thus suggesting that the presence of AMP-triggered DPSCs’ osteogenic differentiation. Cell-free ECM-based bioprinted constructs were implanted in vivo. In comparison with the ECM group, bone volume per total volume for ECM/1.0AMP was approximately 1.7- and 1.4-fold higher at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Further, a significant increase in the bone density was observed in ECM/1.0AMP from 4 to 8 weeks. These results demonstrate that the presence of AMP in the bioink significantly increased bone formation, thus showing promise for in situ bioprinting strategies. We foresee significant potential in translating this innovative bioink toward the regeneration of patient-specific bone tissue for regenerative dentistry.
AUTHOR Somasekharan, Lakshmi and Kasoju, Naresh and Raju, Riya and Bhatt, Anugya
Title Formulation and Characterization of Alginate Dialdehyde, Gelatin, and Platelet-Rich Plasma-Based Bioink for Bioprinting Applications [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Bioengineering
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