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AUTHOR Daghrery, Arwa and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Xu, Jinping and Golafshan, Nasim and Kaigler, Darnell and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Tissue-specific melt electrowritten polymeric scaffolds for coordinated regeneration of soft and hard periodontal tissues [Abstract]
Year 2023
Journal/Proceedings Bioactive Materials
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Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that often causes serious damage to tooth-supporting tissues. The limited successful outcomes of clinically available approaches underscore the need for therapeutics that cannot only provide structural guidance to cells but can also modulate the local immune response. Here, three-dimensional melt electrowritten (i.e., poly(ε-caprolactone)) scaffolds with tissue-specific attributes were engineered to guide differentiation of human-derived periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) and mediate macrophage polarization. The investigated tissue-specific scaffold attributes comprised fiber morphology (aligned vs. random) and highly-ordered architectures with distinct strand spacings (small 250 μm and large 500 μm). Macrophages exhibited an elongated morphology in aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds, while maintaining their round-shape on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds. Expressions of periostin and IL-10 were more pronounced on the aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds. While hPDLSCs on the scaffolds with 500 μm strand spacing show higher expression of osteogenic marker (Runx2) over 21 days, cells on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds showed upregulation of M1 markers. In an orthotopic mandibular fenestration defect model, findings revealed that the tissue-specific scaffolds (i.e., aligned fibers for periodontal ligament and highly-ordered 500 μm strand spacing fluorinated calcium phosphate [F/CaP]-coated fibers for bone) could enhance the mimicking of regeneration of natural periodontal tissues.
AUTHOR Daghrery, Arwa and Ferreira, Jessica A. and de Souza Araújo, Isaac J. and Clarkson, Brian H. and Eckert, George J. and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Malda, Jos and Bottino, Marco C.
Title A Highly Ordered, Nanostructured Fluorinated CaP-Coated Melt Electrowritten Scaffold for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory, bacteria-triggered disorder affecting nearly half of American adults. Although some level of tissue regeneration is realized, its low success in complex cases demands superior strategies to amplify regenerative capacity. Herein, highly ordered scaffolds are engineered via Melt ElectroWriting (MEW), and the effects of strand spacing, as well as the presence of a nanostructured fluorinated calcium phosphate (F/CaP) coating on the adhesion/proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human-derived periodontal ligament stem cells, are investigated. Upon initial cell-scaffold interaction screening aimed at defining the most suitable design, MEW poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds with 500 µm strand spacing are chosen. Following an alkali treatment, scaffolds are immersed in a pre-established solution to allow for coating formation. The presence of a nanostructured F/CaP coating leads to a marked upregulation of osteogenic genes and attenuated bacterial growth. In vivo findings confirm that the F/CaP-coated scaffolds are biocompatible and lead to periodontal regeneration when implanted in a rat mandibular periodontal fenestration defect model. In aggregate, it is considered that this work can contribute to the development of personalized scaffolds capable of enabling tissue-specific differentiation of progenitor cells, and thus guide simultaneous and coordinated regeneration of soft and hard periodontal tissues, while providing antimicrobial protection.
AUTHOR Dubey, Nileshkumar and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Daghrery, Arwa and Aytac, Zeynep and Malda, Jos and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Highly Tunable Bioactive Fiber-Reinforced Hydrogel for Guided Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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One of the most damaging pathologies that affects the health of both soft and hard tissues around the tooth is periodontitis. Clinically, periodontal tissue destruction has been managed by an integrated approach involving elimination of injured tissues followed by regenerative strategies with bone substitutes and/or barrier membranes. Regrettably, a barrier membrane with predictable mechanical integrity and multifunctional therapeutic features has yet to be established. Herein, we report a fiber-reinforced hydrogel with unprecedented tunability in terms of mechanical competence and therapeutic features by integration of highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) fibrous mesh(es) with well-controlled 3D architecture into bioactive amorphous magnesium phosphate-laden gelatin methacryloyl hydrogels. The presence of amorphous magnesium phosphate and PCL mesh in the hydrogel can control the mechanical properties and improve the osteogenic ability, opening a tremendous opportunity in guided bone regeneration (GBR). Results demonstrate that the presence of PCL meshes fabricated via melt electrowriting can delay hydrogel degradation preventing soft tissue invasion and providing the mechanical barrier to allow time for slower migrating progenitor cells to participate in bone regeneration due to their ability to differentiate into bone-forming cells. Altogether, our approach offers a platform technology for the development of the next-generation of GBR membranes with tunable mechanical and therapeutic properties to amplify bone regeneration in compromised sites.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Biofabrication of spatially organised tissues by directing the growth of cellular spheroids within 3D printed polymeric microchambers [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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Successful tissue engineering requires the generation of human scale implants that mimic the structure, composition and mechanical properties of native tissues. Here, we report a novel biofabrication strategy that enables the engineering of structurally organised tissues by guiding the growth of cellular spheroids within arrays of 3D printed polymeric microchambers. With the goal of engineering stratified articular cartilage, inkjet bioprinting was used to deposit defined numbers of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes into pre-printed microchambers. These jetted cell suspensions rapidly underwent condensation within the hydrophobic microchambers, leading to the formation of organised arrays of cellular spheroids. The microchambers were also designed to provide boundary conditions to these spheroids, guiding their growth and eventual fusion, leading to the development of stratified cartilage tissue with a depth-dependant collagen fiber architecture that mimicked the structure of native articular cartilage. Furthermore, the composition and biomechanical properties of the bioprinted cartilage was also comparable to the native tissue. Using multi-tool biofabrication, we were also able to engineer anatomically accurate, human scale, osteochondral templates by printing this microchamber system on top of a hypertrophic cartilage region designed to support endochondral bone formation and then maintaining the entire construct in long-term bioreactor culture to enhance tissue development. This bioprinting strategy provides a versatile and scalable approach to engineer structurally organised cartilage tissues for joint resurfacing applications.
AUTHOR Gonzalez-Fernandez, T. and Rathan, S. and Hobbs, C. and Pitacco, P. and Freeman, F. E. and Cunniffe, G. M. and Dunne, N. J. and McCarthy, H. O. and Nicolosi, V. and O'Brien, F. J. and Kelly, D. J.
Title Pore-forming bioinks to enable Spatio-temporally defined gene delivery in bioprinted tissues [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Controlled Release
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The regeneration of complex tissues and organs remains a major clinical challenge. With a view towards bioprinting such tissues, we developed a new class of pore-forming bioink to spatially and temporally control the presentation of therapeutic genes within bioprinted tissues. By blending sacrificial and stable hydrogels, we were able to produce bioinks whose porosity increased with time following printing. When combined with amphipathic peptide-based plasmid DNA delivery, these bioinks supported enhanced non-viral gene transfer to stem cells in vitro. By modulating the porosity of these bioinks, it was possible to direct either rapid and transient (pore-forming bioinks), or slower and more sustained (solid bioinks) transfection of host or transplanted cells in vivo. To demonstrate the utility of these bioinks for the bioprinting of spatially complex tissues, they were next used to zonally position stem cells and plasmids encoding for either osteogenic (BMP2) or chondrogenic (combination of TGF-β3, BMP2 and SOX9) genes within networks of 3D printed thermoplastic fibers to produce mechanically reinforced, gene activated constructs. In vivo, these bioprinted tissues supported the development of a vascularised, bony tissue overlaid by a layer of stable cartilage. When combined with multiple-tool biofabrication strategies, these gene activated bioinks can enable the bioprinting of a wide range of spatially complex tissues.
AUTHOR Cunniffe, Gráinne and Gonzalez-Fernandez, Tomas and Daly, Andrew and Nelson Sathy, Binulal and Jeon, Oju and Alsberg, Eben and J. Kelly, Daniel
Title Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Polycaprolactone Reinforced Gene Activated Bioinks for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2017
Journal/Proceedings Tissue Engineering Part A
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Regeneration of complex bone defects remains a significant clinical challenge. Multi-tool biofabrication has permitted the combination of various biomaterials to create multifaceted composites with tailorable mechanical properties and spatially controlled biological function. In this study we sought to use bioprinting to engineer nonviral gene activated constructs reinforced by polymeric micro-filaments. A gene activated bioink was developed using RGD-g-irradiated alginate and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) complexed to plasmid DNA (pDNA). This ink was combined with bonemarrow-derived mesenchymal stemcells (MSCs) and then co-printed with a polycaprolactone supporting mesh to provide mechanical stability to the construct. Reporter genes were first used to demonstrate successful cell transfection using this system, with sustained expression of the transgene detected over 14 days postbioprinting. Delivery of a combination of therapeutic genes encoding for bone morphogenic protein and transforming growth factor promoted robust osteogenesis of encapsulated MSCs in vitro, with enhanced levels of matrix deposition and mineralization observed following the incorporation of therapeutic pDNA. Gene activated MSC-laden constructs were then implanted subcutaneously, directly postfabrication, and were found to support superior levels of vascularization andmineralization compared to cell-free controls. These results validate the use of a gene activated bioink to impart biological functionality to three-dimensional bioprinted constructs.
AUTHOR Freeman, Fiona E. and Pitacco, Pierluca and van Dommelen, Lieke H. A. and Nulty, Jessica and Browe, David C. and Shin, Jung-Youn and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D bioprinting spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors to tightly control tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Science Advances
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Therapeutic growth factor delivery typically requires supraphysiological dosages, which can cause undesirable off-target effects. The aim of this study was to 3D bioprint implants containing spatiotemporally defined patterns of growth factors optimized for coupled angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Using nanoparticle functionalized bioinks, it was possible to print implants with distinct growth factor patterns and release profiles spanning from days to weeks. The extent of angiogenesis in vivo depended on the spatial presentation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Higher levels of vessel invasion were observed in implants containing a spatial gradient of VEGF compared to those homogenously loaded with the same total amount of protein. Printed implants containing a gradient of VEGF, coupled with spatially defined BMP-2 localization and release kinetics, accelerated large bone defect healing with little heterotopic bone formation. This demonstrates the potential of growth factor printing, a putative point of care therapy, for tightly controlled tissue regeneration.
AUTHOR Daly, Andrew C. and Pitacco, Pierluca and Nulty, Jessica and Cunniffe, Gráinne M. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D printed microchannel networks to direct vascularisation during endochondral bone repair [Abstract]
Year 2018
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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Bone tissue engineering strategies that recapitulate the developmental process of endochondral ossification offer a promising route to bone repair. Clinical translation of such endochondral tissue engineering strategies will require overcoming a number of challenges, including the engineering of large and often anatomically complex cartilage grafts, as well as the persistence of core regions of avascular cartilage following their implantation into large bone defects. Here 3D printing technology is utilized to develop a versatile and scalable approach to guide vascularisation during endochondral bone repair. First, a sacrificial pluronic ink was used to 3D print interconnected microchannel networks in a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) laden gelatin-methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel. These constructs (with and without microchannels) were next chondrogenically primed in vitro and then implanted into critically sized femoral bone defects in rats. The solid and microchanneled cartilage templates enhanced bone repair compared to untreated controls, with the solid cartilage templates (without microchannels) supporting the highest levels of total bone formation. However, the inclusion of 3D printed microchannels was found to promote osteoclast/immune cell invasion, hydrogel degradation, and vascularisation following implantation. In addition, the endochondral bone tissue engineering strategy was found to support comparable levels of bone healing to BMP-2 delivery, whilst promoting lower levels of heterotopic bone formation, with the microchanneled templates supporting the lowest levels of heterotopic bone formation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 3D printed hypertrophic cartilage grafts represent a promising approach for the repair of complex bone fractures, particularly for larger defects where vascularisation will be a key challenge.
AUTHOR Leu Alexa, Rebeca and Cucuruz, Andreia and Ghițulică, Cristina-Daniela and Voicu, Georgeta and Stamat (Balahura), Liliana-Roxana and Dinescu, Sorina and Vlasceanu, George Mihail and Stavarache, Cristina and Ianchis, Raluca and Iovu, Horia and Costache, Marieta
Title 3D Printable Composite Biomaterials Based on GelMA and Hydroxyapatite Powders Doped with Cerium Ions for Bone Tissue Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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The main objective was to produce 3D printable hydrogels based on GelMA and hydroxyapatite doped with cerium ions with potential application in bone regeneration. The first part of the study regards the substitution of Ca2+ ions from hydroxyapatite structure with cerium ions (Ca10-xCex(PO4)6(OH)2, xCe = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5). The second part followed the selection of the optimal concentration of HAp doped, which will ensure GelMA-based scaffolds with good biocompatibility, viability and cell proliferation. The third part aimed to select the optimal concentrations of GelMA for the 3D printing process (20%, 30% and 35%). In vitro biological assessment presented the highest level of cell viability and proliferation potency of GelMA-HC5 composites, along with a low cytotoxic potential, highlighting the beneficial effects of cerium on cell growth, also supported by Live/Dead results. According to the 3D printing experiments, the 30% GelMA enriched with HC5 was able to generate 3D scaffolds with high structural integrity and homogeneity, showing the highest suitability for the 3D printing process. The osteogenic differentiation experiments confirmed the ability of 30% GelMA-3% HC5 scaffold to support and efficiently maintain the osteogenesis process. Based on the results, 30% GelMA-3% HC5 3D printed scaffolds could be considered as biomaterials with suitable characteristics for application in bone tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Hashimi, Noura Sayed Al and Soman, Soja Saghar and Govindharaj, Mano and Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj
Title 3D printing of complex architected metamaterial structures by simple material extrusion for bone tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Materials Today Communications
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Triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) are gaining popularity as scaffolds for bioapplications due to their unique structure, offering strong mechanical properties and biomorphic surfaces which enhance cell attachment and proliferation. In this work, polymer TPMS sheet lattices were printed using a well-known yet unprecedented technique of manufacturing such structures; which is material extrusion (specifically, pneumatic melt extrusion). This method offers a one step, straightforward yet reliable way to print complex porous structures while retaining design accuracy and significantly simplifying the process. Multiple primitive, gyroid and cubic structures were designed using MSLattice and Solidworks with 70% porosity and 2×2×3 unit cells. The scaffolds were printed by melt extrusion of polycaprolactone (PCL) at different parameters to establish the optimal settings. Morphological features (pore size and strut thickness) were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the accuracy of print was determined by comparing to the design, showing high print accuracy and minimal percentage errors of less than 15% in all prints. Uniaxial compression testing was used to demonstrate the different deformation processes of the scaffolds and evaluate their mechanical properties, with primitive having the highest modulus and gyroid the highest yield strength. Finally, cell viability was quantified by alamar blue cell viability assay and visualized by SEM, displaying significant increase in cell proliferation and attachment, specifically in the primitive structure. Herein we will explain the challenges faced with design and print optimization and how we overcame them, making this work the first of its kind in material extrusion (pneumatic melt extrusion) printing of TPMS scaffolds.
AUTHOR Özcan, Mutlu and Magini, Eduarda Blasi and Volpato, Guilherme Maziero and Cruz, Ariadne and Volpato, Claudia Angela Maziero
Title Additive Manufacturing Technologies for Fabrication of Biomaterials for Surgical Procedures in Dentistry: A Narrative Review [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Prosthodontics
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Abstract Purpose To screen and critically appraise available literature regarding additive manufacturing technologies for bone graft material fabrication in dentistry. Material and Methods PubMed and Scopus were searched up to May 2021. Studies reporting the additive manufacturing techniques to manufacture scaffolds for intraoral bone defect reconstruction were considered eligible. A narrative review was synthesized to discuss the techniques for bone graft material fabrication in dentistry and the biomaterials used. Results The databases search resulted in 933 articles. After removing duplicate articles (128 articles), the titles and abstracts of the remaining articles (805 articles) were evaluated. A total of 89 articles were included in this review. Reading these articles, 5 categories of additive manufacturing techniques were identified: material jetting, powder bed fusion, vat photopolymerization, binder jetting, and material extrusion. Conclusions Additive manufacturing technologies for bone graft material fabrication in dentistry, especially 3D bioprinting approaches, have been successfully used to fabricate bone graft material with distinct compositions.
AUTHOR Daskalakis, Evangelos and Huang, Boyang and Vyas, Cian and Acar, Anil A. and Liu, Fengyuan and Fallah, Ali and Cooper, Glen and Weightman, Andrew and Blunn, Gordon and Koç, Bahattin and Bartolo, Paulo
Title Bone Bricks: The Effect of Architecture and Material Composition on the Mechanical and Biological Performance of Bone Scaffolds [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings ACS Omega
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Large bone loss injuries require high-performance scaffolds with an architecture and material composition resembling native bone. However, most bone scaffold studies focus on three-dimensional (3D) structures with simple rectangular or circular geometries and uniform pores, not able to recapitulate the geometric characteristics of the native tissue. This paper addresses this limitation by proposing novel anatomically designed scaffolds (bone bricks) with nonuniform pore dimensions (pore size gradients) designed based on new lay-dawn pattern strategies. The gradient design allows one to tailor the properties of the bricks and together with the incorporation of ceramic materials allows one to obtain structures with high mechanical properties (higher than reported in the literature for the same material composition) and improved biological characteristics.
AUTHOR Cao, Chuanliang and Huang, Pengren and Prasopthum, Aruna and Parsons, Andrew J. and Ai, Fanrong and Yang, Jing
Title Characterisation of bone regeneration in 3D printed ductile PCL/PEG/hydroxyapatite scaffolds with high ceramic microparticle concentrations [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Biomater. Sci.
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3D printed bioactive glass or bioceramic particle reinforced composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering currently suffer from low particle concentration (100% breaking strain) by adding poly(ethylene glycol) which is biocompatible and FDA approved. The scaffolds require no post-printing washing to remove hazardous components. More exposure of HA microparticles on strut surfaces is enabled by incorporating higher HA concentrations. Compared to scaffolds with 72 wt% HA{,} scaffolds with higher HA content (90 wt%) enhance matrix formation but not new bone volume after 12 weeks implantation in rat calvarial defects. Histological analyses demonstrate that bone regeneration within the 3D printed scaffolds is via intramembranous ossification and starts in the central region of pores. Fibrous tissue that resembles non-union tissue within bone fractures is formed within pores that do not have new bone. The amount of blood vessels is similar between scaffolds with mainly fibrous tissue and those with more bone tissue{,} suggesting vascularization is not a deciding factor for determining the type of tissues regenerated within the pores of 3D printed scaffolds. Multinucleated immune cells are commonly present in all scaffolds surrounding the struts{,} suggesting a role of managing inflammation in bone regeneration within 3D printed scaffolds.
AUTHOR Man, Kenny and Barroso, Inês A. and Brunet, Mathieu Y. and Peacock, Ben and Federici, Angelica S. and Hoey, David A. and Cox, Sophie C.
Title Controlled Release of Epigenetically-Enhanced Extracellular Vesicles from a GelMA/Nanoclay Composite Hydrogel to Promote Bone Repair [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have garnered growing attention as promising acellular tools for bone repair. Although EVs’ potential for bone regeneration has been shown, issues associated with their therapeutic potency and short half-life in vivo hinders their clinical utility. Epigenetic reprogramming with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) has been reported to promote the osteoinductive potency of osteoblast-derived EVs. Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels functionalised with the synthetic nanoclay laponite (LAP) have been shown to effectively bind, stabilise, and improve the retention of bioactive factors. This study investigated the potential of utilising a GelMA-LAP hydrogel to improve local retention and control delivery of epigenetically enhanced osteoblast-derived EVs as a novel bone repair strategy. LAP was found to elicit a dose-dependent increase in GelMA compressive modulus and shear-thinning properties. Incorporation of the nanoclay was also found to enhance shape fidelity when 3D printed compared to LAP-free gels. Interestingly, GelMA hydrogels containing LAP displayed increased mineralisation capacity (1.41-fold) (p ≤ 0.01) over 14 days. EV release kinetics from these nanocomposite systems were also strongly influenced by LAP concentration with significantly more vesicles being released from GelMA constructs as detected by a CD63 ELISA (p ≤ 0.001). EVs derived from TSA-treated osteoblasts (TSA-EVs) enhanced proliferation (1.09-fold), migration (1.83-fold), histone acetylation (1.32-fold) and mineralisation (1.87-fold) of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) when released from the GelMA-LAP hydrogel compared to the untreated EV gels (p ≤ 0.01). Importantly, the TSA-EV functionalised GelMA-LAP hydrogel significantly promoted encapsulated hBMSCs extracellular matrix collagen production (≥1.3-fold) and mineralisation (≥1.78-fold) in a dose-dependent manner compared to untreated EV constructs (p ≤ 0.001). Taken together, these findings demonstrate the potential of combining epigenetically enhanced osteoblast-derived EVs with a nanocomposite photocurable hydrogel to promote the therapeutic efficacy of acellular vesicle approaches for bone regeneration.
AUTHOR Yan Li and Lijing Huang and Guangpin Tai and Feifei Yan and Lin Cai and Chenxing Xin and Shamoon {Al Islam}
Title Graphene Oxide-loaded magnetic nanoparticles within 3D hydrogel form High-performance scaffolds for bone regeneration and tumour treatment [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing
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The treatment of tumour-related bone defects should ideally combine bone regeneration with tumour treatment. Additive manufacturing (AM) could feasibly place functional bone-repair materials within composite materials with functional-grade structures, giving them bone repair and anti-tumour effects. Magnetothermal therapy is a promising non-invasive method of tumour treatment that has attracted increasing attention. In this study, we prepared novel hydrogel composite scaffolds of polyvinyl alcohol/sodium alginate/hydroxyapatite (PVA/SA/HA) at low temperature via AM. The scaffolds were loaded with various concentrations of magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) @Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The scaffolds were characterised by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), which showed that the scaffolds have good moulding qualities and strong hydrogen bonding between the MGO/PVA/SA/HA components. TGA analysis demonstrated the expected thermal stability of the MGO and scaffolds. Thermal effects can be adjusted by varying the contents of MGO and the strength of an external alternating magnetic field. The prepared MGO hydrogel composite scaffolds enhance biological functions and support bone mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in vitro. The scaffolds also show favourable anti-tumour characteristics with effective magnetothermal conversion in vivo.
AUTHOR Helaehil, Júlia Venturini and Lourenço, Carina Basqueira and Huang, Boyang and Helaehil, Luiza Venturini and de Camargo, Isaque Xavier and Chiarotto, Gabriela Bortolança and Santamaria-Jr, Milton and Bártolo, Paulo and Caetano, Guilherme Ferreira
Title In Vivo Investigation of Polymer-Ceramic PCL/HA and PCL/β-TCP 3D Composite Scaffolds and Electrical Stimulation for Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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Critical bone defects are a major clinical challenge in reconstructive bone surgery. Polycaprolactone (PCL) mixed with bioceramics, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), create composite scaffolds with improved biological recognition and bioactivity. Electrical stimulation (ES) aims to compensate the compromised endogenous electrical signals and to stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation. We investigated the effects of composite scaffolds (PCL with HA; and PCL with β-TCP) and the use of ES on critical bone defects in Wistar rats using eight experimental groups: untreated, ES, PCL, PCL/ES, HA, HA/ES, TCP, and TCP/ES. The investigation was based on histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression analysis. The vascular area was greater in the HA/ES group on days 30 and 60. Tissue mineralization was greater in the HA, HA/ES, and TCP groups at day 30, and TCP/ES at day 60. Bmp-2 gene expression was higher in the HA, TCP, and TCP/ES groups at day 30, and in the TCP/ES and PCL/ES groups at day 60. Runx-2, Osterix, and Osteopontin gene expression were also higher in the TCP/ES group at day 60. These results suggest that scaffolds printed with PCL and TCP, when paired with electrical therapy application, improve bone regeneration.
AUTHOR Daskalakis, Evangelos and Huang, Boyang and Vyas, Cian and Acar, Anil Ahmet and Fallah, Ali and Cooper, Glen and Weightman, Andrew and Koc, Bahattin and Blunn, Gordon and Bartolo, Paulo
Title Novel 3D Bioglass Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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The design of scaffolds with optimal biomechanical properties for load-bearing applications is an important topic of research. Most studies have addressed this problem by focusing on the material composition and not on the coupled effect between the material composition and the scaffold architecture. Polymer–bioglass scaffolds have been investigated due to the excellent bioactivity properties of bioglass, which release ions that activate osteogenesis. However, material preparation methods usually require the use of organic solvents that induce surface modifications on the bioglass particles, compromising the adhesion with the polymeric material thus compromising mechanical properties. In this paper, we used a simple melt blending approach to produce polycaprolactone/bioglass pellets to construct scaffolds with pore size gradient. The results show that the addition of bioglass particles improved the mechanical properties of the scaffolds and, due to the selected architecture, all scaffolds presented mechanical properties in the cortical bone region. Moreover, the addition of bioglass indicated a positive long-term effect on the biological performance of the scaffolds. The pore size gradient also induced a cell spreading gradient.
AUTHOR Anderson, Margaret and Dubey, Nileshkumar and Bogie, Kath and Cao, Chen and Li, Junying and Lerchbacker, Joseph and Mendonça, Gustavo and Kauffmann, Frederic and Bottino, Marco C. and Kaigler, Darnell
Title Three-dimensional printing of clinical scale and personalized calcium phosphate scaffolds for alveolar bone reconstruction [Abstract]
Year 2022
Journal/Proceedings Dental Materials
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Objective Alveolar bone defects can be highly variable in their morphology and, as the defect size increases, they become more challenging to treat with currently available therapeutics and biomaterials. This investigation sought to devise a protocol for fabricating customized clinical scale and patient-specific, bioceramic scaffolds for reconstruction of large alveolar bone defects. Methods Two types of calcium phosphate (CaP)-based bioceramic scaffolds (alginate/β-TCP and hydroxyapatite/α-TCP, hereafter referred to as hybrid CaP and Osteoink™, respectively) were designed, 3D printed, and their biocompatibility with alveolar bone marrow stem cells and mechanical properties were determined. Following scaffold optimization, a workflow was developed to use cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging to design and 3D print, defect-specific bioceramic scaffolds for clinical-scale bone defects. Results Osteoink™ scaffolds had the highest compressive strength when compared to hybrid CaP with different infill orientation. In cell culture medium, hybrid CaP degradation resulted in decreased pH (6.3) and toxicity to stem cells; however, OsteoInk™ scaffolds maintained a stable pH (7.2) in culture and passed the ISO standard for cytotoxicity. Finally, a clinically feasible laboratory workflow was developed and evaluated using CBCT imaging to engineer customized and defect-specific CaP scaffolds using OsteoInk™. It was determined that printed scaffolds had a high degree of accuracy to fit the respective clinical defects for which they were designed (0.27 mm morphological deviation of printed scaffolds from digital design). Significance From patient to patient, large alveolar bone defects are difficult to treat due to high variability in their complex morphologies and architecture. Our findings shows that Osteoink™ is a biocompatible material for 3D printing of clinically acceptable, patient-specific scaffolds with precision-fit for use in alveolar bone reconstructive procedures. Collectively, emerging digital technologies including CBCT imaging, 3D surgical planning, and (bio)printing can be integrated to address this unmet clinical challenge.
AUTHOR Zhang, Xiao and Liu, Yang and Zuo, Qiang and Wang, Qingyun and Li, Zuxi and Yan, Kai and Yuan, Tao and Zhang, Yi and Shen, Kai and Xie, Rui and Fan, Weimin
Title 3D Bioprinting of Biomimetic Bilayered Scaffold Consisting of Decellularized Extracellular Matrix and Silk Fibroin for Osteochondral Repair [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Bioprinting; Vol 7, No 4 (2021)
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Recently, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology is becoming an appealing approach for osteochondral repair. However, it is challenging to develop a bilayered scaffold with anisotropic structural properties to mimic a native osteochondral tissue. Herein, we developed a bioink consisting of decellularized extracellular matrix and silk fibroin to print the bilayered scaffold. The bilayered scaffold mimics the natural osteochondral tissue by controlling the composition, mechanical properties, and growth factor release in each layer of the scaffold. The in vitro results show that each layer of scaffolds had a suitable mechanical strength and degradation rate. Furthermore, the scaffolds encapsulating transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) can act as a controlled release system and promote directed differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Furthermore, the in vivo experiments suggested that the scaffolds loaded with growth factors promoted osteochondral regeneration in the rabbit knee joint model. Consequently, the biomimetic bilayered scaffold loaded with TGF-β and BMP-2 would be a promising strategy for osteochondral repair.
AUTHOR Nulty, Jessica and Freeman, Fiona E. and Browe, David C. and Burdis, Ross and Ahern, Daniel P. and Pitacco, Pierluca and Lee, Yu Bin and Alsberg, Eben and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D Bioprinting of prevascularised implants for the repair of critically-sized bone defects [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Abstract
For 3D bioprinted tissues to be scaled-up to clinically relevant sizes, effective prevascularisation strategies are required to provide the necessary nutrients for normal metabolism and to remove associated waste by-products. The aim of this study was to develop a bioprinting strategy to engineer prevascularised tissues in vitro and to investigate the capacity of such constructs to enhance the vascularisation and regeneration of large bone defects in vivo. From a screen of different bioinks, a fibrin-based hydrogel was found to best support human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) sprouting and the establishment of a microvessel network. When this bioink was combined with HUVECs and supporting human bone marrow stem/stromal cells (hBMSCs), these microvessel networks persisted in vitro. Furthermore, only bioprinted tissues containing both HUVECs and hBMSCs, that were first allowed to mature in vitro, supported robust blood vessel development in vivo. To assess the therapeutic utility of this bioprinting strategy, these bioinks were used to prevascularise 3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds, which were subsequently implanted into critically-sized femoral bone defects in rats. Microcomputed tomography (µCT) angiography revealed increased levels of vascularisation in vivo, which correlated with higher levels of new bone formation. Such prevascularised constructs could be used to enhance the vascularisation of a range of large tissue defects, forming the basis of multiple new bioprinted therapeutics. Statement of Significance This paper demonstrates a versatile 3D bioprinting technique to improve the vascularisation of tissue engineered constructs and further demonstrates how this method can be incorporated into a bone tissue engineering strategy to improve vascularisation in a rat femoral defect model.
AUTHOR Francesca Cestari and Mauro Petretta and Yuejiao Yang and Antonella Motta and Brunella Grigolo and Vincenzo M. Sglavo
Title 3D printing of PCL/nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds derived from biogenic sources for bone tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Sustainable Materials and Technologies
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Abstract
Bioactive composites made of ∽85 wt% poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and ∽15 wt% nanometric hydroxyapatite (HA) produced from biogenic sources were 3D printed by an extrusion-based process to obtain porous scaffolds suitable for bone regeneration. Three different composite formulations were considered by using HA synthesized from three distinct natural sources, which were collected as food wastes: cuttlefish bones, mussel shells and chicken eggshells. Composition and thermal properties of the materials were analysed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray spectroscopy (XRD), while the morphological and mechanical properties of the 3D scaffolds were studied by means of electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Bioactivity was tested by seeding human osteoblast cell line (MG63) onto the scaffolds which were analysed by confocal microscopy and Alamar Blue and PicoGreen® tests after 1 to 7 culture days. The elastic modulus (177–316 MPa) is found to be within the range reported for typical trabecular bones being increased by the presence of the bio-HA particles. Moreover, cells adhesion, viability and proliferation are largely promoted in the scaffolds containing nanometric HA with respect to pure PCL, the best results being revealed when mussel shell-derived HA is used. Indeed, different biological sources result in different cell proliferation rates, pointing that the biological origin has an impact on the cells-scaffold interaction. In general, the results show that PCL/bio-HA scaffolds possess improved mechanical properties and enhanced bioactivity when compared with pure PCL ones.
AUTHOR Vyas, Cian and Zhang, Jun and Øvrebø, Øystein and Huang, Boyang and Roberts, Iwan and Setty, Mohan and Allardyce, Benjamin and Haugen, Håvard and Rajkhowa, Rangam and Bartolo, Paulo
Title 3D printing of silk microparticle reinforced polycaprolactone scaffolds for tissue engineering applications [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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Abstract
Polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds have been widely investigated for tissue engineering applications, however, they exhibit poor cell adhesion and mechanical properties. Subsequently, PCL composites have been produced to improve the material properties. This study utilises a natural material, Bombyx mori silk microparticles (SMP) prepared by milling silk fibre, to produce a composite to enhance the scaffolds properties. Silk is biocompatible and biodegradable with excellent mechanical properties. However, there are no studies using SMPs as a reinforcing agent in a 3D printed thermoplastic polymer scaffold. PCL/SMP (10, 20, 30 wt%) composites were prepared by melt blending. Rheological analysis showed that SMP loading increased the shear thinning and storage modulus of the material. Scaffolds were fabricated using a screw-assisted extrusion-based additive manufacturing system. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography was used to determine scaffold morphology. The scaffolds had high interconnectivity with regular printed fibres and pore morphologies within the designed parameters. Compressive mechanical testing showed that the addition of SMP significantly improved the compressive Young's modulus of the scaffolds. The scaffolds were more hydrophobic with the inclusion of SMP which was linked to a decrease in total protein adsorption. Cell behaviour was assessed using human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells. A cytotoxic effect was observed at higher particle loading (30 wt%) after 7 days of culture. By day 21, 10 wt% loading showed significantly higher cell metabolic activity and proliferation, high cell viability, and cell migration throughout the scaffold. Calcium mineral deposition was observed on the scaffolds during cell culture. Large calcium mineral deposits were observed at 30 wt% and smaller calcium deposits were observed at 10 wt%. This study demonstrates that SMPs incorporated into a PCL scaffold provided effective mechanical reinforcement, improved the rate of degradation, and increased cell proliferation, demonstrating potential suitability for bone tissue engineering applications.
AUTHOR Golafshan, Nasim and Willemsen, Koen and Kadumudi, Firoz Babu and Vorndran, Elke and Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza and Weinans, Harrie and van der Wal, Bart C. H. and Malda, Jos and Castilho, Miguel
Title 3D-Printed Regenerative Magnesium Phosphate Implant Ensures Stability and Restoration of Hip Dysplasia [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract
Abstract Osteoarthritis of the hip is a painful and debilitating condition commonly occurring in humans and dogs. One of the main causes that leads to hip osteoarthritis is hip dysplasia. Although the current surgical methods to correct dysplasia work satisfactorily in many circumstances, these are associated with serious complications, tissue resorption, and degeneration. In this study, a one-step fabrication of a regenerative hip implant with a patient-specific design and load-bearing properties is reported. The regenerative hip implant is fabricated based on patient imaging files and by an extrusion assisted 3D printing process using a flexible, bone-inducing biomaterial. The novel implant can be fixed with metallic screws to host bone and can be loaded up to physiological loads without signs of critical permanent deformation or failure. Moreover, after exposing the hip implant to accelerated in vitro degradation, it is confirmed that it is still able to support physiological loads even after losing ≈40% of its initial mass. In addition, the osteopromotive properties of the novel hip implant is demonstrated as shown by an increased expression of osteonectin and osteocalcin by cultured human mesenchymal stem cells after 21 days. Overall, the proposed hip implant provides an innovative regenerative and mechanically stable solution for hip dysplasia treatment.
AUTHOR Chelsea Twohig and Mari Helsinga and Amin Mansoorifar and Avathamsa Athirasala and Anthony Tahayeri and Cristiane Miranda França and Silvia Amaya Pajares and Reyan Abdelmoniem and Susanne Scherrer and Stéphane Durual and Jack Ferracane and Luiz E. Bertassoni
Title A dual-ink 3D printing strategy to engineer pre-vascularized bone scaffolds in-vitro [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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Abstract
A functional vascular supply is a key component of any large-scale tissue, providing support for the metabolic needs of tissue-remodeling cells. Although well-studied strategies exist to fabricate biomimetic scaffolds for bone regeneration, success rates for regeneration in larger defects can be improved by engineering microvascular capillaries within the scaffolds to enhance oxygen and nutrient supply to the core of the engineered tissue as it grows. Even though the role of calcium and phosphate has been well understood to enhance osteogenesis, it remains unclear whether calcium and phosphate may have a detrimental effect on the vasculogenic and angiogenic potential of endothelial cells cultured on 3D printed bone scaffolds. In this study, we presented a novel dual-ink bioprinting method to create vasculature interwoven inside CaP bone constructs. In this method, strands of a CaP ink and a sacrificial template material was used to form scaffolds containing CaP fibers and microchannels seeded with vascular endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within a photo-crosslinkable gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel material. Our results show similar morphology of growing vessels in the presence of CaP bioink, and no significant difference in endothelial cell sprouting was found. Furthermore, our initial results showed the differentiation of hMSCs into pericytes in the presence of CaP ink. These results indicate the feasibility of creating vascularized bone scaffolds, which can be used for enhancing vascular formation in the core of bone scaffolds.
AUTHOR Nulty, Jessica and Burdis, Ross and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title Biofabrication of Prevascularised Hypertrophic Cartilage Microtissues for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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Bone tissue engineering (TE) has the potential to transform the treatment of challenging musculoskeletal pathologies. To date, clinical translation of many traditional TE strategies has been impaired by poor vascularisation of the implant. Addressing such challenges has motivated research into developmentally inspired TE strategies, whereby implants mimicking earlier stages of a tissue’s development are engineered in vitro and then implanted in vivo to fully mature into the adult tissue. The goal of this study was to engineer in vitro tissues mimicking the immediate developmental precursor to long bones, specifically a vascularised hypertrophic cartilage template, and to then assess the capacity of such a construct to support endochondral bone formation in vivo. To this end, we first developed a method for the generation of large numbers of hypertrophic cartilage microtissues using a microwell system, and encapsulated these microtissues into a fibrin-based hydrogel capable of supporting vasculogenesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The microwells supported the formation of bone marrow derived stem/stromal cell (BMSC) aggregates and their differentiation toward a hypertrophic cartilage phenotype over 5 weeks of cultivation, as evident by the development of a matrix rich in sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG), collagen types I, II, and X, and calcium. Prevascularisation of these microtissues, undertaken in vitro 1 week prior to implantation, enhanced their capacity to mineralise, with significantly higher levels of mineralised tissue observed within such implants after 4 weeks in vivo within an ectopic murine model for bone formation. It is also possible to integrate such microtissues into 3D bioprinting systems, thereby enabling the bioprinting of scaled-up, patient-specific prevascularised implants. Taken together, these results demonstrate the development of an effective strategy for prevascularising a tissue engineered construct comprised of multiple individual microtissue “building blocks,” which could potentially be used in the treatment of challenging bone defects.
AUTHOR Fisch, Philipp and Broguiere, Nicolas and Finkielsztein, Sergio and Linder, Thomas and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Bioprinting of Cartilaginous Auricular Constructs Utilizing an Enzymatically Crosslinkable Bioink [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Functional Materials
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Abstract Bioprinting of functional tissues could overcome tissue shortages and allow a more rapid response for treatments. However, despite recent progress in bioprinting, and its outstanding ability to position cells and biomaterials in a precise 3D manner, its success has been limited, due to insufficient maturation of constructs into functional tissue. Here, a novel calcium-triggered enzymatic crosslinking (CTEC) mechanism for bioinks based on the activation cascade of Factor XIII is presented and utilized for the biofabrication of cartilaginous constructs. Hyaluronan transglutaminase (HA-TG), an enzymatically crosslinkable material, has shown excellent characteristics for chondrogenesis and builds the basis of the CTEC bioink. The bioink supports tissue maturation with neocartilage formation and stiffening of constructs up to 400 kPa. Bioprinted constructs remain stable in vivo for 24 weeks and bioprinted auricular constructs transform into cartilaginous grafts. A major limitation of the current study is the deposition of collagen I, indicating the maturation toward fibrocartilage rather than elastic cartilage. Shifting the maturation process toward elastic cartilage will therefore be essential in order for the developed bioinks to offer a novel tissue engineered treatment for microtia patients. CTEC bioprinting furthermore opens up use of enzymatically crosslinkable biopolymers and their modularity to support a multitude of tissues.
AUTHOR Bagnol, Romain and Sprecher, Christoph and Peroglio, Marianna and Chevalier, Jerome and Mahou, Redouan and Büchler, Philippe and Richards, Geoff and Eglin, David
Title Coaxial micro-extrusion of a calcium phosphate ink with aqueous solvents improves printing stability, structure fidelity and mechanical properties [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Micro-extrusion-based 3D printing of complex geometrical and porous calcium phosphate (CaP) can improve treatment of bone defects through the production of personalized bone substitutes. However, achieving printing and post-printing shape stabilities for the efficient fabrication and application of rapid hardening protocol are still challenging. In this work, the coaxial printing of a self-setting CaP cement with water and ethanol mixtures aiming to increase the ink yield stress upon extrusion and the stability of fabricated structures was explored. Printing height of overhang structure was doubled when aqueous solvents were used and a 2 log increase of the stiffness was achieved post-printing. A standard and fast steam sterilization protocol applied as hardening step on the coaxial printed CaP cement (CPC) ink resulted in constructs with 4 to 5 times higher compressive moduli in comparison to extrusion process in the absence of solvent. This improved mechanical performance is likely due to rapid CPC setting, preventing cracks formation during hardening process. Thus, coaxial micro-extrusion-based 3D printing of a CPC ink with aqueous solvent enhances printability and allows the use of the widespread steam sterilization cycle as a standalone post-processing technique for production of 3D printed personalized CaP bone substitutes. Statement of Significance Coaxial micro-extrusion-based 3D printing of a self-setting CaP cement with water:ethanol mixtures increased the ink yield stress upon extrusion and the stability of fabricated structures. Printing height of overhang structure was doubled when aqueous solvents were used, and a 2 orders of magnitude log increase of the stiffness was achieved post-printing. A fast hardening step consisting of a standard steam sterilization was applied. Four to 5 times higher compressive moduli was obtained for hardened coaxially printed constructs. This improved mechanical performance is likely due to rapid CPC setting in the coaxial printing, preventing cracks formation during hardening process.
AUTHOR Fenelon, Mathilde and Etchebarne, Marion and Siadous, Robin and Grémare, Agathe and Durand, Marlène and Sentilhes, Loic and Catros, Sylvain and Gindraux, Florelle and L'Heureux, Nicolas and Fricain, Jean-Christophe
Title Comparison of amniotic membrane versus the induced membrane for bone regeneration in long bone segmental defects using calcium phosphate cement loaded with BMP-2 [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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Thanks to its biological properties, the human amniotic membrane (HAM) combined with a bone substitute could be a single-step surgical alternative to the two-step Masquelet induced membrane (IM) technique for regeneration of critical bone defects. However, no study has directly compared these two membranes. We first designed a 3D-printed scaffold using calcium phosphate cement (CPC). We assessed its suitability in vitro to support human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) attachment and osteodifferentiation. We then performed a rat femoral critical size defect to compare the two-step IM technique with a single-step approach using the HAM. Five conditions were compared. Group 1 was left empty. Group 2 received the CPC scaffold loaded with rh-BMP2 (CPC/BMP2). Group 3 and 4 received the CPC/BMP2 scaffold covered with lyophilized or decellularized/lyophilized HAM. Group 5 underwent a two- step induced membrane procedure with insertion of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spacer followed by, after 4 weeks, its replacement with the CPC/BMP2 scaffold wrapped in the IM. Micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis were performed after six weeks. Results showed that the CPC scaffold supported the proliferation and osteodifferentiation of hBMSCs in vitro. In vivo, the CPC/BMP2 scaffold very efficiently induced bone formation and led to satisfactory healing of the femoral defect, in a single-step, without autograft or the need for any membrane covering. In this study, there was no difference between the two-step induced membrane procedure and a single step approach. However, the results indicated that none of the tested membranes further enhanced bone healing compared to the CPC/BMP2 group.
AUTHOR Petretta, Mauro and Gambardella, Alessandro and Boi, Marco and Berni, Matteo and Cavallo, Carola and Marchiori, Gregorio and Maltarello, Maria Cristina and Bellucci, Devis and Fini, Milena and Baldini, Nicola and Grigolo, Brunella and Cannillo, Valeria
Title Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration Based on PCL and Mg-Containing Bioactive Glasses [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Biology
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Abstract
Polycaprolactone (PCL) is widely used in additive manufacturing for the construction of scaffolds for tissue engineering because of its good bioresorbability, biocompatibility, and processability. Nevertheless, its use is limited by its inadequate mechanical support, slow degradation rate and the lack of bioactivity and ability to induce cell adhesion and, thus, bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we fabricated 3D PCL scaffolds reinforced with a novel Mg-doped bioactive glass (Mg-BG) characterized by good mechanical properties and biological reactivity. An optimization of the printing parameters and scaffold fabrication was performed; furthermore, an extensive microtopography characterization by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy was carried out. Nano-indentation tests accounted for the mechanical properties of the scaffolds, whereas SBF tests and cytotoxicity tests using human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were performed to evaluate the bioactivity and in vitro viability. Our results showed that a 50/50 wt% of the polymer-to-glass ratio provides scaffolds with a dense and homogeneous distribution of Mg-BG particles at the surface and roughness twice that of pure PCL scaffolds. Compared to pure PCL (hardness H = 35 ± 2 MPa and Young’s elastic modulus E = 0.80 ± 0.05 GPa), the 50/50 wt% formulation showed H = 52 ± 11 MPa and E = 2.0 ± 0.2 GPa, hence, it was close to those of trabecular bone. The high level of biocompatibility, bioactivity, and cell adhesion encourages the use of the composite PCL/Mg-BG scaffolds in promoting cell viability and supporting mechanical loading in the host trabecular bone.
AUTHOR Götz, Lisa-Marie and Holeczek, Katharina and Groll, Jürgen and Jüngst, Tomasz and Gbureck, Uwe
Title Extrusion-Based 3D Printing of Calcium Magnesium Phosphate Cement Pastes for Degradable Bone Implants [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Materials
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This study aimed to develop printable calcium magnesium phosphate pastes that harden by immersion in ammonium phosphate solution post-printing. Besides the main mineral compound, biocompatible ceramic, magnesium oxide and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) were the crucial components. Two pastes with different powder to liquid ratios of 1.35 g/mL and 1.93 g/mL were characterized regarding their rheological properties. Here, ageing over the course of 24 h showed an increase in viscosity and extrusion force, which was attributed to structural changes in HPMC as well as the formation of magnesium hydroxide by hydration of MgO. The pastes enabled printing of porous scaffolds with good dimensional stability and enabled a setting reaction to struvite when immersed in ammonium phosphate solution. Mechanical performance under compression was approx. 8–20 MPa as a monolithic structure and 1.6–3.0 MPa for printed macroporous scaffolds, depending on parameters such as powder to liquid ratio, ageing time, strand thickness and distance.
AUTHOR Paulo Roberto {Lopes Nalesso} and Weiguang Wang and Yanhao Hou and Leonardo Bagne and Amanda Tavares Pereira and Julia Venturini Helaehil and Thiago Antônio {Moretti de Andrade} and Gabriela Bortolança Chiarotto and Paulo Bártolo and Guilherme Ferreira Caetano
Title In vivo investigation of 3D printed polycaprolactone/graphene electro-active bone scaffolds [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Bioprinting
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Additive manufactured scaffolds are widely used as 3D support structures for tissue engineering. This paper investigates the mechanisms behind bone regeneration due to the combined use of 3D printed poly (ϵ-caprolactone)/graphene (PCL/G) electro-active scaffolds and electrical stimulation. A comprehensive in vivo study was conducted to assess the proposed approach, using a rat model. Results show that the combined use of electro-active scaffolds and electrical stimulation therapy accelerates the bone regeneration process and the formation of more organized new bone, through fast angiogenesis, and a rapid transition to the mineralization and bone remodelling phase. The mechanism is investigated and explained.
AUTHOR e Silva, Edney P. and Huang, Boyang and Helaehil, Júlia V. and Nalesso, Paulo R. L. and Bagne, Leonardo and de Oliveira, Maraiara A. and Albiazetti, Gabriela C. C. and Aldalbahi, Ali and El-Newehy, Mohamed and Santamaria-Jr, Milton and Mendonça, Fernanda A. S. and Bártolo, Paulo and Caetano, Guilherme F.
Title In vivo study of conductive 3D printed PCL/MWCNTs scaffolds with electrical stimulation for bone tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Bio-Design and Manufacturing
Reftype e Silva2021
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Abstract
Critical bone defects are considered one of the major clinical challenges in reconstructive bone surgery. The combination of 3D printed conductive scaffolds and exogenous electrical stimulation (ES) is a potential favorable approach for bone tissue repair. In this study, 3D conductive scaffolds made with biocompatible and biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were produced using the extrusion-based additive manufacturing to treat large calvary bone defects in rats. Histology results show that the use of PCL/MWCNTs scaffolds and ES contributes to thicker and increased bone tissue formation within the bone defect. Angiogenesis and mineralization are also significantly promoted using high concentration of MWCNTs (3 wt%) and ES. Moreover, scaffolds favor the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive cell formation, while the addition of MWCNTs seems to inhibit the osteoclastogenesis but present limited effects on the osteoclast functionalities (receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expressions). The use of ES promotes the osteoclastogenesis and RANKL expressions, showing a dominant effect in the bone remodeling process. These results indicate that the combination of 3D printed conductive PCL/MWCNTs scaffold and ES is a promising strategy to treat critical bone defects and provide a cue to establish an optimal protocol to use conductive scaffolds and ES for bone tissue engineering.
AUTHOR Zamani, Yasaman and Amoabediny, Ghassem and Mohammadi, Javad and Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz and Klein-Nulend, Jenneke and Helder, Marco N.
Title Increased Osteogenic Potential of Pre-Osteoblasts on Three-Dimensional Printed Scaffolds Compared to Porous Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Iranian Biomedical Journal
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Abstract
Background: One of the main challenges with conventional scaffold fabrication methods is the inability to control scaffold architecture. Recently, scaffolds with controlled shape and architecture have been fabricated using three-dimensional printing (3DP). Herein, we aimed to determine whether the much tighter control of microstructure of 3DP poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid/β-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) scaffolds is more effective in promoting osteogenesis than porous scaffolds produced by solvent casting/porogen leaching. Methods: Physical and mechanical properties of porous and 3DP scaffolds were studied. The response of pre-osteoblasts to the scaffolds was analyzed after 14 days. Results: The 3DP scaffolds had a smoother surface (Ra: 22 ± 3 µm) relative to the highly rough surface of porous scaffolds (Ra: 110 ± 15 µm). Water contact angle was 112 ± 4° on porous and 76 ± 6° on 3DP scaffolds. Porous and 3DP scaffolds had the pore size of 408 ± 90 and 315 ± 17 µm and porosity of 85 ± 5% and 39 ± 7%, respectively. Compressive strength of 3DP scaffolds (4.0 ± 0.3 MPa) was higher than porous scaffolds (1.7 ± 0.2 MPa). Collagenous matrix deposition was similar on both scaffolds. Cells proliferated from day 1 to day 14 by fourfold in porous and by 3.8-fold in 3DP scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was 21-fold higher in 3DP scaffolds than porous scaffolds. Conclusion: The 3DP scaffolds show enhanced mechanical properties and ALP activity compared to porous scaffolds in vitro, suggesting that 3DP PLGA/β-TCP scaffolds are possibly more favorable for bone formation.
AUTHOR Daskalakis, Evangelos and Liu, Fengyuan and Huang, Boyang and Acar, Anil A. and Cooper, Glen and Weightman, Andrew and Blunn, Gordon and Koç, Bahattin and Bartolo, Paulo
Title Investigating the Influence of Architecture and Material Composition of 3D Printed Anatomical Design Scaffolds for Large Bone Defects [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Bioprinting; Vol 7, No 2 (2021)
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There is a significant unmet clinical need to prevent amputations due to large bone loss injuries. We are addressing this problem by developing a novel, cost-effective osseointegrated prosthetic solution based on the use of modular pieces, bone bricks, made with biocompatible and biodegradable materials that fit together in a Lego-like way to form the prosthesis. This paper investigates the anatomical designed bone bricks with different architectures, pore size gradients, and material compositions. Polymer and polymer-composite 3D printed bone bricks are extensively morphological, mechanical, and biological characterized. Composite bone bricks were produced by mixing polycaprolactone (PCL) with different levels of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tri-calcium phosphate (TCP). Results allowed to establish a correlation between bone bricks architecture and material composition and bone bricks performance. Reinforced bone bricks showed improved mechanical and biological results. Best mechanical properties were obtained with PCL/TCP bone bricks with 38 double zig-zag filaments and 14 spiral-like pattern filaments, while the best biological results were obtained with PCL/HA bone bricks based on 25 double zig-zag filaments and 14 spiral-like pattern filaments.
AUTHOR Wang, Weiguang and Chen, Jun-Xiang and Hou, Yanhao and Bartolo, Paulo and Chiang, Wei-Hung
Title Investigations of Graphene and Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Enhanced Polycaprolactone 3D Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Nanomaterials
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Scaffolds play a key role in tissue engineering applications. In the case of bone tissue engineering, scaffolds are expected to provide both sufficient mechanical properties to withstand the physiological loads, and appropriate bioactivity to stimulate cell growth. In order to further enhance cell–cell signaling and cell–material interaction, electro-active scaffolds have been developed based on the use of electrically conductive biomaterials or blending electrically conductive fillers to non-conductive biomaterials. Graphene has been widely used as functioning filler for the fabrication of electro-active bone tissue engineering scaffolds, due to its high electrical conductivity and potential to enhance both mechanical and biological properties. Nitrogen-doped graphene, a unique form of graphene-derived nanomaterials, presents significantly higher electrical conductivity than pristine graphene, and better surface hydrophilicity while maintaining a similar mechanical property. This paper investigates the synthesis and use of high-performance nitrogen-doped graphene as a functional filler of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds enabling to develop the next generation of electro-active scaffolds. Compared to PCL scaffolds and PCL/graphene scaffolds, these novel scaffolds present improved in vitro biological performance.
AUTHOR Petretta, Mauro and Gambardella, Alessandro and Desando, Giovanna and Cavallo, Carola and Bartolotti, Isabella and Shelyakova, Tatiana and Goranov, Vitaly and Brucale, Marco and Dediu, Valentin Alek and Fini, Milena and Grigolo, Brunella
Title Multifunctional 3D-Printed Magnetic Polycaprolactone/Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering [Abstract]
Year 2021
Journal/Proceedings Polymers
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Multifunctional and resistant 3D structures represent a great promise and a great challenge in bone tissue engineering. This study addresses this problem by employing polycaprolactone (PCL)-based scaffolds added with hydroxyapatite (HAp) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION), able to drive on demand the necessary cells and other bioagents for a high healing efficiency. PCL-HAp-SPION scaffolds with different concentrations of the superparamagnetic component were developed through the 3D-printing technology and the specific topographical features were detected by Atomic Force and Magnetic Force Microscopy (AFM-MFM). AFM-MFM measurements confirmed a homogenous distribution of HAp and SPION throughout the surface. The magnetically assisted seeding of cells in the scaffold resulted most efficient for the 1% SPION concentration, providing good cell entrapment and adhesion rates. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) seeded onto PCL-HAp-1% SPION showed a good cell proliferation and intrinsic osteogenic potential, indicating no toxic effects of the employed scaffold materials. The performed characterizations and the collected set of data point on the inherent osteogenic potential of the newly developed PCL-HAp-1% SPION scaffolds, endorsing them towards next steps of in vitro and in vivo studies and validations.
AUTHOR Lin, Che-Wei and Su, Yu-Feng and Lee, Chih-Yun and Kang, Lin and Wang, Yan-Hsiung and Lin, Sung-Yen and Wang, Chih-Kuang
Title 3D printed bioceramics fabricated using negative thermoresponsive hydrogels and silicone oil sealing to promote bone formation in calvarial defects [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Ceramics International
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The purpose of the present work was to investigate the potential for application and the effectiveness of osteoconductive scaffolds with bicontinuous phases of 3D printed bioceramics (3DP-BCs) based on reverse negative thermoresponsive hydrogels (poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(methacrylic acid)]; p(NiPAAm-MAA)). 3DP-BCs have bioceramic objects and microchannel pores when created using robotic deposition additive manufacturing. We evaluated the benefits of silicone oil sealing on the 3DP-BC green body during the sintering process in terms of densification and structural stability. The shrinkage, density, porosity, element composition, phase structure and microstructural analyses and compression strength measurements of sintered 3DP-BC objects are presented and discussed in this study. In addition, the results of cell viability assays and bone healing analyses of the calvarial bone defects in a rabbit model were used to evaluate 3DP-BC performance. The main results indicated that these 3DP-BC scaffolds have optimal continuous pores and adequate compressive strength, which can enable the protection of calvarial defects and provide an environment for cell growth. Therefore, 3DP-BC scaffolds have better new bone regeneration efficiency in rabbit calvarial bone defect models than empty scaffolds and mold-forming bioceramic scaffolds (MF-BCs).
AUTHOR Critchley, Susan and Sheehy, Eamon J. and Cunniffe, Gráinne and Diaz-Payno, Pedro and Carroll, Simon F. and Jeon, Oju and Alsberg, Eben and Brama, Pieter A. J. and Kelly, Daniel J.
Title 3D printing of fibre-reinforced cartilaginous templates for the regeneration of osteochondral defects [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Acta Biomaterialia
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Abstract
Successful osteochondral defect repair requires regenerating the subchondral bone whilst simultaneously promoting the development of an overlying layer of articular cartilage that is resistant to vascularization and endochondral ossification. During skeletal development articular cartilage also functions as a surface growth plate, which postnatally is replaced by a more spatially complex bone-cartilage interface. Motivated by this developmental process, the hypothesis of this study is that bi-phasic, fibre-reinforced cartilaginous templates can regenerate both the articular cartilage and subchondral bone within osteochondral defects created in caprine joints. To engineer mechanically competent implants, we first compared a range of 3D printed fibre networks (PCL, PLA and PLGA) for their capacity to mechanically reinforce alginate hydrogels whilst simultaneously supporting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis in vitro. These mechanically reinforced, MSC-laden alginate hydrogels were then used to engineer the endochondral bone forming phase of bi-phasic osteochondral constructs, with the overlying chondral phase consisting of cartilage tissue engineered using a co-culture of infrapatellar fat pad derived stem/stromal cells (FPSCs) and chondrocytes. Following chondrogenic priming and subcutaneous implantation in nude mice, these bi-phasic cartilaginous constructs were found to support the development of vascularised endochondral bone overlaid by phenotypically stable cartilage. These fibre-reinforced, bi-phasic cartilaginous templates were then evaluated in clinically relevant, large animal (caprine) model of osteochondral defect repair. Although the quality of repair was variable from animal-to-animal, in general more hyaline-like cartilage repair was observed after 6 months in animals treated with bi-phasic constructs compared to animals treated with commercial control scaffolds. This variability in the quality of repair points to the need for further improvements in the design of 3D bioprinted implants for joint regeneration. Statement of Significance Successful osteochondral defect repair requires regenerating the subchondral bone whilst simultaneously promoting the development of an overlying layer of articular cartilage. In this study, we hypothesised that bi-phasic, fibre-reinforced cartilaginous templates could be leveraged to regenerate both the articular cartilage and subchondral bone within osteochondral defects. To this end we used 3D printed fibre networks to mechanically reinforce engineered transient cartilage, which also contained an overlying layer of phenotypically stable cartilage engineered using a co-culture of chondrocytes and stem cells. When chondrogenically primed and implanted into caprine osteochondral defects, these fibre-reinforced bi-phasic cartilaginous grafts were shown to spatially direct tissue development during joint repair. Such developmentally inspired tissue engineering strategies, enabled by advances in biofabrication and 3D printing, could form the basis of new classes of regenerative implants in orthopaedic medicine.
AUTHOR Wibowo, Arie and Vyas, Cian and Cooper, Glen and Qulub, Fitriyatul and Suratman, Rochim and Mahyuddin, Andi Isra and Dirgantara, Tatacipta and Bartolo, Paulo
Title 3D Printing of Polycaprolactone-Polyaniline Electroactive Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering. [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Electrostimulation and electroactive scaffolds can positively influence and guide cellular behaviour and thus has been garnering interest as a key tissue engineering strategy. The development of conducting polymers such as polyaniline enables the fabrication of conductive polymeric composite scaffolds. In this study, we report on the initial development of a polycaprolactone scaffold incorporating different weight loadings of a polyaniline microparticle filler. The scaffolds are fabricated using screw-assisted extrusion-based 3D printing and are characterised for their morphological, mechanical, conductivity, and preliminary biological properties. The conductivity of the polycaprolactone scaffolds increases with the inclusion of polyaniline. The in vitro cytocompatibility of the scaffolds was assessed using human adipose-derived stem cells to determine cell viability and proliferation up to 21 days. A cytotoxicity threshold was reached at 1% wt. polyaniline loading. Scaffolds with 0.1% wt. polyaniline showed suitable compressive strength (6.45 ± 0.16 MPa) and conductivity (2.46 ± 0.65 × 10(-4) S/cm) for bone tissue engineering applications and demonstrated the highest cell viability at day 1 (88%) with cytocompatibility for up to 21 days in cell culture.
AUTHOR Zamani, Yasaman and Amoabediny, Ghassem and Mohammadi, Javad and Seddiqi, Hadi and Helder, Marco N. and Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz and Klein-Nulend, Jenneke and Koolstra, Jan Harm
Title 3D-printed poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) scaffold with gradient mechanical properties according to force distribution in the mandible for mandibular bone tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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Abstract
In bone tissue engineering, prediction of forces induced to the native bone during normal functioning is important in the design, fabrication, and integration of a scaffold with the host. The aim of this study was to customize the mechanical properties of a layer-by-layer 3D-printed poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold estimated by finite element (FE) modeling in order to match the requirements of the defect, to prevent mechanical failure, and ensure optimal integration with the surrounding tissue. Forces and torques induced on the mandibular symphysis during jaw opening and closing were predicted by FE modeling. Based on the predicted forces, homogeneous-structured PCL scaffolds with 3 different void sizes (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mm) were designed and 3D-printed using an extrusion based 3D-bioprinter. In addition, 2 gradient-structured scaffolds were designed and 3D-printed. The first gradient scaffold contained 2 regions (0.3 mm and 0.6 mm void size in the upper and lower half, respectively), whereas the second gradient scaffold contained 3 regions (void sizes of 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mm in the upper, middle and lower third, respectively). Scaffolds were tested for their compressive and tensile strength in the upper and lower halves. The actual void size of the homogeneous scaffolds with designed void size of 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mm was 0.20, 0.59, and 0.95 mm, respectively. FE modeling showed that during opening and closing of the jaw, the highest force induced on the symphysis was a compressive force in the transverse direction. The compressive force was induced throughout the symphyseal line and reduced from top (362.5 N, compressive force) to bottom (107.5 N, tensile force) of the symphysis. Compressive and tensile strength of homogeneous scaffolds decreased by 1.4-fold to 3-fold with increasing scaffold void size. Both gradient scaffolds had higher compressive strength in the upper half (2 region-gradient scaffold: 4.9 MPa; 3 region-gradient scaffold: 4.1 MPa) compared with the lower half (2 region-gradient scaffold: 2.5 MPa; 3 region-gradient scaffold: 2.7 MPa) of the scaffold. 3D-printed PCL scaffolds had higher compressive strength in the scaffold layer-by-layer building direction compared with the side direction, and a very low tensile strength in the scaffold layer-by-layer building direction. Fluid shear stress and fluid pressure distribution in the gradient scaffolds were more homogeneous than in the 0.3 mm void size scaffold and similar to the 0.6 mm and 0.9 mm void size scaffolds. In conclusion, these data show that the mechanical properties of 3D-printed PCL scaffolds can be tailored based on the predicted forces on the mandibular symphysis. These 3D-printed PCL scaffolds had different mechanical properties in scaffold building direction compared with the side direction, which should be taken into account when placing the scaffold in the defect site. Our findings might have implications for improved performance and integration of scaffolds with native tissue.
AUTHOR Wang, Zehao and Hui, Aiping and Zhao, Hongbin and Ye, Xiaohan and Zhang, Chao and Wang, Aiqin and Zhang, Changqing
Title A Novel 3D-bioprinted Porous Nano Attapulgite Scaffolds with Good Performance for Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Nanomedicine
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Abstract
BACKGROUND: Natural clay nanomaterials are an emerging class of biomaterial with great potential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications, most notably for osteogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein, for the first time, novel tissue engineering scaffolds were prepared by 3D bioprinter using nontoxic and bioactive natural attapulgite (ATP) nanorods as starting materials, with polyvinyl alcohol as binder, and then sintered to obtain final scaffolds. The microscopic morphology and structure of ATP particles and scaffolds were observed by transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. In vitro biocompatibility and osteogenesis with osteogenic precursor cell (hBMSCs) were assayed using MTT method, Live/Dead cell staining, alizarin red staining and RT-PCR. In vivo bone regeneration was evaluated with micro-CT and histology analysis in rat cranium defect model. RESULTS: We successfully printed a novel porous nano-ATP scaffold designed with inner channels with a dimension of 500 µm and wall structures with a thickness of 330 µm. The porosity of current 3D-printed scaffolds ranges from 75% to 82% and the longitudinal compressive strength was up to 4.32±0.52 MPa. We found firstly that nano-ATP scaffolds with excellent biocompatibility for hBMSCscould upregulate the expression of osteogenesis-related genes bmp2 and runx2 and calcium deposits in vitro. Interestingly, micro-CT and histology analysis revealed abundant newly formed bone was observed along the defect margin, even above and within the 3D bioprinted porous ATP scaffolds in a rat cranial defect model. Furthermore, histology analysis demonstrated that bone was formed directly following a process similar to membranous ossification without any intermediate cartilage formation and that many newly formed blood vessels are within the pores of 3D-printed scaffolds at four and eight weeks. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the 3D-printed porous nano-ATP scaffolds are promising candidates for bone tissue engineering by osteogenesis and angiogenesis.
AUTHOR Huang, Boyang and Vyas, Cian and Byun, Jae Jong and El-Newehy, Mohamed and Huang, Zhucheng and Bártolo, Paulo
Title Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes with nanohydroxyapatite in a 3D printed polycaprolactone scaffold stimulates osteogenic differentiation [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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DOI/URL URL DOI
Abstract
The development of highly biomimetic scaffolds in terms of composition and structures, to repair or replace damaged bone tissues, is particularly relevant for tissue engineering. This paper investigates a 3D printed porous scaffold containing aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA), mimicking the natural bone tissue from the nanoscale to macroscale level. MWCNTs with similar dimensions as collagen fibres are coupled with nHA and mixed within a polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix to produce scaffolds using a screw-assisted extrusion-based additive manufacturing system. Scaffolds with different material compositions were extensively characterised from morphological, mechanical and biological points of views. Transmission electron microscopy and polarised Raman spectroscopy confirm the presence of aligned MWCNTs within the printed filaments. The PCL/HA/MWCNTs scaffold are similar to the nanostructure of native bone and shows overall increased mechanical properties, cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and scaffold mineralisation, indicating a promising approach for bone tissue regeneration.
AUTHOR Zamani, Yasaman and Mohammadi, Javad and Amoabediny, Ghassem and Helder, Marco N. and Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz and Klein-Nulend, Jenneke
Title Bioprinting of Alginate-Encapsulated Pre-osteoblasts in PLGA/β-TCP Scaffolds Enhances Cell Retention but Impairs Osteogenic Differentiation Compared to Cell Seeding after 3D-Printing [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Regenerative Engineering and Translational Medicine
Reftype Zamani2020
DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
In tissue engineering, cellularization of scaffolds has typically been performed by seeding the cells after scaffold fabrication. 3D-printing technology now allows bioprinting of cells encapsulated in a hydrogel simultaneously with the scaffold material. Here, we aimed to investigate whether bioprinting or cell seeding post-printing is more effective in enhancing responses of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line derived from mouse calvaria.
AUTHOR Diloksumpan, Paweena and de Ruijter, Myl{`{e}}ne and Castilho, Miguel and Gbureck, Uwe and Vermonden, Tina and van Weeren, P. Ren{'{e}} and Malda, Jos and Levato, Riccardo
Title Combining multi-scale 3D printing technologies to engineer reinforced hydrogel-ceramic interfaces [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biofabrication
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Abstract
Multi-material 3D printing technologies that resolve features at different lengths down to the microscale open new avenues for regenerative medicine, particularly in the engineering of tissue interfaces. Herein, extrusion printing of a bone-biomimetic ceramic ink and melt electrowriting (MEW) of spatially organized polymeric microfibres are integrated for the biofabrication of an osteochondral plug, with a mechanically reinforced bone-to-cartilage interface. A printable physiological temperature-setting bioceramic, based on α-tricalcium phosphate, nanohydroxyapatite and a custom-synthesized biodegradable and crosslinkable poloxamer, was developed as bone support. The mild setting reaction of the bone ink enabled us to print directly within melt electrowritten polycaprolactone meshes, preserving their micro-architecture. Ceramic-integrated MEW meshes protruded into the cartilage region of the composite plug, and were embedded with mechanically soft gelatin-based hydrogels, laden with articular cartilage chondroprogenitor cells. Such interlocking design enhanced the hydrogel-to-ceramic adhesion strength >6.5-fold, compared with non-interlocking fibre architectures, enabling structural stability during handling and surgical implantation in osteochondral defects ex vivo. Furthermore, the MEW meshes endowed the chondral compartment with compressive properties approaching those of native cartilage (20-fold reinforcement versus pristine hydrogel). The osteal and chondral compartment supported osteogenesis and cartilage matrix deposition in vitro, and the neo-synthesized cartilage matrix further contributed to the mechanical reinforcement at the ceramic-hydrogel interface. This multi-material, multi-scale 3D printing approach provides a promising strategy for engineering advanced composite constructs for the regeneration of musculoskeletal and connective tissue interfaces.
AUTHOR Müller, Michael and Fisch, Philipp and Molnar, Marc and Eggert, Sebastian and Binelli, Marco and Maniura-Weber, Katharina and Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
Title Development and thorough characterization of the processing steps of an ink for 3D printing for bone tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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Abstract
Achieving reproducibility in the 3D printing of biomaterials requires a robust polymer synthesis method to reduce batch-to-batch variation as well as methods to assure a thorough characterization throughout the manufacturing process. Particularly biomaterial inks containing large solid fractions such as ceramic particles, often required for bone tissue engineering applications, are prone to inhomogeneity originating from inadequate mixing or particle aggregation which can lead to inconsistent printing results. The production of such an ink for bone tissue engineering consisting of gellan gum methacrylate (GG-MA), hyaluronic acid methacrylate and hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles was therefore optimized in terms of GG-MA synthesis and ink preparation process, and the ink's printability was thoroughly characterized to assure homogeneous and reproducible printing results. A new buffer mediated synthesis method for GG-MA resulted in consistent degrees of substitution which allowed the creation of large 5 g batches. We found that both the new synthesis as well as cryomilling of the polymer components of the ink resulted in a decrease in viscosity from 113 kPa·s to 11.3 kPa·s at a shear rate of 0.1 s−1 but increased ink homogeneity. The ink homogeneity was assessed through thermogravimetric analysis and a newly developed extrusion force measurement setup. The ink displayed strong inter-layer adhesion between two printed ink layers as well as between a layer of ink with and a layer without HAp. The large polymer batch production along with the characterization of the ink during the manufacturing process allows ink production in the gram scale and could be used in applications such as the printing of osteochondral grafts.
AUTHOR Huang, Boyang and Aslan, Enes and Jiang, Zhengyi and Daskalakis, Evangelos and Jiao, Mohan and Aldalbahi, Ali and Vyas, Cian and Bártolo, Paulo
Title Engineered dual-scale poly (ε-caprolactone) scaffolds using 3D printing and rotational electrospinning for bone tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Additive Manufacturing
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Abstract
Large bone defects due to trauma or disease present a significant clinical challenge with limited efficacy of current therapies. A key aim is to develop biomimetic scaffolds that reflect the native tissue structure with 3D printing being an important enabling technology. However, the incorporation of multiple length scales and anisotropic features, mimicking the native architecture, is difficult with current processes. In this study, we propose a simple and versatile hybrid printing process using a screw-assisted additive manufacturing technique combined with rotational electrospinning to fabricate dual-scale anisotropic scaffolds. 3D microscale porous polycaprolactone (PCL) structures with highly aligned nanoscale fibres were successfully produced layer-by-layer. The scaffolds were morphological, mechanical and biological characterised. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) were seeded on the hybrid scaffold to evaluate the effects of structural and anisotropic topographic cues on cell attachment, proliferation and osteogenesis differentiation. Results show that the 3D printed microscale structures have uniform and well-defined geometries and the alignment of nanoscale electrospun fibres increases by increasing the electrospinning rotational velocity. Mechanical results show that there is no significant difference between 3D printed scaffolds with or without electrospun meshes. In vitro results show higher cell seeding efficiency and proliferation in dual-scale scaffolds with high density electrospun meshes. A more stretched and elongated cell morphology was observed in aligned nanofibre scaffolds showing higher anisotropic cytoskeletal organization than 3D printed PCL scaffolds without electrospun meshes. The dual-scale scaffolds present improved overall osteogenic markers expressions (COL-1, ALP and OCN). However, no statistical difference between normalised osteogenic marker expressions were observed between dual-scale scaffolds and 3D printed scaffolds. This might be attributed to the poor bioactivity of the substrate material, PCL, suggesting topographical cues might not be sufficient to stimulate cell fate towards to an osteogenic linage. The results suggest that the proposed fabrication strategy is a promising approach for the design of novel bone scaffolds to modulate cell fates by integrating the topographic cue reported in this paper with biochemical cues associated to the use of more bioactive materials.
AUTHOR Song, Jie-Liang and Fu, Xin-Ye and Raza, Ali and Shen, Nai-An and Xue, Ya-Qi and Wang, Hua-Jie and Wang, Jin-Ye
Title Enhancement of mechanical strength of TCP-alginate based bioprinted constructs [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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Abstract
To overcome the mechanical drawback of bioink, we proposed a supporter model to enhance the mechanical strength of bioprinted 3D constructs, in which a unit-assembly idea was involved. Based on Computed Tomography images of critical-sized rabbit bone defect, the 3D re-construction was accomplished by a sequenced process using Mimics 17.0, BioCAM and BioCAD software. 3D constructs were bioprinted using polycaprolactone (PCL) ink for the outer supporter under extrusion mode, and cell-laden tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/alginate bioink for the inner filler under air pressure dispensing mode. The relationship of viscosity of bioinks, 3D bioprinting pressure, TCP/alginate ratio and cell survival were investigated by the shear viscosities analysis, live/dead cell test and cell-counting kit 8 measurement. The viscosity of bioinks at 1.0 s−1-shear rate could be adjusted within the range of 1.75 ± 0.29 Pa·s to 155.65 ± 10.86 Pa·s by changing alginate concentration, corresponding to 10 kPa–130 kPa of printing pressure. This design with PCL supporter could significantly enhance the compressive strength and compressive modulus of standardized 3D mechanical testing specimens up to 2.15 ± 0.14 MPa to 2.58 ± 0.09 MPa, and 42.83 ± 4.75 MPa to 53.12 ± 1.19 MPa, respectively. Cells could maintain the high viability (over 80%) under the given printing pressure but cell viability declined with the increase of TCP content. Cell survival after experiencing 7 days of cell culture could be achieved when the ratio of TCP/alginate was 1 : 4. All data supported the feasibility of the supporter and unit-assembly model to enhance mechanical properties of bioprinted 3D constructs.
AUTHOR Dubey, Nileshkumar and Ferreira, Jessica A. and Malda, Jos and Bhaduri, Sarit B. and Bottino, Marco C.
Title Extracellular Matrix/Amorphous Magnesium Phosphate Bioink for 3D Bioprinting of Craniomaxillofacial Bone Tissue [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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DOI/URL DOI
Abstract
Bioprinting, a promising field in regenerative medicine, holds great potential to create three-dimensional, defect-specific vascularized bones with tremendous opportunities to address unmet craniomaxillofacial reconstructive challenges. A cytocompatible bioink is a critical prerequisite to successfully regenerate functional bone tissue. Synthetic self-assembling peptides have a nanofibrous structure resembling the native extracellular matrix (ECM), making them an excellent bioink component. Amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) have shown greater levels of resorption while maintaining high biocompatibility, osteoinductivity, and low inflammatory response, as compared to their calcium phosphate counterparts. Here, we have established a novel bioink formulation (ECM/AMP) that combines an ECM-based hydrogel containing 2% octapeptide FEFEFKFK and 98% water with AMP particles to realize high cell function with desirable bioprintability. We analyzed the osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) encapsulated in the bioink, as well as in vivo bone regeneration, to define the potential of the formulated bioink as a growth factor-free bone-forming strategy. Cell-laden AMP-modified bioprinted constructs showed an improved cell morphology but similar cell viability (∼90%) compared to their AMP-free counterpart. In functional assays, the cell-laden bioprinted constructs modified with AMP exhibited a high level of mineralization and osteogenic gene expression without the use of growth factors, thus suggesting that the presence of AMP-triggered DPSCs’ osteogenic differentiation. Cell-free ECM-based bioprinted constructs were implanted in vivo. In comparison with the ECM group, bone volume per total volume for ECM/1.0AMP was approximately 1.7- and 1.4-fold higher at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Further, a significant increase in the bone density was observed in ECM/1.0AMP from 4 to 8 weeks. These results demonstrate that the presence of AMP in the bioink significantly increased bone formation, thus showing promise for in situ bioprinting strategies. We foresee significant potential in translating this innovative bioink toward the regeneration of patient-specific bone tissue for regenerative dentistry. Bioprinting, a promising field in regenerative medicine, holds great potential to create three-dimensional, defect-specific vascularized bones with tremendous opportunities to address unmet craniomaxillofacial reconstructive challenges. A cytocompatible bioink is a critical prerequisite to successfully regenerate functional bone tissue. Synthetic self-assembling peptides have a nanofibrous structure resembling the native extracellular matrix (ECM), making them an excellent bioink component. Amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) have shown greater levels of resorption while maintaining high biocompatibility, osteoinductivity, and low inflammatory response, as compared to their calcium phosphate counterparts. Here, we have established a novel bioink formulation (ECM/AMP) that combines an ECM-based hydrogel containing 2% octapeptide FEFEFKFK and 98% water with AMP particles to realize high cell function with desirable bioprintability. We analyzed the osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) encapsulated in the bioink, as well as in vivo bone regeneration, to define the potential of the formulated bioink as a growth factor-free bone-forming strategy. Cell-laden AMP-modified bioprinted constructs showed an improved cell morphology but similar cell viability (∼90%) compared to their AMP-free counterpart. In functional assays, the cell-laden bioprinted constructs modified with AMP exhibited a high level of mineralization and osteogenic gene expression without the use of growth factors, thus suggesting that the presence of AMP-triggered DPSCs’ osteogenic differentiation. Cell-free ECM-based bioprinted constructs were implanted in vivo. In comparison with the ECM group, bone volume per total volume for ECM/1.0AMP was approximately 1.7- and 1.4-fold higher at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Further, a significant increase in the bone density was observed in ECM/1.0AMP from 4 to 8 weeks. These results demonstrate that the presence of AMP in the bioink significantly increased bone formation, thus showing promise for in situ bioprinting strategies. We foresee significant potential in translating this innovative bioink toward the regeneration of patient-specific bone tissue for regenerative dentistry.
AUTHOR Abu Awwad, Hosam Al-Deen M. and Thiagarajan, Lalitha and Kanczler, Janos M. and Amer, Mahetab H. and Bruce, Gordon and Lanham, Stuart and Rumney, Robin M. H. and Oreffo, Richard O. C. and Dixon, James E.
Title Genetically-programmed, mesenchymal stromal cell-laden & mechanically strong 3D bioprinted scaffolds for bone repair [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Controlled Release
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Abstract
Additive manufacturing processes used to create regenerative bone tissue engineered implants are not biocompatible, thereby restricting direct use with stem cells and usually require cell seeding post-fabrication. Combined delivery of stem cells with the controlled release of osteogenic factors, within a mechanically-strong biomaterial combined during manufacturing would replace injectable defect fillers (cements) and allow personalized implants to be rapidly prototyped by 3D bioprinting. Through the use of direct genetic programming via the sustained release of an exogenously delivered transcription factor RUNX2 (delivered as recombinant GET-RUNX2 protein) encapsulated in PLGA microparticles (MPs), we demonstrate that human mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (hMSCs) can be directly fabricated into a thermo-sintered 3D bioprintable material and achieve effective osteogenic differentiation. Importantly we observed osteogenic programming of gene expression by released GET-RUNX2 (8.2-, 3.3- and 3.9-fold increases in OSX, RUNX2 and OPN expression, respectively) and calcification (von Kossa staining) in our scaffolds. The developed biodegradable PLGA/PEG paste formulation augments high-density bone development in a defect model (~2.4-fold increase in high density bone volume) and can be used to rapidly prototype clinically-sized hMSC-laden implants within minutes using mild, cytocompatible extrusion bioprinting. The ability to create mechanically strong 'cancellous bone-like’ printable implants for tissue repair that contain stem cells and controlled-release of programming factors is innovative, and will facilitate the development of novel localized delivery approaches to direct cellular behaviour for many regenerative medicine applications including those for personalized bone repair.
AUTHOR Hou, Yanhao and Wang, Weiguang and Bartolo, Paulo Jorge Da Silva
Title Investigating the Effect of Carbon Nanomaterials Reinforcing Poly(Ε-Caprolactone) Scaffolds for Bone Repair Applications [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings International Journal of Bioprinting
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Abstract
Scaffolds, three-dimensional (3D) substrates providing appropriate mechanical support and biological environments for new tissue formation, are the most common approaches in tissue engineering. To improve scaffold properties such as mechanical properties, surface characteristics, biocompatibility and biodegradability, different types of fillers have been used reinforcing biocompatible and biodegradable polymers. This paper investigates and compares the mechanical and biological behaviors of 3D printed poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds reinforced with graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) at different concentrations. Results show that contrary to G which improves mechanical properties and enhances cell attachment and proliferation, GO seems to show some cytotoxicity, particular at high contents.
AUTHOR Hou, Yanhao and Wang, Weiguang and Bártolo, Paulo
Title Novel Poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/Graphene Scaffolds for Bone Cancer Treatment and Bone Regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing
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Abstract
Scaffold-based bone tissue engineering is the most relevant approach for critical-sized bone defects. It is based on the use of three-dimensional substrates to provide the appropriate biomechanical environment for bone regeneration. Despite some successful results previously reported, scaffolds were never designed for disease treatment applications. This article proposes a novel dual-functional scaffold for cancer applications, comprising both treatment and regeneration functions. These functions are achieved by combining a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer and graphene. Results indicate that high concentrations of graphene enhance the mechanical properties of the scaffolds, also increasing the inhibition on cancer cell viability and proliferation.
AUTHOR Diloksumpan, Paweena and Bolaños, Rafael Vindas and Cokelaere, Stefan and Pouran, Behdad and de Grauw, Janny and van Rijen, Mattie and van Weeren, René and Levato, Riccardo and Malda, Jos
Title Orthotopic Bone Regeneration within 3D Printed Bioceramic Scaffolds with Region-Dependent Porosity Gradients in an Equine Model [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Advanced Healthcare Materials
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Abstract
Abstract The clinical translation of three-dimensionally printed bioceramic scaffolds with tailored architectures holds great promise toward the regeneration of bone to heal critical-size defects. Herein, the long-term in vivo performance of printed hydrogel-ceramic composites made of methacrylated-oligocaprolactone-poloxamer and low-temperature self-setting calcium-phosphates is assessed in a large animal model. Scaffolds printed with different internal architectures, displaying either a designed porosity gradient or a constant pore distribution, are implanted in equine tuber coxae critical size defects. Bone ingrowth is challenged and facilitated only from one direction via encasing the bioceramic in a polycaprolactone shell. After 7 months, total new bone volume and scaffold degradation are significantly greater in structures with constant porosity. Interestingly, gradient scaffolds show lower extent of remodeling and regeneration even in areas having the same porosity as the constant scaffolds. Low regeneration in distal regions from the interface with native bone impairs ossification in proximal regions of the construct, suggesting that anisotropic architectures modulate the cross-talk between distant cells within critical-size defects. The study provides key information on how engineered architectural patterns impact osteoregeneration in vivo, and also indicates the equine tuber coxae as promising orthotopic model for studying materials stimulating bone formation.
AUTHOR Vyas, Cian and Ates, Gokhan and Aslan, Enes and Hart, Jack and Huang, Boyang and Bartolo, Paulo
Title Three-Dimensional Printing and Electrospinning Dual-Scale Polycaprolactone Scaffolds with Low-Density and Oriented Fibers to Promote Cell Alignment [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing
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Abstract
Complex and hierarchically functionalized scaffolds composed of micro- and nanoscale structures are a key goal in tissue engineering. The combination of three-dimensional (3D) printing and electrospinning enables the fabrication of these multiscale structures. This study presents a polycaprolactone 3D-printed and electrospun scaffold with multiple mesh layers and fiber densities. The results show successful fabrication of a dual-scale scaffold with the 3D-printed scaffold acting as a gap collector with the printed microfibers as the electrodes and the pores a series of insulating gaps resulting in aligned nanofibers. The electrospun fibers are highly aligned perpendicular to the direction of the printed fiber and form aligned meshes within the pores of the scaffold. Mechanical testing showed no significant difference between the number of mesh layers whereas the hydrophobicity of the scaffold increased with increasing fiber density. Biological results indicate that increasing the number of mesh layers improves cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion. The aligned nanofibers within the microscale pores allowed enhanced cell bridging and cell alignment that was not observed in the 3D-printed only scaffold. These results demonstrate a facile method of incorporating low-density and aligned fibers within a 3D-printed scaffold that is a promising development in multiscale hierarchical scaffolds where alignment of cells can be desirable.
AUTHOR Nasim Golafshan and Elke Vorndran and Stefan Zaharievski and Harold Brommer and Firoz Babu Kadumudi and Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz and Uwe Gbureck and René {van Weeren} and Miguel Castilho and Jos Malda
Title Tough magnesium phosphate-based 3D-printed implants induce bone regeneration in an equine defect model [Abstract]
Year 2020
Journal/Proceedings Biomaterials
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Abstract
One of the important challenges in bone tissue engineering is the development of biodegradable bone substitutes with appropriate mechanical and biological properties for the treatment of larger defects and those with complex shapes. Recently, magnesium phosphate (MgP) doped with biologically active ions like strontium (Sr2+) have shown to significantly enhance bone formation when compared with the standard calcium phosphate-based ceramics. However, such materials can hardly be shaped into large and complex geometries and more importantly lack the adequate mechanical properties for the treatment of load-bearing bone defects. In this study, we have fabricated bone implants through extrusion assisted three-dimensional (3D) printing of MgP ceramics modified with Sr2+ ions (MgPSr) and a medical grade polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer phase. MgPSr with 30 wt% PCL (MgPSr-PCL30) allowed the printability of relevant size structures (>780 mm3) at room temperature with an interconnected macroporosity of approximately 40%. The printing resulted in implants with a compressive strength of 4.3 MPa, which were able to support up to 50 cycles of loading without plastic deformation. Notably, MgPSr-PCL30 scaffolds were able to promote in vitro bone formation in medium without the supplementation with osteo-inducing components. In addition, long-term in vivo performance of the 3D printed scaffolds was investigated in an equine tuber coxae model over 6 months. The micro-CT and histological analysis showed that implantation of MgPSr-PCL30 induced bone regeneration, while no bone formation was observed in the empty defects. Overall, the novel polymer modified MgP ceramic material and extrusion-based 3D printing process presented here greatly improved the shape ability and load bearing properties of MgP-based ceramics with simultaneously induction of new bone formation.
AUTHOR Shen, Jie and Wang, Wenhao and Zhai, Xinyun and Chen, Bo and Qiao, Wei and Li, Wan and Li, Penghui and Zhao, Ying and Meng, Yuan and Qian, Shi and Liu, Xuanyong and Chu, Paul K. and Yeung, Kelvin W. K.
Title 3D-printed nanocomposite scaffolds with tunable magnesium ionic microenvironment induce in situ bone tissue regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Applied Materials Today
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Abstract
Local tissue microenvironment is able to regulate cell-to-cell interaction that leads to effective tissue repair. This study aims to demonstrate a tunable magnesium ionic (Mg2+) microenvironment in bony tissue that can significantly induce bone defect repair. The concept can be realized by using a newly fabricated nanocomposite comprising of custom-made copolymer polycaprolactone-co-poly(ethylene glycol)-co-polycaprolactone (PCL-PEG-PCL) and surface-modified magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles. In this study, additive manufacturing (AM) technology had been adopted to help design the porous three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with tunable Mg2+ microenvironment. We found that the wettability and printability of new copolymer had been improved as compared with that of PCL polymer. Additionally, when MgO nanoparticles incorporated into the newly synthesized hydrophilic copolymer matrix, it could lead to increased compressive moduli significantly. In the in vitro studies, the fabricated nanocomposite scaffold with low concentration of Mg2+ microenvironment not only demonstrated better cytocompatibility, but also remarkably enhanced osteogenic differentiation in vitro as compared with the pure PCL and PCL-PEG-PCL co-polymer controls. In the animal studies, we also found that superior and early bone formation and tissue mineralization could be observed in the same 3D printed scaffold. However, the nanocomposite scaffold with high concentration of Mg2+ jeopardized the in situ bony tissue regeneration capability due to excessive magnesium ions in bone tissue microenvironment. Lastly, this study demonstrates that the nanocomposite 3D scaffold with controlled magnesium concentration in bone tissue microenvironment can effectively promote bone defect repair.
AUTHOR Wang, Weiguang and Huang, Boyang and Byun, Jae Jong and Bártolo, Paulo
Title Assessment of PCL/carbon material scaffolds for bone regeneration [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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Abstract
Biomanufacturing is a relatively new research domain focusing on the use of additive manufacturing technologies, biomaterials, cells and biomolecular signals to produce tissue constructs for tissue engineering. For bone regeneration, researchers are focusing on the use of polymeric and polymer/ceramic scaffolds seeded with osteoblasts or mesenchymal stem cells. However, the design of high-performance scaffolds in terms of mechanical, cell-stimulation and biological performance is still required. This is the first paper investigating the use of an extrusion additive manufacturing system to produce poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), PCL/graphene nanosheet (GNS) and PCL/carbon nanotube (CNT) scaffolds for bone applications. Scaffolds with regular and reproducible architecture were produced and evaluated from chemical, physical and biological points of view. Results suggest that the addition of both graphene and CNT allow the fabrication of scaffolds with improved properties. It also shows that scaffolds containing graphene present better mechanical properties and high cell-affinity improving cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation.
AUTHOR Freeman, F. E. and Browe, D. C. and Nulty, J. and Von Euw, S. and Grayson, W. L. and Kelly, D. J.
Title Biofabrication of multiscale bone extracellular matrix scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings European Cells and Materials Journal
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Abstract
Interconnected porosity is critical to the design of regenerative scaffolds, as it permits cell migration, vascularisation and diffusion of nutrients and regulatory molecules inside the scaffold. 3D printing is a promising strategy to achieve this as it allows the control over scaffold pore size, porosity and interconnectivity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to integrate distinct biofabrication strategies to develop a multiscale porous scaffold that was not only mechanically functional at the time of implantation, but also facilitated rapid vascularisation and provided stem cells with appropriate cues to enable their differentiation into osteoblasts. To achieve this, polycaprolactone (PCL) was functionalised with decellularised bone extracellular matrix (ECM), to produce osteoinductive filaments for 3D printing. The addition of bone ECM to the PCL not only increased the mechanical properties of the resulting scaffold, but also increased cellular attachment and enhanced osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In vivo, scaffold pore size determined the level of vascularisation, with a larger filament spacing supporting faster vessel in-growth and more new bone formation. By freeze-drying solubilised bone ECM within these 3D-printed scaffolds, it was possible to introduce a matrix network with microscale porosity that further enhanced cellular attachment in vitro and increased vessel infiltration and overall levels of new bone formation in vivo. To conclude, an "off-the-shelf" multiscale bone-ECM-derived scaffold was developed that was mechanically stable and, once implanted in vivo, will drive vascularisation and, ultimately, lead to bone regeneration.
AUTHOR Marques, C. F. and Diogo, G. S. and Pina, S. and Oliveira, J. M. and Silva, T. H. and Reis, R. L.
Title Collagen-based bioinks for hard tissue engineering applications: a comprehensive review [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine
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Abstract
In the last few years, additive manufacturing (AM) has been gaining great interest in the fabrication of complex structures for soft-to-hard tissues regeneration, with tailored porosity, and boosted structural, mechanical, and biological properties. 3D printing is one of the most known AM techniques in the field of biofabrication of tissues and organs. This technique opened up opportunities over the conventional ones, with the capability of creating replicable, customized, and functional structures that can ultimately promote effectively different tissues regeneration. The uppermost component of 3D printing is the bioink, i.e. a mixture of biomaterials that can also been laden with different cell types, and bioactive molecules. Important factors of the fabrication process include printing fidelity, stability, time, shear-thinning properties, mechanical strength and elasticity, as well as cell encapsulation and cell-compatible conditions. Collagen-based materials have been recognized as a promising choice to accomplish an ideal mimetic bioink for regeneration of several tissues with high cell-activating properties. This review presents the state-of-art of the current achievements on 3D printing using collagen-based materials for hard tissue engineering, particularly on the development of scaffolds for bone and cartilage repair/regeneration. The ultimate aim is to shed light on the requirements to successfully print collagen-based inks and the most relevant properties exhibited by the so fabricated scaffolds. In this regard, the adequate bioprinting parameters are addressed, as well as the main materials properties, namely physicochemical and mechanical properties, cell compatibility and commercial availability, covering hydrogels, microcarriers and decellularized matrix components. Furthermore, the fabrication of these bioinks with and without cells used in inkjet printing, laser-assisted printing, and direct in writing technologies are also overviewed. Finally, some future perspectives of novel bioinks are given.
AUTHOR Marchiori, Gregorio and Berni, Matteo and Boi, Marco and Petretta, Mauro and Grigolo, Brunella and Bellucci, Devis and Cannillo, Valeria and Garavelli, Chiara and Bianchi, Michele
Title Design of a novel procedure for the optimization of the mechanical performances of 3D printed scaffolds for bone tissue engineering combining CAD, Taguchi method and FEA [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Medical Engineering and Physics
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Abstract
In order to increase manufacturing and experimental efficiency, a certain degree of control over design performances before realization phase is recommended. In this context, this paper presents an integrated procedure to design 3D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The procedure required a combination of Computer Aided Design (CAD), Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and Design methodologies Of Experiments (DOE), firstly to understand the influence of the design parameters, and then to control them. Based on inputs from the literature and limitations imposed by the chosen manufacturing process (Precision Extrusion Deposition), 36 scaffold architectures have been drawn. The porosity of each scaffold has been calculated with CAD. Thereafter, a generic scaffold material was considered and its variable parameters were combined with the geometrical ones according to the Taguchi method, i.e. a DOE method. The compressive response of those principal combinations was simulated by FEA, and the influence of each design parameter on the scaffold compressive behaviour was clarified. Finally, a regression model was obtained correlating the scaffold's mechanical performances to its geometrical and material parameters. This model has been applied to a novel composite material made of polycaprolactone and innovative bioactive glass. By setting specific porosity (50%) and stiffness (0.05 GPa) suitable for trabecular bone substitutes, the model selected 4 of the 36 initial scaffold architectures. Only these 4 more promising geometries will be realized and physically tested for advanced indications on compressive strength and biocompatibility.
AUTHOR Wang, Weiguang and Junior, José Roberto Passarini and Nalesso, Paulo Roberto Lopes and Musson, David and Cornish, Jillian and Mendonça, Fernanda and Caetano, Guilherme Ferreira and Bártolo, Paulo
Title Engineered 3D printed poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/graphene scaffolds for bone tissue engineering [Abstract]
Year 2019
Journal/Proceedings Materials Science and Engineering: C
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